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  • 1
    In: Reproductive Health, 2017, Vol.14
    Description: The original version of this article [1] unfortunately contained a mistake. All occurrences in the main text referring to the research carried out in the following countries; Brazil, El Salvador and Colombia should instead be replaced with “Brazil, Honduras and Panama”. The original version of this article has been updated to reflect this change.
    Subject(s): Erratum
    E-ISSN: 1742-4755
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, 09 December 2018, Vol.24(9), pp.940-950
    Description: Community health workers (CHWs) help reduce healthcare disparities and improve access to and quality of care in many countries. To provide an overview to compare and contrast characteristics of CHW programmes in Egypt, Pakistan and Afghanistan and describe the strengths, weaknesses and challenges of the programmes. Scientific databases and grey literature were searched including PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Review Library, WHO databases, and grey literature websites including those of national health ministries. We shortlisted 23 articles to be included in this study. The three programmes reviewed vary in their organization, structure, enrolment and payment structure for CHWs. Key challenges identified in the review include: commodity security that compromises quality of services; inadequate and irregular training; unpredictable or inadequate remuneration structure; and lack of standardization among organizations and government ministries. Strengths identified are that the programmes are accepted and integrated into many communities; and have the support of health ministries, which enhances sustainability and regulates standardized training and supervision. These also increase participation and empowerment of women, evident in the fact that CHWs have organized among themselves to demand better treatment and more respect for the work that they do. Our findings should alert policy-makers to the need to review CHWs' scope of practice, update education curricula, and prioritize in-service training modules and improved working conditions. The effectiveness and impact of CHW programmes has been shown countless times, demonstrating that task sharing in healthcare is a successful strategy with which to approach global health goals.
    Subject(s): Eastern Mediterranean Region ; Community Health Worker ; Female Health Worker ; Raedat ; Task Sharing ; Community Health Workers -- Organization & Administration
    ISSN: 1020-3397
    E-ISSN: 16871634
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  • 3
    In: Journal of International Relations and Development, 2011, Vol.14(4), p.469
    Description: This article compares the foreign policies of France and Germany in the 1990s towards the European Union (EU)'s special relationships with the countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP) on the one hand and the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) on the other. Whereas France advocated support for ACP interests, Germany supported those of the CEEC. We argue that French and German prioritisations cannot sufficiently be explained by rationalist, interest-based approaches (i.e. neorealism, economic liberalism and institutionalism) and offer a constructivist supplement to fill in the gaps. This approach is based on the concept of solidarity. First, we develop our theoretical concept and identify three principles of solidarity action (i.e. ties, need and effort). We then apply our concept of solidarity to show how French and German policies towards the Cotonou Agreement, concluded in 2000 with the ACP, and the EU's Eastern enlargement process were shaped by different social constructions of solidarity, resulting in strong preferential support for either the ACP (France) or the CEEC (Germany). Adapted from the source document. Reprinted by permission of the University Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences
    Subject(s): Foreign Policy ; Solidarity ; Comparative Politics ; Policy Analysis ; International Relations ; Constructivism ; National Interest ; European Union ; France ; Germany ; Political Science;
    ISSN: 1408-6980
    E-ISSN: 15811980
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Reproductive health, 01 February 2017, Vol.14(1), pp.1-6
    Description: Abstract Background ZIKV(Zika Virus) during pregnancy can result in many adverse events such as fetal deaths or newborns with congenital abnormalities including microcephaly and other neural irregularities. Due to these harmful outcomes of pregnancy associated with the Zika virus, we can expect to see a change in the type and scale of demand for family planning and safe abortion services in areas affected by the Zika virus. The monitoring and reporting capacities of the local health clinics in these areas could benefit from the introduction of infrastructural improvements necessary to establish a sentinel site network. Through these sites, the WHO will collect data on the situation from local health professionals to get real time information from the population group and act accordingly to mitigate the consequences of the Zika virus outbreak in a localized and culturally appropriate way. The objectives are to establish a sentinel sites surveillance network for reporting on uptake...
    Subject(s): Contraception Demand ; Sentinel Sites ; Zika Virus ; Family Planning ; Safe Abortion ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1742-4755
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Reproductive health, 02 February 2017, Vol.14(1), pp.18
    Description: The Zika virus epidemic in Latin America has elicited official recommendations for women to delay or avoid pregnancy in affected countries, which has increased demand for family planning services. It is likely, however, that health facilities in areas where the population is most vulnerable to the disease lack the capacity to respond to the increased demand for family planning services. Our objectives are to perform facilities assessment and understand client perceptions in areas affected by Zika virus, and to track changes in these parameters over time. We will collaborate with local health authorities to map facilities that have the capacity to provide services in contraception and safe abortion, including induced abortion to the full extent of the law and post-abortion care for treatment of complications from unsafe abortion and post-abortion contraception. We then will carry out a survey of facilities to assess the availability of services and their readiness to provide contraception and safe abortion care. All facilities will be assessed for baseline readiness and availability of services, and a random subsample of surveyed facilities will be reassessed in second and third rounds of surveys. Focus group interviews with clients will be conducted as part of the facilities surveys in order to gain an understanding of the community's knowledge, needs and perceived barriers to healthcare in the context of the Zika virus epidemic. The findings of this study will aid the response to Zika virus ranging from the identification of healthcare facilities that can be potentially strengthened, to the formulation of interventions to reduce barriers and improve readiness of facilities to provide contraception and safe abortion services. Lessons learned from this study will help to build and strengthen health systems that are more prepared to consistently providing reproductive healthcare services in the context of health emergencies.
    Subject(s): Abortion Care ; Contraception ; Health Facilities ; Latin America ; Post-Abortion Care ; Rapid Assessment ; Zika Virus ; Health Services Accessibility ; Patient Acceptance of Health Care ; Abortion, Induced -- Methods ; Aftercare -- Standards ; Contraception -- Methods ; Family Planning Services -- Organization & Administration ; Reproductive Health Services -- Organization & Administration
    ISSN: 1742-4755
    E-ISSN: 1742-4755
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  • 6
    In: Reproductive Health, 2017, Vol.14
    Description: BACKGROUND: ZIKV(Zika Virus) during pregnancy can result in many adverse events such as fetal deaths or newborns with congenital abnormalities including microcephaly and other neural irregularities. Due to these harmful outcomes of pregnancy associated with the Zika virus, we can expect to see a change in the type and scale of demand for family planning and safe abortion services in areas affected by the Zika virus. The monitoring and reporting capacities of the local health clinics in these areas could benefit from the introduction of infrastructural improvements necessary to establish a sentinel site network. Through these sites, the WHO will collect data on the situation from local health professionals to get real time information from the population group and act accordingly to mitigate the consequences of the Zika virus outbreak in a localized and culturally appropriate way. The objectives are to establish a sentinel sites surveillance network for reporting on uptake and utilization of contraception and safe abortion care services; to strengthen monitoring, and data quality assurance in the selected sentinel surveillance sites; and finally to assess the contraception and safe abortion care service utilization trends in the affected sites on a regular basis.METHODS: The proposal includes a set of objectives and actions that enable the creation of a set of criteria for the selection of the sentinel sites, as well the implementation of monitoring and reporting systems that will be used in data collection.DISCUSSION: The data collected will be used to better understand the changing demand for family planning and safe abortion needs. This will ultimately be used to inform local health workers and policy makers as to how best to track the continued Zika virus outbreak and mitigate the consequences. The learning from establishment of surveillance sentinel sites will help to strengthen health systems at regional and subregional levels that are more adaptable and capable of providing reproductive healthcare services and of responding to future emergencies.
    Subject(s): Correction
    E-ISSN: 1742-4755
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  • 7
    In: Global Health: Science and Practice, 2018, Vol.6(3), p.473-483
    Description: In the 10 countries surveyed, the availability of oral contraceptives, injectables, and condoms varied greatly, and the availability of basic items indicating service readiness, such as guidelines, trained staff, equipment, and certain commodities, was low. In the 10 countries surveyed, the availability of oral contraceptives, injectables, and condoms varied greatly, and the availability of basic items indicating service readiness, such as guidelines, trained staff, equipment, and certain commodities, was low. Background: Access to family planning services and appropriate contraceptive methods is crucial for ensuring good health outcomes for women and adolescent girls. The World Health Organization worked with the U.S. Agency for International Development to develop the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) survey to measure health facility capacity to provide end users with appropriate, high-quality health care. In this study, we looked at the service availability and readiness of health facilities to provide contraception in 10 African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mauritania, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. Methods: This study compared SARA survey data on family planning services from each of the 10 countries. We conducted a descriptive analysis of variations in facility readiness and the availability of services, contraceptive methods, trained staff, family planning guidelines, and basic health care equipment. Results: Overall, many of the countries surveyed had a relatively high availability of at least 1 contraceptive method. Rural facilities tended to have more availability of contraception than urban facilities, and government facilities tended to have higher availability of family planning than other providers. The countries differed in their particular dominant contraceptive method, and stock-outs of contraceptive methods were observed. Countries had overall low levels of all 6 tracer items (availability of family planning guidelines, staff trained in family planning, blood pressure apparatuses, combined oral contraceptive, injectable contraceptives, and male condoms on the day of the assessment), indicating low health system readiness. There were discrepancies between reported and observed availability of blood pressure apparatuses and family planning guides and having at least 1 staff member trained to use these tools. In all countries, unmarried adolescents appeared to have less access to family planning than the general population. Conclusion: Stock-outs and logistics management problems were common among the countries surveyed. Critical gaps between reported and actual availability of products and services often makes it difficult for end users to access appropriate family planning methods. To address many of the issues, additional health worker training is needed and more effort to target and support adolescents should be undertaken. To achieve universal health coverage targets for family planning, gaps in the availability and readiness of health systems to provide contraceptive products and services must be reduced.
    Subject(s): Original Articles
    E-ISSN: 2169-575X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 01 December 2019, Vol.19(1), pp.1-6
    Description: Abstract Background Globally 214 million women of reproductive age in developing regions have unmet needs in modern contraceptives. Intrauterine contraception (IUC) is highly effective, has few medical contraindications, low discontinuation, and is a low cost modern contraceptive method. However, there is relatively low use of IUDs in LMICs. One reason for this may be policies that restrict IUD availability and use. This study assess national policies pertaining to IUD from a diverse set of countries. Methods Between December 2015 and February 2016, a 12-question survey pertaining to IUD policy was sent to WHO regional and country representatives. Results Sixty-nine surveys were used from countries through WHO regional offices. Among those surveyed, 87% (n = 60) had policies pertaining to IUD use. Among them, 84% (n = 58) reported that hormonal IUDs were available, but only 42% (n = 29) had them in the public sector. Free IUDs in the public sector were available in 75% (n = 52)...
    Subject(s): Intrauterine Contraceptive Device ; LNG-Ius ; Long Acting Reversible Contraception ; Policies ; Family Planning ; Public Health
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC women's health, 01 December 2019, Vol.19(1), pp.1-14
    Description: Abstract Backgrund Marginalized groups, such as nomadic populations across the world, have perhaps the least access to modern reproductive health (RH) services. This scoping review aims to identify barriers to access to RH services faced by nomadic populations from the existing literature and to highlight possible opportunities to address them. Methods Key databases, including PubMed, Popline, Google Scholar, and Google Advanced were searched for relevant articles published between 2002 and 2019. A total 344 articles were identified through database online searches, and 31 were included in the review. Results Nomadic people face complex barriers to healthcare access that can be broadly categorized as external (geographic isolation, socio-cultural dynamics, logistical and political factors) and internal (lifestyle, norms and practices, perceptions) factors. To effectively address the needs of nomadic populations, RH services must be available, accessible and acceptable through...
    Subject(s): Nomad ; Pastoralist ; Sexual and Reproductive Health ; Family Planning ; Health Services ; Public Health
    E-ISSN: 1472-6874
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  • 10
    Lexicon Article
    Lexicon Article
    2008
    ISSN: 0479-611X 
    In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte : Beilage zur Wochenzeitung Das Parlament, 2008(H.21), p.S.15
    ISSN: 0479-611X
    Source: wiso Sozialwissenschaften (GBI-Genios Deutsche Wirtschaftsdatenbank GmbH) 〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/wiso_logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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