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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Monthly weather review, 2020-06-01, Vol.148 (6), p.2391-2410
    Description: Abstract Currently, major efforts are under way to refine the horizontal resolution of weather and climate models to kilometer-scale grid spacing (Δx). Besides refining the representation of the atmospheric dynamics and enabling the use of explicit convection, this will also provide higher resolution in the representation of orography. This study investigates the influence of these resolution increments on the simulation of orographic moist convection. Nine days of fair-weather thermally driven flow over the Alps are analyzed. Two sets of simulations with the COSMO model are compared, each consisting of three runs at Δx of 4.4, 2.2, and 1.1 km: one set using a fixed representation of orography at a resolution of 8.8 km, and one with varying representation at the resolution of the computational mesh. The spatial distribution of precipitation during daytime is only marginally affected by the orographic details, but nighttime convection to the south of the Alps—triggered by cold-air outflow from the valleys—is very sensitive to orography and precipitation is enhanced if more detailed orography is provided. During daytime, the onset of precipitation is delayed. The amplitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation is reduced, even though more moisture converges toward the Alpine region during the afternoon. The hereby accumulated moisture sustains precipitation during the evening and nighttime over the surrounding plains. For these differences, the effects of changes in orographic detail are more important than changes in grid spacing. In addition, the individual convective cells are weaker, but their number increases with higher resolved orography.
    ISSN: 0027-0644
    E-ISSN: 1520-0493
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 2021, Vol.99(5), pp.1271-1295
    Description: We analyze a multi-model ensemble at a convection-resolving resolution based on the DYAMOND models and a resolution ensemble based on the limited-area model COSMO over 40 days to study how tropical and subtropical marine low clouds are represented at a kilometer-scale resolution.The analyzed simulations produce low cloud fields that look in general realistic in comparison with satellite images. The evaluation of the radiative balance, however, reveals substantial inter-model differences and an underestimated low cloud cover in most models. Models that simulate increased low cloud cover are found to have a deeper marine boundary layer (MBL), stronger entrainment, and an enhanced latent heat flux. These findings demonstrate that some of the fundamental relations of the MBL are systematically represented by the model ensemble, which implies that the relevant dynamical processes start to become resolved on the model grid at a kilometer-scale resolution. A sensitivity experiment with the COSMO model suggests that differences in the strength of turbulent vertical mixing may contribute to the inter-model spread in cloud cover.
    Subject(s): convection-resolving models ; DYAMOND project ; marine boundary layer ; model intercomparison ; stratocumulus ; tropical marine low clouds
    ISSN: 0026-1165
    E-ISSN: 2186-9057
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 2021, pp.2021-062
    Description: We analyse a multi-model ensemble at convection-resolving resolution based on the DYAMOND models, and a resolution ensemble based on the limited area model COSMO over 40 days to study how tropical and subtropical marine low clouds are represented at kilometer-scale resolution. The analysed simulations produce low cloud fields that look in general realistic in comparison to satellite images. The evaluation of the radiative balance, however, reveals substantial inter-model differences and an underestimated low cloud cover in most models. Models that simulate increased low cloud cover are found to have a deeper marine boundary layer (MBL), stronger entrainment, and an enhanced latent heat flux. These findings demonstrate that some of the fundamental relations of the MBL are systematically represented by the model ensemble which implies that the relevant dynamical processes start to become resolved on the model grid at kilometer-scale resolution. A sensitivity experiment with the COSMO model suggests that differences in the strength of turbulent vertical mixing may contribute to the inter-model spread in cloud cover.
    Subject(s): convection-resolving models ; DYAMOND project ; marine boundary layer ; model intercomparison ; stratocumulus ; tropical marine low clouds
    ISSN: 0026-1165
    E-ISSN: 2186-9057
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Swiss medical weekly, 2021-08-20, Vol.151 (33-34)
    Description: AIMS OF THE STUDYThe Swiss healthcare system is highly ranked, given its unrestricted access to specialised care and short waiting lists for surgery. However, the need for anaesthetic and surgical care is escalating owing to the increasing size and ageing of the Swiss population. In addition, to address the persistent and recurrent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic crisis, the speciality of anaesthesia is under tremendous pressure to maintain an effective workforce in order to address population needs. The current number, characteristics and future evolution of the physician anaesthesia workforce in Switzerland are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the size and professional and sociodemographic characteristics of the current anaesthesia workforce in Switzerland and to forecast its development up to 2034. METHODSWe performed a cross-sectional study using a 150-item questionnaire prepared by the National Anaesthesia Workforce Study Group (NAWOS). We included all physicians (trainees and certified) practising anaesthesia in Switzerland. We collected demographic and professional information, such as the current position, hospital characteristics, workload, number of shifts and future life plans. We built a computer-based Markov model with Monte Carlo simulations to project both supply and demand for physician anaesthesia provider positions. RESULTSOf the 2661 distributed questionnaires, 1985 (74.2%) were completed and returned. We found that the average age of anaesthesiologists practising in Switzerland was 45.2 years, with 44.3% of them being women and 76.9% holding a Swiss specialist title. Only 59.6% of respondents worked full time. The forecasting model showed a steady increase in the number of anaesthesiologists retiring by 2034, with 27% of full-time equivalent jobs being lost in the next 8 years. Even if existing full-time equivalent training positions are all filled, a gradual deficit of anaesthesiologists is to be expected after 2022, and the deficit should culminate in 2034 with a deficit ratio of 0.87. CONCLUSIONSDue to the upcoming high retirement rate of anaesthesiologists, Switzerland is likely to face a shortage of anaesthesiologists in the near future. To compensate for the shortage, the country will likely increase its reliance on medical staff trained abroad. Southern and eastern cantons of Switzerland are particularly at risk, given that they already heavily rely on foreign anaesthesia workforce. This reliance should be considered a national priority because anaesthesiologists are heavily involved in both the treatment of patients with respiratory complications of SARS-CoV2 infection and the care of surgical patients, the number of which is expected to rise steadily in upcoming years.
    E-ISSN: 1424-3997
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 1999-08-10, Vol.104 (B8), p.17617-17625
    Description: The northern basin of the Dead Sea is occupied by a ∼300‐m‐deep lake. A series of cores in the deep‐water part of the lake provide information about the top 365 cm of the sediments. The cores were correlated with high‐resolution 3.5‐kHz seismic profiles from this area and provide lithologic and age constraints for the high‐resolution seismic reflection data. Visual comparison of the two data sets shows that strong surface and shallow subsurface reflectors (A and B) correlate to the massive salt at the seafloor surface and the indurated salt at the base of the cores, respectively. Calculations of an average seismic velocity based on the interval between these reflectors and the corresponding sedimentary thickness yield an average 3500 m/s velocity. This agrees closely with velocities determined from direct measurements of compressional velocities for sediment samples. Ultrasonic wave velocity measurements of salt samples from the cores and dry rock salt cores from the southern basin of the Dead Sea indicate that wave velocities are independent of the burial depth at shallow depths; however, velocities show strong dependence on porosity. At low hydrostatic pressure a reduction in porosity as well as closure of microcracks in the crystals cause an increase in the velocities. This increase disappears at higher stress levels. Synthetic seismograms of the upper 3 ms and the entire 25 ms penetrated by the seismic profiles reinforce the lithologic and seismic stratigraphic correlation and confirm that prominent reflectors in the basin represent the top boundary of halite layers which are separated by laminated sequences of evaporites and elastics. The salt in the upper salt sequence is deposited at a very fast rate of more than 20 mm/yr. However, at shallow depths, considerable compaction takes place. Variations in appearance and velocities of the upper salt sequence and middle salt sequence indicate that the porous, granular, and fine‐grained precipitates of the surface salts are diagenetically altered to a coarse and compact crystalline aggregate by re‐solution and crystallization with burial. The sedimentary sequences recovered in the cores suggest that significant lake level fluctuations took place in the past in response to climatic changes. The detailed correlation of the cores and seismic profiles makes it possible to extrapolate climatic data from earlier periods beneath the maximum core penetration by analyzing the seismic stratigraphic sequences of the seismic reflection data.
    Subject(s): Earth sciences ; Earth, ocean, space ; Exact sciences and technology ; Marine and continental quaternary ; Surficial geology
    ISSN: 0148-0227
    E-ISSN: 2156-2202
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, 1998-04-30, Vol.36 (4), p.235-240
    Description: Conventional laboratory investigations of haemostasis like prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are not useful in predicting and managing intra-operative bleeding complications. In order to establish a possible “perioperative reference range” for thrombin generation prothrombin fragment F1+2 (F1+2) and fibrin degradation (D-dimer) markers, we measured F1+2 and D-dimer concentrations before surgery (but after induction of anaesthesia), 30 minutes into surgery, 10 minutes after the event expected to induce the maximal activation of the haemostatic systems, 90 minutes after surgery and on postoperative days 1 and 2 in 226 consecutive patients. Samples were collected from arterial lines. Twenty patients developed a clinically defined, intraoperative disorder of haemostasis, 206 did not. Patients with an intraoperative disorder of haemostasis had significantly higher preoperative F1+2 and D-dimer concentrations. Preoperative values for F1+2 and D-dimer concentrations above the 75th percentile of patients without an intraoperative disorder of haemostasis indicated a 2.70 to 2.88 fold risk of developing an intraoperative disorder of haemostasis (odds ratios were 3.04, 3.12 and 3.29 for D-dimer, ELISA, F1+2, and D-dimer latex tests, respectively with 95% confidence intervals from 1.20 to 8.46) with negative predictive values of 94%, but positive predictive values of only 16% to 26%. These data suggest that preoperative determination of molecular markers might be helpful in identifying a group of patients at high risk for intraoperative disorder of haemostasis by exclusion of low risk patients. Validation of such an approach requires a prospective trial.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biomarkers - blood ; Blood Coagulation ; Blood Coagulation Disorders - blood ; Blood Coagulation Disorders - etiology ; Blood Coagulation Disorders - prevention & control ; Blood Loss, Surgical - prevention & control ; Female ; Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products - metabolism ; Hemostasis ; Humans ; Intraoperative Complications - blood ; Intraoperative Complications - etiology ; Intraoperative Complications - prevention & control ; Investigative techniques, diagnostic techniques (general aspects) ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Middle Aged ; Peptide Fragments - blood ; Prothrombin - metabolism ; Risk Factors
    ISSN: 1434-6621
    E-ISSN: 1437-4331
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Die Naturwissenschaften, 1997-09, Vol.84 (9), p.398-401
    ISSN: 0028-1042
    E-ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (Through 1996)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Neurosurgical review, 1987, Vol.10 (4), p.265-267
    Description: The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in addition to cerebral computerized tomography (CT) and angiography is most reliable in cases of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficits (PRIND). Alterations of CBF can be detected in symptom-free intervals. The cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 stimulus is regarded as an especially suitable tool to prove the cerebrovascular reserve. If it is diminished, cerebral angiography should be carried out since it will often show major obstructive lesions. Angiography shows no sure correlation between CBF and collateral circulation. Strong opthalmic pathways in unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) often coincide with compensated or only slightly alterated CBF and relatively small infarcts in CT. In about 70% of cases of ICA occlusion, CT shows an infarct mostly in region of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Largest infarct volumes were found in the anterior area. Although resting CBF was normal in 55% of cases of unilateral ICA occlusion, CO2 reactivity was impaired in 68% of these Cases.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Biological and medical sciences ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Brain Ischemia - diagnosis ; Carbon Dioxide ; Carotid Artery Diseases - diagnosis ; Carotid Artery, Internal ; Cerebral Angiography ; Cerebral Infarction - diagnosis ; Cerebrovascular Circulation ; Child ; Humans ; Intracranial Arteriosclerosis - diagnosis ; Ischemic Attack, Transient - diagnosis ; Medical sciences ; Middle Aged ; Neurology ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed ; Vascular diseases and vascular malformations of the nervous system
    ISSN: 0344-5607
    E-ISSN: 1437-2320
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (Through 1996)
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