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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Optics express, 2016-02-08, Vol.24 (3), p.2542-2561
    Description: This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.
    ISSN: 1094-4087
    E-ISSN: 1094-4087
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Drugs & aging, 2018-09, Vol.35 (9), p.843-857
    Description: With the aging of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient cohort and the availability of highly effective and tolerable treatment regimens, an increasing number of elderly patients are now eligible for HCV therapy. This study investigated clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of elderly HCV-infected patients as well as the effectiveness and safety of available therapies.Patients were enrolled into the German Hepatitis C Registry (DHC-R), a prospective, multicenter, real-world cohort study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the physician, and data were collected by a web-based system.Of 7133 patients who initiated treatment, 686 (9.6%) were 〉 70 years of age. In patients 〉 70 years, intent-to-treat (ITT) SVR12 was 92.6% (514/555) compared to 90.7% (4521/4985) in patients ≤ 70 years of age. Overall, adverse events (AEs) were reported in 374 (54.5%) and 3435 patients (53.3%) 〉 70 or ≤ 70 years of age; 7.6% (52) and 3.6% (235) in the respective age groups had a serious AE. Twenty-two (3.2%) and 62 (1.0%) of the patients 〉 70 or ≤ 70 years discontinued treatment due to AEs. Death was reported in 34 patients, of whom eight were 〉 70 years of age. Frequent comorbidities in patients 〉 70 years of age were cardiac disease, renal disease and diabetes. Psychiatric disorders, substance abuse and viral co-infection were more frequent in younger patients.Direct-acting antiviral therapies were well tolerated in patients older than 70 years. SVR12 rates in the elderly patient group were similar to those observed in younger patients. Differences in the prevalence of comorbidities between age groups warrant individualized attention with respect to drug–drug interactions and therapy adherence.The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00009717.
    Subject(s): Pharmacotherapy ; Internal Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Geriatrics/Gerontology ; Liver diseases ; Laboratories ; Clinical trials ; Systematic review ; Infections ; Patients ; Clinical outcomes ; Genotype & phenotype ; Hepatitis ; Interferon ; Hepatitis C ; Drug dosages ; Age
    ISSN: 1170-229X
    E-ISSN: 1179-1969
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Excess liver iron content is common and is linked to the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. We aimed to identify genetic variants influencing liver iron content and use genetics to understand its link to other traits and diseases. METHODS: First, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,289 individuals from UK Biobank, whose liver iron level had been quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, before validating our findings in an independent cohort (n = 1,513 from IMI DIRECT). Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to test the causal effects of 25 predominantly metabolic traits on liver iron content. Third, we tested phenome-wide associations between liver iron variants and 770 traits and disease outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 3 independent genetic variants (rs1800562 [C282Y] and rs1799945 [H63D] in HFE and rs855791 [V736A] in TMPRSS6) associated with liver iron content that reached the GWAS significance threshold (p 〈5 × 10-8). The 2 HFE variants account for ∼85% of all cases of hereditary haemochromatosis. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence that higher central obesity plays a causal role in increased liver iron content. Phenome-wide association analysis demonstrated shared aetiopathogenic mechanisms for elevated liver iron, high blood pressure, cirrhosis, malignancies, neuropsychiatric and rheumatological conditions, while also highlighting inverse associations with anaemias, lipidaemias and ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: Our study provides genetic evidence that mechanisms underlying higher liver iron content are likely systemic rather than organ specific, that higher central obesity is causally associated with higher liver iron, and that liver iron shares common aetiology with multiple metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. LAY SUMMARY: Excess liver iron content is common and is associated with liver diseases and metabolic diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. We identified 3 genetic variants that are linked to an increased risk of developing higher liver iron content. We show that the same genetic variants are linked to higher risk of many diseases, but they may also be associated with some health advantages. Finally, we use genetic variants associated with waist-to-hip ratio as a tool to show that central obesity is causally associated with increased liver iron content.
    Subject(s): Gastroenterology & Hepatology ; Genome-wide association study ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; 1103 Clinical Sciences ; IMI DIRECT Consortium ; Genetics ; Iron ; Metabolic syndrome ; Metabolism
    ISSN: 0168-8278
    E-ISSN: 1600-0641
    Source: Spiral
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  • 4
    Language: English
    ISBN: 3837652262
    ISBN: 9783837652260
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition, 2015-03, Vol.100 (2), p.F169-F172
    Description: Background Congenital chylothorax (CCT) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. Treatment approaches vary; none has been evaluated prospectively. Objective To prospectively determine incidence, treatment and outcome of infants with CCT born in Germany in 2012. Design CCT was defined as non-traumatic chylous pleural effusion within 28 days after birth. As part of the Surveillance Unit for Rare Pediatric Conditions in Germany (Erhebungseinheit für seltene pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland), all paediatric departments (n=432) received monthly reporting cards to notify the study centre of CCT cases, which were analysed based on anonymised questionnaires and discharge summaries. Data are shown as median (range) or n/N. Results Of 37 cases reported, 28 met inclusion criteria. Questionnaires and/or discharge summaries were available for 27/28. Assuming complete reporting, the incidence of CCT was 1:24 000. Nine infants suffered from proven or suspected syndromal anomalies, most frequently Noonan syndrome (5/9). Postnatally, 23 required mechanical ventilation, 3 continuous positive airway pressure; only 1 had no respiratory support. 17 infants were treated with inotropes/vasopressors, 25 required pleural drainage for 11 (1–36) days. In 13 infants, enteral feeds were withheld initially; 25 received medium-chain triglyceride diet at some time, 9 were treated with octreotide or somatostatin. 18 infants survived without, 6 with sequelae attributable to the underlying disorder; 3 infants died (median age at death 37 (2–144) days). Duration of hospital stay in survivors was 51 (20–127) days. Infants treated with octreotide or somatostatin had similar outcomes compared with those not treated. Conclusions Based on this small observational study, CCT seems to have a favourable prognosis if not associated with genetic disorders.
    Subject(s): Prospective Studies ; Respiration, Artificial - methods ; Humans ; Male ; Treatment Outcome ; Octreotide - therapeutic use ; Gestational Age ; Germany - epidemiology ; Incidence ; Birth Weight ; Chylothorax - therapy ; Chylothorax - congenital ; Gastrointestinal Agents - therapeutic use ; Female ; Somatostatin - therapeutic use ; Chylothorax - epidemiology ; Infant, Newborn ; Care and treatment ; Patient outcomes ; Infants ; Research ; Epidemiology ; Health aspects ; Chylothorax ; Risk factors ; Immunoglobulins ; Congenital diseases ; Peptides ; Mortality ; Parenteral nutrition ; Births ; Thrombosis ; Nutrition research ; Antibiotics ; Lymphocytes ; Ventilation ; Population ; Sepsis ; Abridged Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1359-2998
    E-ISSN: 1468-2052
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    ISBN: 9783111155203
    ISBN: 311115520X
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2018
    ISSN: 1610-0379 
    Language: English
    In: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 2018-05, Vol.16 (5), p.676-676
    ISSN: 1610-0379
    E-ISSN: 1610-0387
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Book
    Book
    2018
    ISBN: 3111157091  ISBN: 9783111157092 
    Language: English
    ISBN: 3111157091
    ISBN: 9783111157092
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 9
    Book
    Book
    2018
    ISBN: 9789004362871  ISBN: 9789004340404  ISBN: 9004340408  ISBN: 9004362878 
    Language: English
    Description: Travelling Chronicles presents fourteen episodes in the history of news, written by some of the leading scholars in the rapidly developing fields of news and newspaper studies. Ranging across eastern and western Europe and beyond, the chapters look back to the early modern period and into the eighteenth century to consider how the news of the past was gathered and spread, how news outlets gained respect and influence, how news functioned as a business, and also how the historiography of news can be conducted with the resources available to scholars today. Travelling Chronicles offers a timely analysis of early news, at a moment when historical newspaper archives are being widely digitalised and as the truth value of news in our own time undergoes intense scrutiny. 
    Subject(s): Övrig annan humaniora ; Early Modern history ; Other Humanities ; Annan humaniora ; Humanities and the Arts ; Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap ; Historia ; Other Humanities not elsewhere specified ; newspapers ; History ; Humaniora och konst ; communications ; manuscripts ; News ; Media and Communication Studies ; book history
    ISBN: 9789004362871
    ISBN: 9789004340404
    ISBN: 9004340408
    ISBN: 9004362878
    Source: OAPEN
    Source: DOAB: Directory of Open Access Books
    Source: SWEPUB Freely available online
    Source: Brill Online Books
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie, 2008-03, Vol.46 (3), p.266-270
    Description: The introduction of double-balloon enteroscopy for the investigation of the small bowel in 2001 was a milestone in GI endoscopy because it allows us to carry out therapeutic interventions as well as diagnostic procedures in the small bowel. Because interventional procedures in endoscopy increase the risk of complications, e.g., in colonoscopy and only limited data were reported regarding the risk of DBE, we introduced a double-balloon enteroscopy register (DBE Register) in Germany. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complication rate of DBE in a larger group of patients. We contacted all endoscopic units using DBE in Germany in January 2006 and asked for their participation in the register, the examination data and their present complications beginning in January 2003 until 15.07.2006 using a questionnaire. The participation rate of 85 endoscopic centres using the DBE technique was 75 % (64 centres). They reported 3894 DBE examinations (2685 using the oral route, 1209 using the anal route) with 1086 interventions. 48 complications were reported (1.2 %). Acute pancreatitis occurred in 9 patients with 1 lethal course of disease, all of them receiving a DBE using the oral route. Thus, the pancreatitis rate after oral DBE was 0.34 %. Perforation happened in 8 cases, all of them needed surgery. One patient died during the course of the disease. 6 perforations occurred after polypectomy, so the perforation rate after polypectomy during DBE is 3.4 % in this study. In 6 cases major bleeding was reported, 4 in the context of polypectomy and 2 after biopsy. All patients received endoscopic treatment and recovered from this complication. DBE is in this by now largest collection of cases a safe endoscopic procedure with an overall complication rate of approximately 1%. For diagnostic DBE pancreatitis is the most frequent complication and has to be taken in consideration in the written informed consent.
    Subject(s): Intestinal Polyps - epidemiology ; Risk Assessment - methods ; Intestinal Perforation - epidemiology ; Intestinal Polyps - surgery ; Pancreatitis - epidemiology ; Humans ; Risk Factors ; Male ; Postoperative Complications - epidemiology ; Catheterization - statistics & numerical data ; Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage - epidemiology ; Germany - epidemiology ; Incidence ; Registries - statistics & numerical data ; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal - statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Intestinal Polyps - diagnosis
    ISSN: 0044-2771
    Source: Thieme eRef
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