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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    1979
    ISSN: 0305-8298 
    Language: English
    In: Millennium - Journal of International Studies, March 1979, Vol.8(1), pp.64-72
    Subject(s): International Relations ; Law
    ISSN: 0305-8298
    E-ISSN: 1477-9021
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE HSS (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Politics and International Relations (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Current Anthropology, 01, 19 February December 2013 2012, Vol.54(1), pp.96-103
    Description: Postmarital residence patterns in traditional human societies figure prominently in models of hominid social evolution with arguments for patrilocal human bands similar in structure to female-dispersal systems in other African apes. However, considerable flexibility in hunter-gatherer cultures has led to their characterization as primarily multilocal. Horticulturalists are associated with larger, more sedentary social groups with more political inequality and intergroup conflict and may therefore provide additional insights into evolved human social structures. We analyze coresidence patterns of primary kin for 34 New World horticultural societies (6,833 adults living in 243 residential groupings) to show more uxorilocality (women live with more kin) than found for hunter-gatherers. Our findings further point to the uniqueness of human social structures and to considerable variation that is not fully described by traditional postmarital residence typologies. Sex biases in coresident kin can vary according to the scale of analysis (household vs. house cluster vs. village) and change across the life span, with women often living with more kin later in life. Headmen in large villages live with more close kin, primarily siblings, than do nonheadmen. Importantly, human marriage exchange and residence patterns create meta-group social structures, with alliances extending across multiple villages often united in competition against other large alliances at scales unparalleled by other species.
    Subject(s): Villages ; Social Structure ; Residence ; Females ; Alliances ; Social Change ; Typology ; Intergroup Relations ; Inequality ; Traditional Society ; Hunter-Gatherers ; Kinship ; Anthropology;
    ISSN: 00113204
    E-ISSN: 15375382
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 01/1996, Vol.118(36), pp.8743-8744
    Description: We are now pleased to report the first synthesis and characterization of a fullerene fragment comprising 60% of the C{sub 60} ball: triacenaphthotriphenylene, 1 (C{sub 36}H{sub 12}). A most gratifying aspect of this work is that this new fullerene fragment can be prepared in just one step by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of `decacyclene,` 2, a compound that has been known to chemists for more than 100 years and is commercially available today in kilogram quantities. We believe that the high temperature chemistry described here bears an important relationship to that operating in fuel-rich flames wherein fullerene production has been observed. Novel chemical transformations of several other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at temperatures in the 1200-1300{degree}C range have also been uncovered and will be reported shortly. 19 refs., 2 figs.
    Subject(s): Materials Science ; 40 Chemistry ; Fullerenes ; Synthesis ; NMR Spectra ; Absorption Spectra ; Aromatics ; Hydrocarbons ; Pyrolysis;
    ISSN: 0002-7863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1 October 2014, Vol.99(10), pp.E2101-E2106
    Description: Context: Mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) represent the commonest genetic form of obesity and are associated with hyperphagia. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether melanocortin signaling modulates anticipatory food reward by studying the brain activation response to food cues in individuals with MC4R mutations. Design/Setting/Participants/Main Outcome Measure: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood oxygen level-dependent responses to images of highly palatable, appetizing foods, bland foods, and non-food objects in eight obese individuals with MC4R mutations, 10 equally obese controls, and eight lean controls with normal MC4R genotypes. Based on previous evidence, we performed a region-of-interest analysis centered on the caudate/putamen (dorsal striatum) and ventral striatum. Results: Compared to non-foods, appetizing foods were associated with activation in the dorsal and ventral striatum in lean controls and in MC4R-deficient individuals. Surprisingly, we observed reduced activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum in obese controls relative to MC4R-deficient patients and lean controls. There were no group differences for the contrast of disgusting foods with bland foods or non-foods, suggesting that the effects observed in response to appetizing foods were not related to arousal. Conclusion: We identified differences in the striatal response to food cues between two groups of obese individuals, those with and those without MC4R mutations. These findings are consistent with a role for central melanocortinergic circuits in the neural response to visual food cues.
    Subject(s): Medicine;
    ISSN: 0021972X
    E-ISSN: 19457197
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Surgical Oncology, 2018, Vol.25(8), pp.2391-2399
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6560-0 Byline: Erica S. Tsang (1,2), Yarrow J. McConnell (3,4), David F. Schaeffer (5,6), Lawrence Lee (5,6), Yaling Yin (7), Siham Zerhouni (4), Kimberly Schaff (8), Caroline Speers (7), Hagen F. Kennecke (1,9) Abstract: Background Goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) of the appendix are rare mucinous neoplasms, for which optimal therapy is poorly described. We examined prognostic clinical and treatment factors in a population-based cohort. Methods Patients diagnosed with GCC from 1984 to 2014 were identified from the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the Vancouver Lower Mainland Pathology Archive. Results Of 88 cases with confirmed appendiceal GCCs, clinical data were available in 86 cases (annual population incidence: 0.66/1,000,000). Median age was 54 years (range 25--91) and 42 patients (49%) were male. Metastasis at presentation was the strongest predictor of overall survival (OS), with median OS not reached for stage I--III patients, and measuring 16.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1--29] for stage IV patients. In 67 stage I--III patients, 51 (76%) underwent completion hemicolectomy and 9 (17%) received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. No appendicitis at initial presentation and Tang B histology were the only prognostic factors, with inferior 5-year recurrence-free survival (53 vs. 83% with appendicitis, p=0.02 45% Tang B vs. 89% Tang A, p〈0.01). Of 19 stage IV patients, 10 (62.5%) received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and 11 (61%) underwent multiorgan resection (MOR)[+ or -]hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Low mitotic rate and MOR[+ or -]HIPEC were associated with improved 2-year OS, but only MOR[+ or -]HIPEC remained significant on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.4, 95% CI 1.4--20.9 p=0.015). Conclusions In this population-based cohort, we demonstrate excellent survival outcomes in stage I--III appendiceal GCCs and clinical appendicitis. Hemicolectomy remains the standard treatment. In metastatic disease, outcomes remain poor, although MOR[+ or -]HIPEC may improve survival. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 0702 3000, grid.248762.d, Division of Medical Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada (2) 0000 0001 2288 9830, grid.17091.3e, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (3) Puyallup General Surgery, Proliance Surgeons, Puyallup, WA, USA (4) 0000 0001 2288 9830, grid.17091.3e, Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (5) 0000 0001 2288 9830, grid.17091.3e, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (6) 0000 0001 0684 7796, grid.412541.7, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada (7) 0000 0001 0702 3000, grid.248762.d, Gastrointestinal Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada (8) 0000 0001 0702 3000, grid.248762.d, Provincial Pharmacy, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada (9) 0000 0001 2219 0587, grid.416879.5, Virginia Mason Cancer Institute, Virginia Mason Hospital and Seattle Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Article History: Registration Date: 06/06/2018 Received Date: 19/10/2017 Online Date: 18/06/2018 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6560-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Subject(s): Surgery – Analysis ; Command and Control Systems – Analysis ; Cancer Metastasis – Care and Treatment ; Cancer Metastasis – Analysis ; Appendicitis – Care and Treatment ; Appendicitis – Analysis ; Chemotherapy – Analysis ; Resveratrol – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1068-9265
    E-ISSN: 1534-4681
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science, 17 February 1978, Vol.199(4330), pp.804-806
    Description: While an attempt was being made to identify the source of the growth hormone releasing factor present in cerebral spinal fluid of man, it was discovered that cells of the rat amygdaloid nucleus, grown in tissue culture, produce a material that is immunologically and chromatographically identical to growth hormone found in the pituitary. Immunoperoxidase staining revealed dense accumulation of the peroxidase-antibody to growth hormone complex in amygdala cells. Significant amounts of growth hormone and adrenocorticotropin could be extracted from this limbic structure. Extracts containing immunoequivalent amounts of growth hormone were measured by bioassay in hypophysectomized rats. Stimulation of the growth of epiphyseal cartilage by extracts of the amygdala was comparable to the stimulation by extracts of anterior pituitary glands. The stimulatory effect of amygdala extracts on adrenal and gonadal size and weight and on growth of thyroid follicular epithelium was also comparable to that of pituitary extracts.
    Subject(s): Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Pituitary gland ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Pituitary gland ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Culture techniques -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology -- Pituitary gland ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Pituitary gland ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Medical procedures -- Pituitary gland
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, 09/24/1999, Vol.274(39), pp.27867-27874
    Description: We report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel member of the mammalian UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (ppGaNTase) family that transfers GalNAc to a GalNAc- containing glycopeptide. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene encoding this enzyme, termed ppGaNTase-T6, is expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. Significant levels of transcript were found in rat and mouse sublingual gland, stomach, small intestine, and colon; trace amounts were seen in the ovary, cervix, and uterus. Recombinant constructs were expressed transiently in COS7 cells but demonstrated no transferase activity in vitro against a panel of unmodified peptides, including GTTPSPVPTTSTTSAP (MUC5AC). However, when incubated with the total glycosylated products obtained by action of ppGaNTase-T1 on MUC5AC (mainly GTT(GalNAc)PSPVPTTSTT(GalNAc)SAP), additional incorporation of GalNAc was achieved, resulting in new hydroxyamino acids being modified. The MUC5AC glycopeptide failed to serve as a substrate for ppGaNTase-T6 after modification of the GalNAc residues by periodate oxidation and sodium borohydride reduction, indicating a requirement for the presence of intact GalNAc. This suggests that O-glycosylation of multisite substrates may proceed in a specific hierarchical manner and underscores the potential complexity of the processes that regulate O- glycosylation.
    Subject(s): Structure & Sequence ; N- Double Prime Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase ; Mice ; Ppgantase-T6 Gene ; Rats ; N- Double Prime Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase ; Mice ; Ppgantase-T6 Gene ; Rats;
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, 05/18/2001, Vol.276(20), pp.17395-17404
    Description: We have cloned, expressed and characterized the gene encoding a ninth member of the mammalian UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (ppGaNTase) family, termed ppGaNTase-T9. This type II membrane protein consists of a 9-amino acid N-terminal cytoplasmic region, a 20-amino acid hydrophobic/transmembrane region, a 94-amino acid stem region, and a 480-amino acid conserved region. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene encoding this enzyme is expressed in a broadly distributed manner across many adult tissues. Significant levels of 5- and 4.2-kilobase transcripts were found in rat sublingual gland, testis, small intestine, colon, and ovary, with lesser amounts in heart, brain, spleen, lung, stomach, cervix, and uterus. In situ hybridization to mouse embryos (embryonic day 14.5) revealed significant hybridization in the developing mandible, maxilla, intestine, and mesencephalic ventricle. Constructs expressing this gene transiently in COS7 cells resulted in no detectable transferase activity in vitro against a panel of unmodified peptides, including MUC5AC (GTTPSPVPTTSTTSAP) and EA2 (PTTDSTTPAPTTK). However, when incubated with MUC5AC and EA2 glycopeptides (obtained by the prior action of ppGaNTase-T1), additional incorporation of GalNAc was achieved, resulting in new hydroxyamino acid modification. The activity of this glycopeptide transferase is distinguished from that of ppGaNTase-T7 in that it forms a tetra-glycopeptide species from the MUC5AC tri-glycopeptide substrate, whereas ppGaNTase-T7 forms a hexa-glycopeptide species. This isoform thus represents the second example of a glycopeptide transferase and is distinct from the previously identified form in enzymatic activity as well as expression in embryonic and adult tissues. These findings lend further support to the existence of a hierarchical network of differential enzymatic activity within the diversely regulated ppGaNTase family, which may play a role in the various processes governing development.
    Subject(s): Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Palmer, C. J., R. J. Bruckner, J. A. Paulo, L. Kazak, J. Z. Long, A. I. Mina, Z. Deng, et al. 2017. “Cdkal1, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene, regulates mitochondrial function in adipose tissue.” Molecular Metabolism 6 (10): 1212-1225. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2017.07.013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2017.07.013.
    Description: Objectives: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNALys modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β−cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue. In addition, the Cdkal1 homolog Cdk5rap1 regulates mitochondrial protein translation and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adipocyte-specific Cdkal1 deletion alters systemic glucose homeostasis or adipose mitochondrial function independently of its effects on pro-insulin translation and insulin secretion. Methods: We measured mRNA levels of type 2 diabetes GWAS genes, including Cdkal1, in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. We then established a mouse model with adipocyte-specific Cdkal1 deletion. We examined the effects of adipose Cdkal1 deletion using indirect calorimetry on mice during a cold temperature challenge, as well as by measuring cellular and mitochondrial respiration in vitro. We also examined brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial morphology by electron microscopy. Utilizing co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we performed interaction mapping to identify new CDKAL1 binding partners. Furthermore, we tested whether Cdkal1 loss in adipose tissue affects total protein levels or accurate Lys incorporation by tRNALys using quantitative mass spectrometry. Results: We found that Cdkal1 mRNA levels are reduced in adipose tissue of obese mice. Using adipose-specific Cdkal1 KO mice (A-KO), we demonstrated that mitochondrial function is impaired in primary differentiated brown adipocytes and in isolated mitochondria from A-KO brown adipose tissue. A-KO mice displayed decreased energy expenditure during 4 °C cold challenge. Furthermore, mitochondrial morphology was highly abnormal in A-KO BAT. Surprisingly, we found that lysine codon representation was unchanged in Cdkal1 A-KO adipose tissue. We identified novel protein interactors of CDKAL1, including SLC25A4/ANT1, an inner mitochondrial membrane ADP/ATP translocator. ANT proteins can account for the UCP1-independent basal proton leak in BAT mitochondria. Cdkal1 A-KO mice had increased ANT1 protein levels in their white adipose tissue. Conclusions: Cdkal1 is necessary for normal mitochondrial morphology and function in adipose tissue. These results suggest that the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene CDKAL1 has novel functions in regulating mitochondrial activity.
    Subject(s): Cdkal1 ; Gwas ; Diabetes ; Adipose ; Mitochondria ; Ant1 ; Cdkal1, Cdk5 Regulatory Subunit Associated Protein 1 Like 1 ; Cdk5rap1, Cdk5 Regulatory Subunit Associated Protein 1 ; Hfd, High-Fat Diet ; A-Ko, Adipose-Specific Cdkal1 Ko ; Ocr, Oxygen Consumption Rate ; Lys, Lysine
    ISSN: 22128778
    E-ISSN: 22128778
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2020
    ISSN: 1045-6767 
    Language: English
    In: Human Nature, 1/7/2020
    ISSN: 1045-6767
    E-ISSN: 1936-4776
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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