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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of vertebrate paleontology, 01 September 2012, Vol.32(5), pp.1149-1156
    Description: In this paper are described the arvicolines from El Chaparral site (Villaluenga del Rosario, Cádiz, Southwestern Spain). Due to their wide geographical distributions and rapid evolutionary rates, arvicolines are especially useful for biostratigraphical purposes. The stratigraphic layers of El Chaparral have yielded arvicolines remains of the genera Allophaiomys, Iberomys, Pliomys, and Terricola. The presence of these rodents together the other vertebrates recovered allows to determinate the age of the El Chaparral site and compare our data with other Iberian Pleistocene sites, such as of the Sierra de Atapuerca. El Chaparral site ranges between the Jaramillo Subchron (1.07-0.99 Ma) and shortly after the Brunhes-Matuyama transition at 0.78 Ma covering a important time span for the knowledge of the earliest humans occupations in western Europe.
    Subject(s): Geology
    ISSN: 0272-4634
    E-ISSN: 1937-2809
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Description: A análise do microdesgaste consiste no estudo das micromarcas encontradas nas superfícies dentárias. Apesar de já ter sido provado que esta técnica facilita a determinação da dieta de muitas espécies antigas, ainda nenhum estudo aplicou esta técnica em fósseis de incisivos de suídeos fosseis (=Suidae), apesar do micro desgaste dos incisivos ser fortemente relacionado com o seu habitat e seus “rooting styles”, a adaptação mais importante deste grupo. Além disso, os suídeos são um dos grupos mais abundantes de grandes mamíferos encontrados nos sítios com fósseis de hominíneos. Como ainda não foi publicado nenhum estudo de referencia, o objectivo desta dissertação é desenvolver uma metodologia para estudar o microdesgaste em incisivos de espécies suídeos existentes de modo a encontrar um sinal de microdesgaste que possa ser relacionado com diferentes “rooting styles” e permitir a comparação com fósseis suínos em trabalhos futuros. Foram analisados trinta e oito indivíduos representando seis espécies existentes que pertencem à superfamília Suoidea, provenientes de diferentes colecções osteológicas de Espanha. Quatro espécies pertencem à família Suidae (Sus scrofa, Potamochoerus porcus, Phacochoerus africanus e Babyroussa babyrussa) e duas à família Tayassuidae (Tayassu pecari e Pecari tajacu). Registou-se o estado do desgaste no incisivo usando uma nova metodologia proposta nesta dissertação. Comparou-se, depois, com desgaste em molares para testar possíveis diferenças no grau de desgaste. Os dentes selecionados foram então analisados no “Scanning Electron Microscopy” (SEM) no lado lingual (500x) e no lado labial (200x) do incisivo. Quando os espécimes originais não pudessem ser analisados no SEM, faziam-se réplicas dentais de alta resolução para o seu estudo. Foi analisado um total de 198 microfotografias seleccionando uma área de 0,16 mm2 em cada microfotografia, muitas delas pertencendo a incisivos inferiores centrais e laterais. Registou-se o comprimento, a largura e a orientação de todas as micromarcas encontradas. As micromarcas foram então divididas em pits ou arranhões e depois categorizados em relação ao tamanho e orientação. Uma série de graus e outras variáveis, derivadas destas categorias, foram analisadas estatisticamente de modo a identificar diferenças significativas entre os lados labial e lingual, facetas oclusal e não oclusal, superfícies do esmalte e da dentina, cristas e fissuras e incisivos centrais e laterais. Foi testada a variabilidade inter taxonómica no xiv lado labial e na faceta não oclusal do lado lingual dos incisivos inferiores centrais e laterais. Além da variabilidade muito interessante observada entre os lados, facetas, regiões morfológicas e tipos de superfície, observaram-se igualmente diferenças significativas entre as diferentes espécies. Hipotetiza-se nesta dissertação que um sinal diferente de microdesgaste nos incisivos reflete diferentes “rooting styles” entre as espécies. Este estudo avança três principais “rooting styles”: 1) Baixa intensidade, como nos Tayassu pecari, caracterizada por uma superfície dental com uma grande proporção de arranhões muito pequenos (〈100 μm) com orientação variável. 2) Longitudinal, como nos Potamochoerus porcus, Sus scrofa e Peccari tajacu, caracterizada por arranhões com uma orientação longitudinal e maiores do que 300 μm. 3) Transversal em solos duros para apanhar rizomas, como nos Phacochoerus africanus, caracterizadas por arranhões com orientação predominantemente transversa. Este trabalho foi o primeiro passo para permitir a comparação de microdesgaste de incisivos em fósseis de espécies suídeas, especialmente naqueles encontrados associados aos fósseis de hominíneos, na África Oriental. Agora e possível determinar os “rooting styles” nos suídeos do passado e relacionar as mudanças no comportamento alimentar suídeo com as mudanças climáticas que aconteceram na África Oriental durante o Plio-Pleistoceno, o mesmo contexto ambiental que determinou a evolução dos primeiros hominíneos.
    Description: Microwear analysis consists on the study of microfeatures found on dental surfaces. While this technique has proven to be very useful in determining the diet of many ancient species, no study to date has employed it on fossil suid (=Suidae) incisors, even though incisor microwear may be strongly related to their habit to root, the most important adaptation of this group. Moreover, suids are one of the most abundant groups of large mammals found in hominin fossil sites. As no reference study has yet been published, the aim of this research work is to develop a methodology to study incisor microwear in extant suoid species, in order to find a microwear signal that could be related to different “rooting styles”, and enable comparison with fossil suid species in future works. Thirty-eight individuals representing six extant species belonging to the superfamily Suoidea were analyzed from different osteological collections in Spain. Four species belong to the family Suidae (Sus scrofa, Potamochoerus porcus, Phacochoerus africanus and Babyroussa babyrussa) and two to the family Tayassuidae (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). Incisor wear stage was recorded by using a novel methodology proposed in this work, and then compared with molar wear to test for possible differences in wear rate. Teeth selected were then analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at 500x in the lingual side of the incisor, and 200x in the labial side. If original specimens could not be taken to SEM, high-resolution dental replicas were performed for their study. A total of 198 microphotographs were analyzed by selecting an area of 0,16 mm2 in each microphotograph, most of them belonging to first and second lower incisors, and length, width and orientation of all microfeatures found was recorded. Microfeatures were then divided as pits or scratches, and categorized depending on size and orientation. A series of ratios and other variables, derived from these categories, were analyzed statistically to account for significant differences between labial and lingual sides, occlusal and non-occlusal facets, enamel and dentine surfaces, crests and valleys, and first and second incisors. Inter-taxon variability was tested for the labial side and the non-occlusal facet/region of the lingual side of the first and second lower incisors. Apart from the very interesting variability observed between sides, facets, morphological regions and surface types, there were significant differences between xii different taxa. It is hypothesized here that different microwear signal on the incisors reflect different “rooting styles” among species. Three main rooting styles may be derived from this study: 1) Low intensity rooting, as in Tayassu pecari, characterized by a dental surface with a high proportion of very small scratches (〈100 μm) with variable orientation. 2) Longitudinal rooting, as in Potamochoerus porcus, Sus scrofa and Peccari tajacu, characterized by scratches with a longitudinal orientation and longer than 300 μm). 3) Transverse rooting in hard soils seeking for rhyzomes, as in Phacochoerus africanus, characterized by scratches with predominant transverse orientation. This work was the first step to enable comparison of incisor microwear in fossil suid specimens, mainly those found associated to fossil hominin sites in East Africa. The ultimate objective is to determinate the “rooting style” of past suids, and relate the changes in suid feeding behavior with climatic changes happening in East Africa along the Plio-Pleistocene, the same environmental context that shaped the evolution of early hominins.
    Description: Dissertação de mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humanas, apresentada ao Departamento Ciências da Vida da faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
    Subject(s): Rooting ; Paleoambiente ; Mudança Climática ; Comportamento Alimentar ; Porco
    Source: Repositório Cientfico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal
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  • 3
    Conference Proceeding
    Conference Proceeding
    2013
    Language: English
    Source: Open Access LMU (Universitätsbibliothek der LMU München)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 14 December 2018, Vol.362(6420), pp.1297-1301
    Description: East Africa has provided the earliest known evidence for Oldowan stone artifacts and hominin-induced stone tool cutmarks dated to ~2.6 million years (Ma) ago. The ~1.8-million-year-old stone artifacts from Ain Hanech (Algeria) were considered to represent the oldest archaeological materials in North Africa. Here we report older stone artifacts and cutmarked bones excavated from two nearby deposits at Ain Boucherit estimated to ~1.9 Ma ago, and the older to ~2.4 Ma ago. Hence, the Ain Boucherit evidence shows that ancestral hominins inhabited the Mediterranean fringe in northern Africa much earlier than previously thought. The evidence strongly argues for early dispersal of stone tool manufacture and use from East Africa or a possible multiple-origin scenario of stone technology in both East and North Africa.
    Subject(s): North Africa ; Africa ; Algeria ; East Africa ; Artifacts ; Fossils ; Dispersion ; Dispersal ; Animal Behavior ; Tools ; Archaeology ; Artifacts ; Stone ; Bones ; Dispersal;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of vertebrate paleontology, 19 March 1996, Vol.16(1), pp.149-164
    Description: The early middle Miocene (MN 6; ca. 15 Ma) locality of Paşalar in western Anatolia (Turkey) has produced a large and well studied collection of land mammals, including hominoid primates. We confirm the co-occurrence of two species of listriodont suids at this locality, and describe one of them as Bunolistriodon meidamon sp. nov. The other species is referred to Listriodon splendens. B. meidamon is characterised by extreme widening of the central incisors, large size of the male upper canines, labiolingually compressed ("meidamonic") lower male canines, and narrow cheek teeth. These synapomorphies define a clade comprising at least B. latidens and B. meidamon, which are thus separated from the plesiomorphic species complex of listriodonts lacking lophed molars (Listriodon, Lopholistriodon) or cranial appendages (the "horned" kubanochoeres).
    Subject(s): Geology
    ISSN: 0272-4634
    E-ISSN: 1937-2809
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary science reviews, 2011, Vol.30(11), pp.1353-1367
    Description: The dispersal of the genus Homo occurred against a background of continuous environmental change. Here, dispersals of large mammals through the Levantine Corridor and into Western Europe and Java are studied and compared to existing records of climatic change and dispersals of early humans and lithic industry. The first human dispersal (with Oldowan lithic industry) out of Africa, around or shortly before 1.8 Ma may have been triggered by biological evolution and increased social organisation, rather than environmental change. After that event, increasing aridity led to decreased faunal exchange between Africa and Eurasia and may have isolated the human populations of Africa and Africa. Southern (Java) and Eastern Asia (China) also seem to have been isolated. Human dispersal into Western Europe may have been limited by closed environments in Central Europe until about 1.2 Ma ago, when faunal dispersal into Europe suggests the cyclic spread of open environments...
    Subject(s): Sciences (General) ; Geology
    ISSN: 0277-3791
    E-ISSN: 1873-457X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Geobios, 1992, Vol.25(3), pp.395-413
    Description: During recent excavations in Spain interesting fossils identified as Microstonyx (Suidae, Mammalia) were discovered.A study of the new and old material led to the following conclusions. Nearly all the Spanish material belongs to Microstonyx major major. This subspecies ranges from the Upper Vallesian to the Middle Turolian (MN 10 – MN 12). Material from Terral d'en Maties, of unknown stratigraphic position, is referred to Microstonyx major cf. erymanthius. There is no evidence that Microstonyx antiquus occurred in Spain. Microstonyx major from Spain and France have approximately the same size (97% for the French cheek teeth). Microstonyx major erymanthius from Pikermi has an inferior size (93% for the molars from Pikermi). Microstonyx is characterized by elongated I2 and I3. M. major erymanthius is more progressive in this respect than M. major major. Des fouilles récentes réalisées dans différentes localités espagnoles ont livré d'intéressants restes de Microstonyx...
    Subject(s): Microstonyx ; Suidae ; Vallesian ; Turolian ; Upper Miocene ; Spain ; Microstony ; Suidae ; Vallésien ; Turolien ; Miocène Supérieur ; Espagne ; Microstonyx ; Suidae ; Vallesian ; Turolian ; Upper Miocene
    ISSN: 0016-6995
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    In: Russian Journal of Theriology, 2013, Vol.12(1), pp.39-40
    Description: A critical response to the small article by Sen (2010) discussing the validity of a report of camelids from the Late Miocene locality Cobanpinar, Turkey.
    Subject(s): Camelids ; Late Miocene ; Plio-Pleistocene ; Turkey
    ISSN: 16823559
    Source: Scopus (Elsevier B.V)〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/Scopus.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 3/2010, Vol.84(1), pp.43-121
    Description: The fossil remains of two species of Suoidea (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Early/Middle Miocene locality of Sandelzhausen (MN5; Bavaria, Germany) are described. A skull and some isolated teeth and bones reveal hitherto unknown features of Schizoporcus muenzenbergensis , Schizoporcini, Taucanaminae, Palaeochoeridae (Old World peccaries), Suoidea. The phylogeny of the Taucanaminae is discussed and an updated classification of the Palaeochoeridae is presented. The new names Schizoporcus and Schizoporcini replace the junior homonyms Schizochoerus Crusafont and Lavocat (1954) and Schizochoerini Golpe-Posse (1974). Remains of several skulls and mandibles, over 50 associated tooth rows, over 300 isolated teeth, and over 200 bones, constitute one of the largest collections of a Miocene suid known, and are assigned to Hyotherium soemmeringi wylensis , Hyotheriini, Hyotheriinae, Suidae (pigs), Suoidea. Hyotherium is the oldest certain suid genus known and many assumed it to be one of the most primitive. While the postcranial bones of the Suidae and Palaeochoeridae differ in many ways, the bones of Hyotherium are already very similar in morphology to those of living pigs, although they are much more slender, suggesting that the genus was more fleet-footed. Features related to rooting behaviour indicate that Hyotherium was a more efficient rooter than Palaeochoeridae and living Dicotylidae, but not as efficient as living suids. The phylogeny of the Hyotheriinae is discussed. The subfamily is divided into Hyotheriini and Aureliachoerini, new tribe, and an updated classification is presented. Diese Studie enhält die Beschreibung der fossilen Reste zweier Suoidenarten (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) aus der unter-/mittelmiozänen Fundstelle Sandelzhausen (MN5; Bayern, Deutschland). Die eine Art ist durch einen Schädel und einige isolierte Zähne und Knochen repräsentiert, welche bisher unbekannte Merkmale von , Schizoporcini, Taucanaminae, Palaeochoeridae (Pekaris der Alten Welt), Suoidea dokumentieren. Im Kontext wird die Phylogenie der Taucanaminae diskutiert und eine aktualisierte Klassifikation der Palaeochoeridae vorgestellt. Die neuen Taxa and Schizoporcini ersetzen die Juniorhomonyme Crusafont and Lavocat (1954) and Schizochoerini Golpe-Posse (1974). Die zweite Art ist mit Resten von einigen Schädeln und Unterkiefern, über 50 Zahnreihen, über 300 isolierte Zähne und über 200 Knochen vertreten, welche eine der größten Sammlungen eines miozänen Schweines darstellen und , Hyotheriini, Hyotheriinae, Suidae (Schweine), Suoidea zugeordnet werden. ist die bisher geologisch älteste Schweinegattung und viele Bearbeiter nahmen an, dass sie auch eine der primitivsten ist. Jedoch während die postkranialen Knochen der Suidae und Palaeochoeridae in vieler Hinsicht unterschiedlich sind, zeigen die Knochen von schon große Ähnlichkeit mit modernen Schweinen, obwohl sie sehr viel schlanker sind und größere Leichtfüßigkeit vermuten lassen. Merkmale, die im Zusammenhang mit dem Wühl-Verhalten stehen, zeigen an, dass ein wesentlich effizienterer Wühler war, als die Palaeochoeridae und die modernen Dicotylidae, aber nicht so effizient wie die modernen Schweine. Die Phylogenie der Hyotheriinae wird diskutiert. Die Unterfamilie wird unterteilt in Hyotheriini sowie den neuen Tribus Aureliachoeiini und eine aktualisierte Klassifikation wird vorgestellt.
    Subject(s): Suoidea ; Suidae ; Palaeochoeridae ; Hyotherium ; Schizoporcus ; Miocene ; Palaeoecology ; Rooting behaviour;
    ISSN: 0031-0220
    E-ISSN: 1867-6812
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary science reviews, 2011, Vol.30(11), pp.1303-1317
    Description: In contrast to well-studied paleoenvironments of Plio-Pleistocene hominin sites in East Africa, little is known about the ecology of the earliest North African human occupation sites. The recent studies at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba in northeastern Algeria have broadened the range of Plio-Pleistocene hominin ecology to include the earliest known archaeological sites documented in North Africa. Ain Hanech and El-Kherba are significant for yielding savanna-like faunas associated with Oldowan stone tools dated back to approximately 1.8 million years ago. This paper focuses on reconstructing the ecology of Ain Hanech and El-Kherba based on excavated faunas and stable carbon isotope of pedogenic carbonates from El-Kherba stratigraphic profile. The results point out to an overall open paleolandscape and a C 3 predominantly paleovegetation both woody and grasses. In addition, the stable-carbon-isotopic evidence shows a clear environmental change through time at El-Kherba, which likely...
    Subject(s): Sciences (General) ; Geology
    ISSN: 0277-3791
    E-ISSN: 1873-457X
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