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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of demographic economics, 2021-03, Vol.87 (1), p.1-31
    Description: Pensions may be provided for in a modern society by a mix of several methods, namely by voluntary individual savings, mandatory fully-funded occupational pension systems, mandatory social security financed by pay-as-you-go, and old-fashioned hoarding in cash. We call a specific mixture of the four systems a pension composition. We assume that individual workers decide on their own individual savings, that the fully-funded occupational system is decided upon by the age cohort of the median worker (MW), and that social security is decided upon by the median voter (MV). We assume that individual and collective pension savings are the only sources of capital supply. When capital supply equals demand from industry there is equilibrium in the capital market with a corresponding equilibrium interest rate and pension composition. In this paper we assume a demography with one hundred age brackets and we investigate how changes in the birth rates, survival rates, and the retirement age affect the pension composition and the capital market equilibrium. Our conclusion is that for a given technology the pension composition and the interest rate are determined by the demography and cannot be modified at will as a long-term political instrument.
    ISSN: 2054-0892
    E-ISSN: 2054-0906
    Source: Cambridge Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, 2015-07-31, Vol.1, p.2333721415607833-2333721415607833
    Description: Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.
    Subject(s): Animal Production Systems ; Dierlijke Productiesystemen ; Gezondheid en Maatschappij ; Health and Society ; Leerstoelgroep Dierlijke productiesystemen ; WASS
    ISSN: 2333-7214
    E-ISSN: 2333-7214
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, 2015-10-01, Vol.1
    Description: Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.
    E-ISSN: 2333-7214
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Computer Science in Economics and Management, 1992-08, Vol.5 (3), p.183-220
    ISSN: 0921-2736
    E-ISSN: 1572-9974
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (Through 1996)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 1987-01-01, Vol.36 (2/3), p.83-90
    Description: In earlier work (van Dijk, 1984, Chapter 3) one of the authors discussed the use of Monte Carlo integration methods for the computation of the multivariate integrals that are defined in the posterior moments and densities of the parameters of interest of econometric models. In the present paper we describe the computational steps of one Monte Carlo method, which is known in the literature as importance sampling. Further, a set of standard programs is available, which may be used for the implementation of a simple case of importance sampling. The computer programs have been written in FORTRAN 77.
    Subject(s): Approximation ; Computer software ; Econometrics ; Economic modeling ; Economic models ; Estimators ; Fortran ; Mathematical independent variables ; Parametric models ; Random numbers
    ISSN: 0039-0526
    E-ISSN: 1467-9884
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet (British edition), 2007, Vol.370 (9605), p.2112-2117
    Description: Summary Background Mechanical bowel preparation is a common practice before elective colorectal surgery. We aimed to compare the rate of anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal resections and primary anastomoses between patients who did or did not have mechanical bowel preparation. Methods We did a multicentre randomised non-inferiority study at 13 hospitals. We randomly assigned 1431 patients who were going to have elective colorectal surgery to either receive mechanical bowel preparation or not. Patients who did not have mechanical bowel preparation had a normal meal on the day before the operation. Those who did were given a fluid diet, and mechanical bowel preparation with either polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate. The primary endpoint was anastomotic leakage, and the study was designed to test the hypothesis that patients who are given mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery do not have a lower risk of anastomotic leakage than those who are not. The median follow-up was 24 days (IQR 17–34). We analysed patients who were treated as per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT00288496. Findings 77 patients were excluded: 46 who did not have a bowel resection; 21 because of missing outcome data; and 10 who withdrew, cancelled, or were excluded for other reasons. The rate of anastomotic leakage did not differ between both groups: 32/670 (4·8%) patients who had mechanical bowel preparation and 37/684 (5·4%) in those who did not (difference 0·6%, 95% CI −1·7% to 2·9%, p=0·69). Patients who had mechanical bowel preparation had fewer abscesses after anastomotic leakage than those who did not (2/670 [0·3%] vs 17/684 [2·5%], p=0·001). Other septic complications, fascia dehiscence, and mortality did not differ between groups. Interpretation We advise that mechanical bowel preparation before elective colorectal surgery can safely be abandoned.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Aged ; Anastomosis ; Anastomosis, Surgical - adverse effects ; Anastomosis, Surgical - classification ; Colon (Anatomy) ; Colorectal Surgery - methods ; Elective Surgical Procedures ; Female ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Internal Medicine ; Length of Stay ; Male ; Medical tests ; Postoperative Complications ; Preoperative Care - methods ; Surgery ; Surgical anastomosis
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 2012-05-15, Vol.185 (10), p.1096-1103
    Description: Rationale: Up to one-third of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between CT and survival in patients with CF screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 patients with CF screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) four-category scoring system, including the components infection/inflammation (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR), and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each componentwas computed using semiautomated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models. Measurements and Main Results: Three hundred and sixty-six (186 males) of 411 patients entered the waiting list (median age, 23 yr; range, 5-58 yr). Subsequently, 67 of 366 (18%) died while waiting, 263 of 366 (72%) underwent LTX, and 36 of 366 (10%) were awaiting LTX at the census date. INF and LAS were significantly associated with waiting list mortality in univariate analyses. The multivariate Cox model including INF and LAS grouped in tertiles, and comparing tertiles 2 and 3 with tertile 1, showed waiting list mortality hazard ratios of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78-3.36; P=0.19) and 2.65 (95% CI, 1.35-5.20; P = 0.005) for INF, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.63-3.24; P=0.40), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.17-4.60; P=0.016) for LAS, respectively. These results indicated that INF and LAS had significant, independent predictive value for survival. Conclusions: CT score INF correlates with survival, and adds to the predictive value of LAS. Copyright
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Anesthesia. Intensive care medicine. Transfusions. Cell therapy and gene therapy ; Biological and medical sciences ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Cohort Studies ; Cystic fibrosis ; Cystic Fibrosis - diagnostic imaging ; Cystic Fibrosis - mortality ; Cystic Fibrosis - surgery ; Decision Support Techniques ; Female ; Humans ; Intensive care medicine ; Investigative techniques, diagnostic techniques (general aspects) ; Kaplan-Meier Estimate ; Lung disease ; Lung Transplantation ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Middle Aged ; Multivariate Analysis ; Prognosis ; Proportional Hazards Models ; Radiodiagnosis. Nmr imagery. Nmr spectrometry ; Respiratory system ; Severity of Illness Index ; Tomography X-ray computed ; Waiting list survival ; Waiting Lists - mortality ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1073-449X
    E-ISSN: 1535-4970
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric pulmonology, 2013-08, Vol.48 (8), p.789-796
    Description: BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening complication in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis and therapy improves outcome. Assessment of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a proposed tool to diagnose IPA. Little is known about the diagnostic value of BAL GM in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, 72 bronchoscopies were analyzed for GM in patients fulfilling the host factor criteria as defined by the EORTC/MSG. A cut-off index value GM of 〉/=0.5 was used. Clinical data, results of chest CT-scans and BAL cultures were collected. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BAL GM for a diagnosis of proven and probable IPA (n = 41) were 82.4%, 87.5%, 82.4%, and 87.5% respectively. A significant relation was found for BAL GM and abnormal chest CT (P = 0.01). No significant relationship was observed between BAL Aspergillus sp. culture and chest CT (n = 47). BAL GM and serum GM correlated significantly. In 9 out of 12 patients classified as possible IPA, antifungal therapy was continued or started, despite a negative BAL GM. CONCLUSIONS: BAL GM test had good diagnostic value in children suspected of IPA. However, the decision to continue or start antifungal therapy was mainly determined by the clinical suspicion of IPA based on chest CT-outcome, serum GM index values and failure of antibiotic therapy.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; aspergillosis ; Aspergillus - isolation & purification ; bronchoalveolar lavage ; Bronchoalveolar Lavage - methods ; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - microbiology ; Bronchoscopy ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Children ; Cross infection ; Diagnosis ; Diagnosis, Differential ; Early Diagnosis ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; galactomannan ; Humans ; Infant ; Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis - diagnosis ; Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis - microbiology ; Juvenile offenders ; Male ; Mannans ; Nosocomial infections ; Pulmonary aspergillosis ; Reproducibility of Results ; Retrospective Studies
    ISSN: 8755-6863
    E-ISSN: 1099-0496
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Genome Biology, 2020-08-28, Vol.21 (1), p.1-220
    Description: BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation.
    Subject(s): Biobanks ; Blood ; Causal inference ; Chromatin ; CpG islands ; Deoxyribonucleic acid--DNA ; DNA methylation ; Epigenetic regulation ; Epigenetics ; Functional genomics ; Gene expression ; Genetic instrumental variable ; Genomes ; Identification ; Linkage disequilibrium ; Pleiotropy ; Standard deviation ; Transcription factor ; Transcription factors
    ISSN: 1474-7596
    ISSN: 1474-760X
    E-ISSN: 1474-760X
    Source: BioMedCentral
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research, 2012, Vol.18 (14), p.3846-3855
    Description: Immunodeficient mice transplanted with subcutaneous tumors (xenograft or allograft) are widely used as a model of preclinical activity for the discovery and development of anticancer drug candidates. Despite their widespread use, there is a widely held view that these models provide minimal predictive value for discerning clinically active versus inactive agents. To improve the predictive nature of these models, we have carried out a retrospective population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis of relevant xenograft/allograft efficacy data for eight agents (molecularly targeted and cytotoxic) with known clinical outcome. PK-PD modeling was carried out to first characterize the relationship between drug concentration and antitumor activity for each agent in dose-ranging xenograft or allograft experiments. Next, simulations of tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in xenografts/allografts at clinically relevant doses and schedules were carried out by replacing the murine pharmacokinetics, which were used to build the PK-PD model with human pharmacokinetics obtained from literature to account for species differences in pharmacokinetics. A significant correlation (r = 0.91, P = 0.0008) was observed between simulated xenograft/allograft TGI driven by human pharmacokinetics and clinical response but not when TGI observed at maximum tolerated doses in mice was correlated with clinical response (r = 0.36, P = 0.34). On the basis of these analyses, agents that led to greater than 60% TGI in preclinical models, at clinically relevant exposures, are more likely to lead to responses in the clinic. A proposed strategy for the use of murine subcutaneous models for compound selection in anticancer drug discovery is discussed.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Antineoplastic agents ; Antineoplastic Agents - administration & dosage ; Antineoplastic Agents - pharmacokinetics ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Humans ; Medical sciences ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Neoplasms, Experimental - drug therapy ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Predictive Value of Tests ; Retrospective Studies ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    E-ISSN: 1557-3265
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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