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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 08 August 2008, Vol.321(5890), pp.814-7
    Description: The ensemble of now more than 250 discovered planetary systems displays a wide range of masses, orbits and, in multiple systems, dynamical interactions. These represent the end point of a complex sequence of events, wherein an entire protostellar disk converts itself into a small number of planetary bodies. Here, we present self-consistent numerical simulations of this process, which produce results in agreement with some of the key trends observed in the properties of the exoplanets. Analogs to our own solar system do not appear to be common, originating from disks near the boundary between barren and (giant) planet-forming.
    Subject(s): Astrophysics;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 1999, Vol.402(6762), p.635
    Description: Planets are believed to have formed through the accumulation of a large number of small bodies. In the case of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, they accreted a significant amount of gas directly from the protosolar nebula after accumulating solid cores of about 5-15 Earth masses. Such models, however, have been unable to produce the smaller ice giants Uranus and Neptune at their present locations, because in that region of the solar system the small planetary bodies will have been more widely spaced, and less tightly bound gravitationally to the sun. When applied to the current Jupiter-Saturn zone, a recent theory predicts that, in addition to the solid cores of Jupiter and Saturn, two or three other solid bodies of comparable mass are likely to have formed. Here we report the results of model calculations that demonstrate that such cores will have been gravitationally scattered outwards as Jupiter, and perhaps Saturn, accreted nebular gas. The orbits of these cores then evolve into orbits that resemble those of Uranus and Neptune, as a result of gravitational interactions with the small bodies in the outer disk of the protosolar nebula. (Author)
    Subject(s): Uranus (Planet) ; Neptune (Planet) ; Solar System Evolution ; Protoplanets ; Celestial Mechanics ; Astronomical Models ; Gravitational Effects ; Jupiter (Planet) ; Saturn (Planet) ; Lunar And Planetary Exploration (Ah) ; Article;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 3
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2018, Vol. 217(11), pp.1718-1727
    Description: Using the prior event rate ratio approach, which controls for confounding from unmeasured variables, we found that, in protecting senior Veterans Health Administration patients against influenza- or pneumonia-associated hospitalization, a high-dose influenza vaccine was more effective than a standard-dose vaccine.
    Subject(s): Influenza Vaccines ; Influenza ; High - Dose Vaccine ; Relative Effectiveness ; Veterans
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infectious Disease Modelling, 2018, Vol.3, pp.256-265
    Description: Vaccination has become an integral part of public health, since an increase in overall vaccination in a given population contributes to a decline in infectious diseases and mortality. Vaccination also contributes to a lower rate of infection even for nonvaccinators due to herd immunity ((Brisson and Edmunds, 2002)). In this work we model human decision-making (with respect to a vaccination program in a single-payer health care provider country) using a leader-follower game framework. We then extend our model to a discrete dynamic game, where time passing is modelled by risk perception changes among population groups considering whether or not to vaccinate. The risk perception changes are encapsulated by probability transition matrices. We assume that the single-payer provider has a given fixed budget which would not be sufficient to cover 100% of a new vaccine for the entire population. To increase the potential coverage, we propose the introduction of a partial vaccine adoption policy,...
    Subject(s): Leader-Follower Game ; Partial Adoption Policy ; Vaccination Game
    ISSN: 2468-0427
    E-ISSN: 2468-0427
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  • 5
    In: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 2010, Vol.6(S276), pp.504-505
    Description: Abstract In a recently published paper Matsumura et al . (2010) (hereafter M10), we have studied the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk evolution code. In this article, we highlight some results which are only briefly mentioned in M10.
    Subject(s): Methods: N-body Simulations; Planetary Systems: Protoplanetary Disks; Planetary Systems: Formation
    ISBN: 9780521196529
    ISSN: 1743-9213
    E-ISSN: 1743-9221
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC infectious diseases, 27 October 2015, Vol.15, pp.465
    Description: The adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to replace trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in immunization programs is growing worldwide, thus helping to address the problem of influenza B lineage mismatch. However, the price per dose of QIV is higher than that of TIV. In such circumstances, cost-effectiveness analyses provide important and relevant information to inform national health recommendations and implementation decisions. This analysis assessed potential vaccine impacts and cost-effectiveness of a country-wide switch from TIV to QIV, in Canada and the UK, from a third-party payer perspective. An age-stratified, dynamic four-strain transmission model which incorporates strain interaction, transmission-rate seasonality and age-specific mixing in the population was used. Model input data were obtained from published literature and online databases. In Canada, we evaluated a switch from TIV to QIV in the entire population. For the UK, we considered two strategies: Children aged 2-17 years who receive the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) switch to the quadrivalent formulation (QLAIV), while individuals aged 〉 18 years switch from TIV to QIV. Two different vaccination uptake scenarios in children (UK1 and UK2, which differ in the vaccine uptake level) were considered. Health and cost outcomes for both vaccination strategies, and the cost-effectiveness of switching from TIV/LAIV to QIV/QLAIV, were estimated from the payer perspective. For Canada and the UK, cost and outcomes were discounted using 5 % and 3.5 % per year, respectively. Overall, in an average influenza season, our model predicts that a nationwide switch from TIV to QIV would prevent 4.6 % influenza cases, 4.9 % general practitioner (GP) visits, 5.7 % each of emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalizations, and 6.8 % deaths in Canada. In the UK (UK1/UK2), implementing QIV would prevent 1.4 %/1.8 % of influenza cases, 1.6 %/2.0 % each of GP and ER visits, 1.5 %/1.9 % of hospitalizations and 4.3 %/4.9 % of deaths. Discounted incremental cost-utility ratios of $7,961 and £7,989/£7,234 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained are estimated for Canada and the UK (UK1/UK2), both of which are well within their respective cost-effectiveness threshold values. Switching from TIV to QIV is expected to be a cost-effective strategy to further reduce the burden of influenza in both countries.
    Subject(s): Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Influenza Vaccines -- Economics ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 03 April 2017, Vol.13(4), pp.867-876
    Description: In the 2015/16 influenza season, the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommended vaccination with quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) for infants aged 6-23 months and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs) or QIVs in adults. The objective of this review (GSK study identifier: HO-13-14054) is to examine the epidemiology and disease burden of influenza in Canada and the economic benefits of vaccination. To inform this review, we performed a systematic literature search of relevant Canadian literature and National surveillance data. Influenza B viruses from phylogenetically-distinct lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) co-circulate in Canada, and are an important cause of influenza complications. Modeling studies, including those postdating the search suggest that switching from TIV to QIV in Canada reduces the burden of influenza and would likely be cost-effective. However, more robust real-world outcomes data is required to inform...
    Subject(s): Burden ; Costs ; Epidemiology ; Hospitalization ; Influenza ; Influenza Vaccine ; Lineage-Mismatch ; Quadrivalent ; Biology
    ISSN: 2164-5515
    E-ISSN: 2164-554X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 04 March 2017, Vol.13(3), pp.533-542
    Description: Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) protect against 2 A strains and one B lineage; quadrivalent versions (IIV4s) protect against an additional B lineage. The objective was to assess projected health and economic outcomes associated with IIV4 versus IIV3 for preventing seasonal influenza in the US. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to interact with a dynamic transmission model. The transmission model tracked vaccination, influenza cases, infection-spreading interactions, and recovery over 10 y (2012-2022). The cost-effectiveness model estimated influenza-related complications, direct and indirect costs (2013-2014 US$), health outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Inputs were taken from published/public sources or estimated using regression or calibration. Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Scenario analyses tested the reliability of the results. Seasonal vaccination with IIV4 versus IIV3 is predicted to reduce annual influenza cases by 1,973,849 (discounted;...
    Subject(s): Cost-Effectiveness Analysis ; Dynamic Transmission Model ; Influenza ; Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine ; Trivalent Influenza Vaccine ; United States ; Biology
    ISSN: 2164-5515
    E-ISSN: 2164-554X
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  • 9
    In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2016, Vol.13(3), p.533-542
    Description: ABSTRACT Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) protect against 2 A strains and one B lineage; quadrivalent versions (IIV4s) protect against an additional B lineage. The objective was to assess projected health and economic outcomes associated with IIV4 versus IIV3 for preventing seasonal influenza in the US. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to interact with a dynamic transmission model. The transmission model tracked vaccination, influenza cases, infection-spreading interactions, and recovery over 10 y (2012–2022). The cost-effectiveness model estimated influenza-related complications, direct and indirect costs (2013–2014 US$), health outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Inputs were taken from published/public sources or estimated using regression or calibration. Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Scenario analyses tested the reliability of the results. Seasonal vaccination with IIV4 versus IIV3 is predicted to reduce annual influenza cases by 1,973,849 (discounted;...
    Subject(s): Research Papers ; Cost-Effectiveness Analysis ; Dynamic Transmission Model ; Influenza ; Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine ; Trivalent Influenza Vaccine ; United States
    ISSN: 2164-5515
    E-ISSN: 2164-554X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: 2013 International Conference on Social Computing, September 2013, pp.762-767
    Description: We examine a pricing game between firms that produce differentiated products and in which consumer preferences evolve in response to the market shares of the available products. One of the products is new and a subset of consumers (early adopters) have a relatively strong preference for it, while the remaining consumers are influenced by the relative market shares of the two products, being drawn to the product with the higher market share. We use a system of PDEs to specify the evolution of the preferences for the alternative goods. This system is nonlinear due to the influence of existing consumption choice on the distribution of preferences. The pricing game allows firms to react to the changing distribution of consumer preference. We find that allowing for the evolution of consumer preference in this way results in interesting dynamics for prices. In particular, price paths can be non-monotonic over time.
    Subject(s): Games ; Pricing ; Mathematical Model ; Sociology ; Statistics ; Technological Innovation ; Production ; Product Adoption ; Price Game ; Social Influence ; Statistics
    Source: IEEE Conference Publications
    Source: IEEE Xplore
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