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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2008
    ISSN: 0006-2006 
    Language: French
    In: Bulletin des Bibliotheques de France, 0, 2008, Vol.53(4), pp.44-49
    Subject(s): Mediatheques ; Architecture ; France ; Planning And Design Of Library Buildings ; Article
    ISSN: 0006-2006
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: Library & Information Science Abstracts
    Source: Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA)
    Source: Library & Information Science Collection
    Source: Social Science Premium Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2017, Vol.12(3), pp.e0171238
    Description: This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable). The last two views are the ones most strongly endorsed by our respondents, in the US, Israel and Switzerland. The pattern of inter-correlations between the four accounts, and that between each and the psycho-social variables we examined, exhibits two clusters, Econ101 vs. the other three...
    Subject(s): Economics, Behavioral ; Economics -- Trends
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Psychological science, November 2015, Vol.26(11), pp.1762-1770
    Description: Belief in conspiracy theories has often been associated with a biased perception of randomness, akin to a nothing-happens-by-accident heuristic. Indeed, a low prior for randomness (i.e., believing that randomness is a priori unlikely) could plausibly explain the tendency to believe that a planned deception lies behind many events, as well as the tendency to perceive meaningful information in scattered and irrelevant details; both of these tendencies are traits diagnostic of conspiracist ideation. In three studies, we investigated this hypothesis and failed to find the predicted association between low prior for randomness and conspiracist ideation, even when randomness was explicitly opposed to malevolent human intervention. Conspiracy believers’ and nonbelievers’ perceptions of randomness were not only indistinguishable from each other but also accurate compared with the normative view arising from the algorithmic information framework. Thus, the motto “nothing happens by accident,”...
    Subject(s): Conspiracist Ideation ; Subjective Randomness ; Algorithmic Complexity ; Conspiracy Theories ; Beliefs ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0956-7976
    E-ISSN: 1467-9280
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Perceptual and motor skills, February 2012, Vol.114(1), pp.275-289
    Description: This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees, and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.
    Subject(s): Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-5125
    E-ISSN: 1558-688X
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  • 5
    Language: French
    In: L’Année psychologique, 2011, Vol.111(1), pp.191-224
    Description: Résumé Cet article propose une classification des points de vue dans le débat récurrent en psychologie cognitive à propos des biais de raisonnement et de la rationalité humaine. Différentes 〈marquage typemarq="italique"〉positions épistémologiques〈/marquage〉 sur cette question sont...
    Subject(s): Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-5033
    E-ISSN: 1955-2580
    Source: Cairn.info
    Source: Cairn.info - Revues
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, June 2012, Vol.42(6), pp.1451-1466
    Description: Building on an evolutionary approach to out‐group avoidance, this study showed relations between perceived disease salience and beliefs in the efficacy of avoiding foreigners as protective measures in the context of a real‐life pandemic risk; i.e., avian influenza. People for whom avian influenza was salient and who held unfavorable attitudes toward foreigners were more likely to believe that avoiding contact with foreigners protects against infection. This finding suggests that individual differences in social attitudes moderate evolved mechanisms relating threat of disease to out‐group avoidance.
    Subject(s): Sociology & Social History;
    ISSN: 0021-9029
    E-ISSN: 1559-1816
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, July 2010, Vol.20(4), pp.299-316
    Description: Integrating evolutionary and social representations theories, the current study examines the relationship between perceived disease threat and exclusionary immigration attitudes in the context of a potential avian influenza pandemic. This large‐scale disease provides a realistic context for investigating the link between disease threat and immigration attitudes. The main aim of this cross‐sectional study ( = 412) was to explore mechanisms through which perceived chronic and contextual disease threats operate on immigration attitudes. Structural equation models show that the relationship between chronic disease threat (germ aversion) and exclusionary immigration attitudes (assimilationist immigration criteria, health‐based immigration criteria and desire to reduce the proportion of foreigners) was mediated by ideological and normative beliefs (social dominance orientation, belief in a dangerous world), but not by contextual disease threat (appraisal of avian influenza pandemic threat). Contextual disease threat only predicted support for health‐based immigration criteria. The conditions under which real‐life disease threats influence intergroup attitudes are scrutinized. Convergence and dissimilarity of evolutionary and social representational approaches in accounting for the link between disease threat and immigration attitudes are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Subject(s): Disease Threat ; Social Representations Theory ; Evolutionary Psychology ; Immigration Attitudes ; Sdo ; Bdw
    ISSN: 1052-9284
    E-ISSN: 1099-1298
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2018
    ISSN: 1421-0185 
    Language: English
    In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, 2018, Vol.77(1), pp.15-22
    Description: In this research, we investigated the social influence of newspaper headlines on beliefs on various social, political, and economic issues, including belief in conspiracy theories. Building on the seminal study by Gruenfeld and Wyer (1992) , we examined how denials and affirmations printed in a credible source (e.g., a newspaper considered to be serious) versus a less credible source (e.g., a free newspaper) affected readers’ beliefs. In this computer-based study, participants were asked to rate the plausibility of 24 newspaper statements (eight of which were related to conspiracy theories), first without any mention of a newspaper and then with the newspapers mentioned as sources. The results showed the general effects associated with the degree of informativeness of the statements. We discuss these effects in terms of the boomerang effect (i.e., opinion change in the direction opposite to that of the opinion given in the headline). We also found that the participants judged the official versions of various events to be more plausible than the conspiracy theory versions of the same events.
    Subject(s): Social Influence ; Media Studies ; Newspaper Headlines ; Pragmatic Implications ; Boomerang Effect ; Conspiracy Theories
    ISSN: 1421-0185
    E-ISSN: 1662-0879
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  • 9
    In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, 2004, Vol.39(3), pp.247-250
    Description: Aims: Although the prevalence of alcohol problems amongst detainees is suspected to be high, often only more flagrant problems are detected, restricting the possibilities for intervention in alcohol misuse and reducing opportunities for preventive efforts. This study examined the re-test reliability of AUDIT (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) in screening prisoners Methods: AUDIT was administered for the first time on the day of entry to prison and again about 15 days later. The results were analysed according to two AUDIT thresholds: a score of 8 or higher and 12 or higher. Results: Of 75 consecutive entrants tested, 47 male prisoners completed the study. At the first administration, 19.1% of these 47 men met criteria for a probable alcohol problem but this percentage rose to 59.6% on the second occasion ( P 0.0001). The proportion of subjects with a score 12 or higher (probably dependent) was 10.6% the first time versus 42.6% the second time ( P 0.0001). In the 19 who scored positive at the second administration only, changes in answers to the 10 items were coherent with a total score growing from 3.0 to 18.1 ( P 0.0001). No prisoner had a lower AUDIT score on the second administration. As alcohol problems are not routinely considered during the medical and biological examination at entry, no confirmation of the AUDIT results could be obtained, although those obtained at the second administration fitted well with the prevalence rates in previous reports. Conclusions: AUDIT, for the purpose of giving a prevalence estimate or to enter appropriate prisoners into more detailed assessment or interventions, should not be conducted immediately at entry, but some weeks later.
    Subject(s): Prisoners ; Alcohol Related Disorders ; Screening ; Test-Retest Reliability;
    ISSN: 0735-0414
    E-ISSN: 1464-3502
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  • 10
    In: Materials Science Forum, 2000, Vol.331, pp.I/-
    ISSN: 02555476
    Source: Scopus (Elsevier B.V)〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/Scopus.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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