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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 1614-3485  ISSN: 2510-5019 
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Arbeitsmarktforschung, 2015-08, Vol.48 (2), p.151-168
    Description: This paper discusses the specific features of the German model as a specific variety of capitalism that is distinct from the Anglo-Saxon model because it builds more on social security and social partnership. It argues that the German model has experienced increasing pressure due to growth in systemic unemployment since the mid-1970s. The situation worsened as a result of the financial distress experienced after re-unification. Therefore, although painful for some groups of workers, the labor market reforms implemented from 2003 to 2005 were necessary to keep the German model alive. I argue that a certain erosion of the German model resulting from less collective bargaining coverage, labor market segmentation and higher wage inequality has falsely been attributed to the reforms. Rather, these phenomena are caused by long-run trends that were already occurring in the 1990s or even earlier.The German economy successfully passed the stress test of the Great Recession and is exhibiting ongoing employment growth. Basic features of the German model such as long tenures for qualified prime-age workers or the dual training system remain essentially intact. Hence, the German model is not dead, but vitally alive. However, some prudent counter-measures need to be implemented to fight against creeping erosion from segmentation and inequality. These should be taken with a sense of proportion in order to not jeopardize the great employment-related successes of the reform.Der Aufsatz diskutiert entlang verschiedener Dimensionen die Kennzeichen des deutschen Modells als einer besonderen Spielart des Kapitalismus. Diese unterscheidet sich vom angelsächsischen Modell, da sie stärker auf soziale Absicherung und Sozialpartnerschaft setzt. Er argumentiert, dass das deutsche Modell aufgrund der seit Mitte der 1970er Jahre schubartig angewachsenen Sockelarbeitslosigkeit zunehmend unter Druck geraten ist. Die Situation verschlechterte sich noch aufgrund der finanziellen Belastungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung. Obgleich schmerzhaft für bestimmte Arbeitnehmergruppen, waren die in den Jahren 2003 bis 2005 durchgeführten Arbeitsmarktreformen letztlich unvermeidlich, um einen Kollaps des Systems zu verhindern. Gewisse Erosionserscheinungen am deutschen Modell wie die rückläufige Tarifabdeckung, die zunehmende Segmentation des Arbeitsmarktes und die höhere Lohnungleichheit werden fälschlicherweise den Reformen zugeschrieben. Die empirischen Fakten belegen, dass diesen Phänomenen längerfristige Trends zugrunde liegen, die schon vor den Reformen in den 1990er Jahren oder sogar früher einsetzten.Nach den Reformen überstand die deutsche Wirtschaft den Stresstest der Großen Rezession erfolgreich und zeigte nachhaltiges Beschäftigungswachstum. Wesentliche Bestandteile des deutschen Modells wie die langen Betriebszugehörigkeiten von qualifizierten Facharbeiter/innen, das duale Ausbildungssystem, die starke Exportorientierung sowie eine solide finanzierte Sozialversicherung sind im Wesentlichen erhalten geblieben. Deswegen ist das deutsche Modell keineswegs abgewickelt, sondern im Kern weiterhin sehr lebendig. Eine gewisse Bedrohung ergibt sich aus den schleichenden Erosionserscheinungen durch wachsende Segmentation und Ungleichheit. Hierauf sollte mit ausgewogenen Gegenmaßnahmen reagiert werden, die jedoch nicht die Beschäftigungserfolge des bisherigen Reformprozesses wieder in Frage stellen sollten.
    Subject(s): Economic Policy ; Population Economics ; Segmentation ; J50 ; Human Resource Management ; Systemic unemployment ; J10 ; J31 ; Labor Economics ; P10 ; Economics / Management Science ; Regional/Spatial Science ; J28 ; Sociology, general ; Labor market reforms ; Inequality ; Labor market
    ISSN: 1614-3485
    ISSN: 2510-5019
    E-ISSN: 1614-3485
    E-ISSN: 2510-5027
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55, p.1-6
    Description: Effective social protection is increasingly as essential to supporting affected populations in situations of protracted instability and displacement. Despite the growing use of social protection in these settings, there is comparatively little rigorous research on what works, for whom, and why. This special issue contributes by adding seven high-quality studies that raise substantially our understanding of the role of social protection in fragile contexts and in settings of forced displacement and migration. Together, these studies fill knowledge gaps, help support informed decision-making by policy-makers and practitioners, and demonstrate that impact evaluation and the analysis of social protection in challenging humanitarian settings are possible. The studies provide evidence that design choices in implementation, such as which population to target, choice of transfer modality or which messages are delivered with programmes, can make a substantial difference in the realisation of positive benefits among vulnerable populations. Furthermore, the findings of the studies underline the relevance of tailoring programme components to populations, which may benefit more or less from traditional programme implementation models.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Economic journal (London), 2019-01-01, Vol.129 (617), p.172-208
    ISSN: 0013-0133
    E-ISSN: 1468-0297
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals A-Z Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-08-03, Vol.55 (8), p.1757-1783
    Description: Empirical studies in different developing countries have investigated the impact of social protection (SP) on ex-post poverty; however, few studies analysed the impact of SP on ex-ante vulnerability to poverty (VtP). This paper contributes to the literature by evaluating the impact of SP on vulnerability to poverty (VtP) and poverty rates among households in the Punjab province of Pakistan. A hierarchical modelling approach is used to analyse the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-2011) data of about 90,000 households. Matching methods and simultaneous endogenous switching regression are used to control for potential selection bias and estimate average treatment effects. Our results show that SP has a positive impact in reducing household poverty and VtP, but this impact is mainly driven by a short-term flood relief cash transfer programme, pension of government employees and households' regular purchase from utility store network.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-09-02, Vol.55 (9), p.1947-1966
    Description: In this paper we examine the impact of the Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using both waves of the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey. For identification, we use various methodologies. Results indicate consistently that PSNP has not had the desired effect on household dietary diversity or child nutrition regardless of model specification or methodology, suggesting that perhaps the transfers need to be paired with additional interventions such as information about nutrition.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55, p.75-90
    Description: The methods used to identify the beneficiaries of programmes aiming to address persistent poverty and shocks are subject to frequent policy debates. Relying on panel data from Niger, this report simulates the performance of various targeting methods that are widely used by development and humanitarian actors. The methods include proxy-means testing (PMT), household economy analysis (HEA), geographical targeting, and combined methods. Results show that PMT performs more effectively in identifying persistently poor households, while HEA shows superior performance in identifying transiently food insecure households. Geographical targeting is particularly efficient in responding to food crises, which tend to be largely covariate. Combinations of geographical, PMT, and HEA approaches may be used as part of an efficient and scalable adaptive social protection system. Results motivate the consolidation of data across programmes, which can support the application of alternative targeting methods tailored to programme-specific objectives.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2020-10-02, Vol.56 (10), p.1818-1837
    Description: We provide new evidence on the impact of social protection interventions on household size and the factors that cause the household size to change: fertility, child fosterage, and in and out migration related to work and marriage. Using data from an intervention delivered at scale, Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), we find that participation in the PSNP leads to an increase in household size of 0.3 members. We find no evidence that PSNP participation increases fertility and some evidence that fertility is reduced, specifically it reduces the likelihood that an adult female member gives birth by 8.1 percentage points. We reconcile this seemingly divergent findings by showing that the increase in household size arises from an increase in the number of girls aged 12 to 18 years. We present evidence that this occurs because the PSNP causes households to delay marrying out adolescent females.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2020-02-01, Vol.56 (2), p.431-448
    Description: In developing countries and in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, social protection schemes tend to operate in silos. However, schemes targeting the same geographical areas may have synergies that have not yet been examined, and which are worth scrutinising. This paper contributes to this knowledge gap by examining the joint impacts of two social protection programmes in Ethiopia, that is, the Productive Safety Net Programme and a Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. Based on three rounds of individual level panel data and several rounds of qualitative interviews, we find that individuals covered by both programmes, as opposed to neither or only one of the two programmes, provide greater labour supply, have larger livestock holdings, and have a lower amount of outstanding loans. Furthermore, joint participation is associated with greater use of modern health care facilities as compared to participating only in the safety net programme. These results show that bundling of interventions enhances protection against multiple risks and that linking social protection schemes yields more than the sum of their individual effects.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Wirtschaftsdienst (Hamburg), 2020-04, Vol.100 (S1), p.48-53
    Description: Abstract The increase in the group of atypical workers means that their social security protection needs reviewing. How far should we go in approaching social security for self-employed workers, flex workers, crowd workers and all new employment relationships differently? This will depend on the number of elements in respect to which the atypical employment relationship differs from the established standard: the full-time employee with a permanent employment contract. What we propose is a social security system that is sufficiently flexible in its implementation to give the different groups of workers an equal place and at the same time maintain a financially sustainable social security system providing sufficient social security protection for typical and atypical workers.
    ISSN: 0043-6275
    E-ISSN: 1613-978X
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Description: Labour market reforms are essential to promote social cohesion by removing obstacles to employment, particularly for women, youth and older persons. In addition to reducing income inequality and poverty, such reforms would also sustain economic growth as Korea’s working-age population begins to decline in 2017. Breaking down labour market duality is crucial to reduce the wide wage disparity. Better conditions for non-regular workers would in turn promote greater labour participation. Increasing the take-up of maternity and parental leave, expanding the availability of high-quality childcare, reducing working time, narrowing the large gender wage gap and eliminating discrimination would also increase opportunities for women. Boosting youth employment from its current low level requires addressing labour market mismatch by better aligning the skills learned in school with those demanded by employers. Reducing the emphasis on seniority in setting wages by moving to more flexible systems and expanding training to improve the skills of older persons would allow them to extend their careers, thereby reducing old-age poverty. Les réformes du marché du travail sont essentielles pour promouvoir la cohésion sociale en supprimant les obstacles à l'emploi, en particulier pour les femmes, les jeunes et les personnes âgées. En plus de réduire l'inégalité de revenus et la pauvreté, de telles réformes soutiendraient la croissance économique, alors que la population en âge de travailler en Corée commence à décliner en 2017. Mettre fin au dualisme du marché du travail est crucial pour réduire la forte disparité des salaires. De meilleures conditions pour les travailleurs non réguliers favoriseraient à leur tour une participation accrue au marché du travail. L'augmentation de la prise de congés de maternité et parental, l'expansion de la disponibilité des services de garde d’enfants de haute qualité, une réduction du temps de travail, une réduction de l'important écart salarial entre hommes et femmes et l'élimination des discriminations accroîtraient les opportunités pour les femmes. Pour augmenter l'emploi des jeunes à partir de son faible niveau actuel, il est nécessaire de traiter le problème de l'inadéquation de l'offre et de la demande de travail par une meilleure adéquation entre les compétences acquises à l'école avec celles exigées par les employeurs. Réduire l'accent sur l'ancienneté dans la fixation des salaires en introduisant des systèmes plus flexibles et élargir la formation pour améliorer les compétences des plus anciens permettraient à ces derniers de prolonger leur carrière, réduisant ainsi la pauvreté des personnes âgées.
    Subject(s): dualism ; work-life balance ; non-regular workers ; labour market
    E-ISSN: 1815-1973
    Source: OECD iLibrary
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