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• 1
Article
2012
ISSN: 0036-8075
Language: English
In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-06-29, Vol.336 (6089), p.1704-1708
Description: Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F₂ mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.
Subject(s): Alkaloids ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic - biosynthesis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biosynthesis ; Capsules ; Classical genetics, quantitative genetics, hybrids ; Enzymes ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene silencing ; Genes ; Genes, Plant ; Genetic aspects ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Genomes ; Latex ; Libraries ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans ; Multigene Family ; Noscapine - metabolism ; Open reading frames ; Papaver - enzymology ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Physiological aspects ; Pteridophyta, spermatophyta ; REPORTS ; Research ; Vegetals
ISSN: 0036-8075
E-ISSN: 1095-9203
Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
Source: Single Journals
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 2
Article
2015
ISSN: 1354-4187
Language: English
In: British journal of learning disabilities, 2015-12, Vol.43 (4), p.246-253
Description: Accessible summary More people with learning disabilities are living longer. This is a good news story! But, the bad news is that they do not live as long as the rest of the population. Health and other services need to be better organised to ensure that people with learning disabilities get better healthcare and other services which would help them lead more healthy lives. Most older people with learning disabilities live at home with their Mum or Dad, who are getting older too and find life more difficult. Care and support services need to adapt as families' needs change, but often this does not happen. We need to know more about these problems, which people with learning disabilities and their family carers face as they get older. This article looks at what we know and what more we need to find out to help older people with learning disabilities and their family carers live happier and healthier lives. Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning disability, ageing and family and social care with a view to learning lessons from these separate fields, identifying possibilities for collaboration and identifying gaps in knowledge. Results: The article concludes that existing research in the fields of ageing and family and social care can add significantly to an understanding of the impact of ageing on people with learning disabilities and their carers but, to date, there has been little collaboration or sharing of knowledge between the three areas. Conclusion: The article concludes that further research is required to fully understand the impact of ageing on the quality of life of people with learning disabilities and their family carers and to inform the design and delivery of services. A useful and productive way forward would be learn from and to work with researchers in cogniscent fields, notably, but not only, in the fields of social gerontology and family and social care.
Subject(s): Family ; health & social care policy and practice ; Health care industry ; learning (intellectual) disabilities ; Learning disabilities ; Learning disabled ; research ; Target marketing
ISSN: 1354-4187
E-ISSN: 1468-3156
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 3
Article
2014
ISSN: 2041-1723
Language: English
In: Nature communications, 2014-06-09, Vol.5 (1), p.4091-4091
Description: DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is a highly regulated process performed predominantly by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways. How these pathways are coordinated in the context of chromatin is unclear. Here we uncover a role for histone H3K36 modification in regulating DSB repair pathway choice in fission yeast. We find Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation reduces chromatin accessibility, reduces resection and promotes NHEJ, while antagonistic Gcn5-dependent H3K36 acetylation increases chromatin accessibility, increases resection and promotes HR. Accordingly, loss of Set2 increases H3K36Ac, chromatin accessibility and resection, while Gcn5 loss results in the opposite phenotypes following DSB induction. Further, H3K36 modification is cell cycle regulated with Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation peaking in G1 when NHEJ occurs, while Gcn5-dependent H3K36 acetylation peaks in S/G2 when HR prevails. These findings support an H3K36 chromatin switch in regulating DSB repair pathway choice.
Subject(s): Acetylation ; Acetyltransferases - metabolism ; Chromatin - metabolism ; DNA End-Joining Repair ; DNA Repair ; DNA, Fungal - metabolism ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase - metabolism ; Histones - metabolism ; Methylation ; Recombinational DNA Repair ; Schizosaccharomyces - genetics ; Schizosaccharomyces - metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins - metabolism
ISSN: 2041-1723
E-ISSN: 2041-1723
Source: Nature Open Access
Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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• 4
Article
2016
ISSN: 0167-594X
Language: English
In: Journal of neuro-oncology, 2016-05, Vol.127 (3), p.463-472
Description: The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked.
Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Algorithms ; Analysis ; ATR-FTIR ; Biomarkers, Tumor - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Cell Differentiation ; Diagnosis ; Diagnostics ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Glioma ; Gliomas ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Laboratory Investigation ; Male ; Medicine & Public Health ; Metastasis ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Neoplasm Grading ; Neurology ; Oncology ; Prognosis ; Rapid ; Serum ; Spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Support Vector Machine ; Young Adult
ISSN: 0167-594X
E-ISSN: 1573-7373
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 5
Article
2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Language: English
In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2015-07-17, Vol.349 (6245), p.309-312
Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.
Subject(s): REPORTS
ISSN: 0036-8075
E-ISSN: 1095-9203
Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
Source: Single Journals
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 6
Article
2018
ISSN: 0002-5240
Language: English
In: Algebra universalis, 2018-06, Vol.79 (2), p.1-31
Description: For L a complete lattice L and $$\mathfrak {X}=(X,(R_i)_I)$$ X=(X,(Ri)I) a relational structure, we introduce the convolution algebra $$L^{\mathfrak {X}}$$ LX . This algebra consists of the lattice $$L^X$$ LX equipped with an additional $$n_i$$ ni -ary operation $$f_i$$ fi for each $$n_i+1$$ ni+1 -ary relation $$R_i$$ Ri of $$\mathfrak {X}$$ X . For $$\alpha _1,\ldots ,\alpha _{n_i}\in L^X$$ α1,…,αni∈LX and $$x\in X$$ x∈X we set $$f_i(\alpha _1,\ldots ,\alpha _{n_i})(x)=\bigvee \{\alpha _1(x_1)\wedge \cdots \wedge \alpha _{n_i}(x_{n_i}):(x_1,\ldots ,x_{n_i},x)\in R_i\}$$ fi(α1,…,αni)(x)=⋁{α1(x1)∧⋯∧αni(xni):(x1,…,xni,x)∈Ri} . For the 2-element lattice 2, $$2^\mathfrak {X}$$ 2X is the reduct of the familiar complex algebra $$\mathfrak {X}^+$$ X+ obtained by removing Boolean complementation from the signature. It is shown that this construction is bifunctorial and behaves well with respect to one-one and onto maps and with respect to products. When L is the reduct of a complete Heyting algebra, the operations of $$L^\mathfrak {X}$$ LX are completely additive in each coordinate and $$L^\mathfrak {X}$$ LX is in the variety generated by $$2^\mathfrak {X}$$ 2X . Extensions to the construction are made to allow for completely multiplicative operations defined through meets instead of joins, as well as modifications to allow for convolutions of relational structures with partial orderings. Several examples are given.
Subject(s): 03B45 ; 03G10 ; 06D20 ; Algebra ; Boolean algebra ; Boolean algebra with operators ; Complex algebra ; Construction ; Convolution ; Heyting algebra ; Kripke frame ; Mathematics ; Relation algebra ; Type-2 truth value algebra
ISSN: 0002-5240
E-ISSN: 1420-8911
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 7
Article
2016
ISSN: 0884-8173
Language: English
In: International journal of intelligent systems, 2016-03, Vol.31 (3), p.257-275
Description: The algebra of truth values of type‐2 fuzzy sets is the set of maps from the unit interval to itself with convolution ordering. In applications of type‐2 fuzzy sets, the full algebra is seldom used, but rather certain subalgebras that satisfy useful algebraic properties. The algebra of truth values of type‐2 fuzzy sets is not itself a lattice, but the subalgebras considered here are lattices and, in fact, are complete distributive lattices. The subalgebras of special interest are the lattice of convex normal maps, the lattice of convex strongly normal maps, and the lattice of upper semicontinuous convex normal maps. We review and summarize some interesting properties of these subalgebras. A special feature of our treatment is a representation of these algebras as sets of monotone functions with pointwise order, making the operations more intuitive.
ISSN: 0884-8173
E-ISSN: 1098-111X
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 8
Article
2014
ISSN: 1864-063X
Language: English
In: Journal of biophotonics, 2014-04, Vol.7 (3-4), p.189-199
Description: Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours in adults with over 9,000 people diagnosed each year in the UK. A rapid, reagent‐free and cost‐effective diagnostic regime using serum spectroscopy would allow for rapid diagnostic results and for swift treatment planning and monitoring within the clinical environment. We report the use of ATR‐FTIR spectral data combined with a RBF‐SVM for the diagnosis of gliomas (high‐grade and low‐grade) from non‐cancer with sensitivities and specificities on average of 93.75 and 96.53% respectively. The proposed diagnostic regime has the ability to reduce mortality and morbidity rates. (© 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; ATR-FTIR ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; cancer ; Drugstores ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; filtrate ; glioma ; Glioma - blood ; Glioma - diagnosis ; Gliomas ; Hospitals ; Humans ; infrared ; Male ; Mass Screening - methods ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Pharmacy ; rapid ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; serum ; spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Young Adult
ISSN: 1864-063X
E-ISSN: 1864-0648
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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• 9
Article
2006
ISSN: 0006-8950
Language: English
In: Brain (London, England : 1878), 2006-05-02, Vol.129 (7), p.1884-1891
Description: Oligodendroglial neoplasms with the −1p/−19q genotype are more indolent with longer survival and increased therapeutic responsiveness than those with intact 1p/19q, but the biological basis for these clinical differences is unclear. Recent research suggests that oligodendrogliomas with and without the −1p/−19q genotype may be distinguished by their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, suggesting possible differences in growth characteristics. This study examined the relationship between genotype and histological growth patterns of oligodendroglial neoplasms in association with MR imaging characteristics. Tumour imaging features assessed on MRI included sharp-versus-indistinct border, smooth-versus-irregular contour, homogeneous-versus-heterogeneous signal, contrast enhancement and paramagnetic susceptibility effect. Growth patterns (solid : mixed : infiltrative), tumour-margin transitions in cellularity and calcification were determined histopathologically. Allelic imbalance in chromosomes 1p36 and 19q13 was determined. Thirty-three oligodendrogliomas (25 with 1p/19q loss) and 53 oligoastrocytomas (18 with 1p/19q loss) were investigated. Solid, mixed or infiltrative growth patterns were seen in grade II and grade III tumours with or without 1p/19q loss, but infiltrative growth was more common in tumours with intact 1p/19q (χ2: P = 0.029). Grade III tumours were more likely to have a solid growth pattern (χ2: P = 0.046) associated with contrast enhancement (χ2: P = 0.011). Transition in cellularity at the radiological margin did not differ according to genotype. All cases with T1 or T2 signal homogeneity had intact 1p/19q. Tumours with sharp/smooth borders were more likely to have intact 1p/19q than those with indistinct/irregular borders (χ2: P 〈 0.001), but this was not related to histological growth characteristics. This study identified a group of oligodendroglial tumours with intact 1p/19q displaying distinctive MR imaging features that were unrelated to the histopathology characteristics.
Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adult ; Allelic Imbalance ; Biological and medical sciences ; Brain Neoplasms - genetics ; Brain Neoplasms - pathology ; brain tumour ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 - genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 - genetics ; Female ; Genotype ; histopathology ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted - methods ; Investigative techniques, diagnostic techniques (general aspects) ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Middle Aged ; molecular genetics ; MRI ; Nervous system ; Neurology ; Oligodendroglioma - genetics ; Oligodendroglioma - pathology ; Radiodiagnosis. Nmr imagery. Nmr spectrometry ; Tumors of the nervous system. Phacomatoses
ISSN: 0006-8950
E-ISSN: 1460-2156
Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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• 10
Article
2011
ISSN: 8756-3894
Language: English
In: TechTrends, 2011-03, Vol.55 (2), p.31-38
Description: Understanding the covert events surrounding the undergraduate students’ experience is essential to educators’ and counselors’ involvement in their success. Research into bullying behaviors has documented victims’ feelings of anger, sadness and poor concentration. Affordable technologies have propagated this concern into cyberspace. This exploratory study evaluated the instances of cyberbullying experienced by undergraduate students. Additionally, the forms of technology utilized in cyberbullying were queried. A 27-item survey was distributed to 120 undergraduate students in social science, technology and education departments. The majority of all respondents (54%) and 100% of male respondents indicated they knew someone who had been cyberbullied. The perpetrators primarily used cell phones, Facebook and instant messaging. The study results provide legitimate concerns regarding the undergraduate students’ exposure to cyberbullying and numerous areas for future research.
Subject(s): Bullying ; College students ; Cyberbullying ; cyberharrassment ; Education ; Educational Technology ; Instant messaging ; Internet ; Learning & Instruction ; Studies ; technology and information systems ; undergraduate university students ; Universities and colleges ; University students
ISSN: 8756-3894
E-ISSN: 1559-7075