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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemie ingenieur technik, 1994-02, Vol.66 (2), p.155-162
    Description: Scientific and Technical Societies in Changing Environments. The role of science and technology has been subject to change during the development of modern societies. The application of scientific knowledge and technological innovations is now taken for granted in many sectors of society. Yet the scientific and technological transformation of modern society is not proceeding without conflict. As a result, science and technology have become political issues. Members of society no longer unquestioningly accept the scientific and technical changes to their way of life and work; instead they wish to exert a modifying and limiting influence on developments. Demands arise for orientation of research towards the needs of society. Traditional autonomy is required to make way for a responsible utilisation of the possibilities of science and technology. This article attempts to establish the role of learned societies in dealing with these problems.
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    E-ISSN: 1522-2640
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
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  • 2
    Language: German
    In: Chemie ingenieur technik, 1994-02, Vol.66 (2), p.155-162
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    E-ISSN: 1522-2640
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2018-03-22, Vol.555 (7697), p.463-468
    Description: Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies. Early lethality (embryonic days 9.5-14.5) is almost always associated with severe placental malformations. Placental defects correlate strongly with abnormal brain, heart and vascular development. Analysis of mutant trophoblast stem cells and conditional knockouts suggests that a considerable number of factors that cause embryonic lethality when ablated have primary gene function in trophoblast cells. Our data highlight the hugely under-appreciated importance of placental defects in contributing to abnormal embryo development and suggest key molecular nodes that govern placenta formation.
    Subject(s): Trophoblasts - metabolism ; Trophoblasts - pathology ; Stem Cells - metabolism ; Mice, Knockout ; Pregnancy ; Animals ; Embryo Loss - pathology ; Placenta - pathology ; Stem Cells - pathology ; Female ; Mice ; Embryo Loss - genetics ; Mutation ; Placentation - genetics ; Embryonic development ; Genetic aspects ; Placenta ; Gene mutations ; Observations ; Index Medicus ; phenotype ; mouse ; stem cells ; development ; embryo ; placenta ; trophoblast
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Brain (London, England : 1878), 2002, Vol.125 (Pt 10), p.2222-2237
    Description: Reorganization after early brain injuries is not only determined by the maturational stage of the CNS at the time of the insult (timing), but also by the structural properties, location and extent of the lesion. This study addresses the impact of different lesion extents on the type of reorganization induced in a cohort of patients with lesions of uniform structure and location (unilateral periventricular defects) and similar timing (early third trimester of pregnancy). Twelve young adult patients with congenital hemiparesis and 10 age-matched controls were studied. The severity of structural damage to hand motor projections of the cortico-spinal tract was assessed on semi-coronal MRI reconstructions along anatomical landmarks of cortico-spinal tract somatotopy. The functional integrity of these crossed cortico-spinal projections in the affected hemisphere, as well as the presence of any abnormal ipsilateral projections to the paretic hand, was examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Cortical activation during simple voluntary hand movements was studied by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with small lesions (SL; n = 4) and only mild hand motor impairment possessed intact crossed cortico-spinal projections to the paretic hand, whereas no motor response could be elicited by TMS of the affected hemisphere in those with large lesions (LL; n = 6) and more severe hand motor impairment. Evidence for compensatory recruitment of the unaffected hemisphere was found in both subgroups. In the SL group, fMRI demonstrated ipsilateral activation of premotor areas, without any abnormal projections to the paretic hand originating from these sites. In the LL group, such abnormal ipsilateral projections to the paretic hand were indeed found, and fMRI confirmed cortical activation of an abnormal ipsilateral hand motor representation in the primary sensorimotor region of the unaffected hemisphere. Two patients with intermediate-sized lesions presented combined features of both groups (SL, LL). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the type of cortico-spinal reorganization depends on the extent of the brain lesion. We propose that involvement of the ipsilateral hemisphere can be (i) of the premotor type, i.e. without ipsilateral motor projections but with significant activation of ipsilateral premotor areas, or (ii) of the primary motor type, i.e. with abnormal ipsilateral cortico-spinal projections to the paretic hand.
    Subject(s): Neurology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Nervous system as a whole ; Medical sciences ; Nervous system (semeiology, syndromes) ; Evoked Potentials, Motor - physiology ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - statistics & numerical data ; Adolescent ; Statistics, Nonparametric ; Adult ; Female ; Male ; Functional Laterality - physiology ; Magnetics ; Paresis - physiopathology ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0006-8950
    ISSN: 1460-2156
    E-ISSN: 1460-2156
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 2011, Vol.2 (1), p.204-214
    Description: Several lizard species that live in arid areas have developed special abilities to collect water with their bodies' surfaces and to ingest the so collected moisture. This is called rain- or moisture-harvesting. The water can originate from air humidity, fog, dew, rain or even from humid soil. The integument (i.e., the skin plus skin derivatives such as scales) has developed features so that the water spreads and is soaked into a capillary system in between the reptiles' scales. Within this capillary system the water is transported to the mouth where it is ingested. We have investigated three different lizard species which have developed the ability for moisture harvesting independently, viz. the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus), the Arabian toadhead agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus) and the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). All three lizards have a honeycomb like micro ornamentation on the outer surface of the scales and a complex capillary system in between the scales. By investigation of individual scales and by producing and characterising polymer replicas of the reptiles' integuments, we found that the honeycomb like structures render the surface superhydrophilic, most likely by holding a water film physically stable. Furthermore, the condensation of air humidity is improved on this surface by about 100% in comparison to unstructured surfaces. This allows the animals to collect moisture with their entire body surface. The collected water is transported into the capillary system. For Phrynosoma cornutum we found the interesting effect that, in contrast to the other two investigated species, the water flow in the capillary system is not uniform but directed to the mouth. Taken together we found that the micro ornamentation yields a superhydrophilic surface, and the semi-tubular capillaries allow for an efficient passive - and for Phrynosoma directed - transport of water.
    Subject(s): rain harvesting ; thorny devil ; horned lizard ; capillary ; water transport
    ISSN: 2190-4286
    E-ISSN: 2190-4286
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cell (Cambridge), 2014-12-18, Vol.159 (7), p.1524-1537
    Description: The antibody gene mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promiscuously damages oncogenes, leading to chromosomal translocations and tumorigenesis. Why nonimmunoglobulin loci are susceptible to AID activity is unknown. Here, we study AID-mediated lesions in the context of nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome. We show that AID targets are not randomly distributed across the genome but are predominantly grouped within super-enhancers and regulatory clusters. Unexpectedly, in these domains, AID deaminates active promoters and eRNA+ enhancers interconnected in some instances over megabases of linear chromatin. Using genome editing, we demonstrate that 3D-linked targets cooperate to recruit AID-mediated breaks. Furthermore, a comparison of hypermutation in mouse B cells, AID-induced kataegis in human lymphomas, and translocations in MEFs reveals that AID damages different genes in different cell types. Yet, in all cases, the targets are predominantly associated with topological complex, highly transcribed super-enhancers, demonstrating that these compartments are key mediators of AID recruitment. [Display omitted] •AID targets are interconnected in 3D nuclear space•Targeted networks overlap predominantly with super-enhancer domains•Both promoters and transcriptionally active cognate enhancers are damaged by AID•Tethered regulatory elements cooperate to recruit AID activity AID targets in the genome are interconnected in 3D networks that overlap with super-enhancer domains, revealing the role of the nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome in recruiting AID activity.
    Subject(s): Lymphoma - metabolism ; Animals ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; Cytidine Deaminase - genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; DNA Damage ; Carcinogenesis ; B-Lymphocytes - metabolism ; Employee recruitment ; Developmental biology ; Analysis ; Genomics ; Genetic research ; Development and progression ; Lymphomas ; B cells ; Index Medicus ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    ISSN: 1097-4172
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
    Source: SWEPUB Freely available online
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The American heart journal, 2010, Vol.159 (5), p.809-816
    Description: Background Recent data indicate that cardiac antibodies play an active role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in patients with DCM. The present study investigated the influence of immunoadsorption with subsequent immunoglobulin G substitution (IA/IgG) on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in patients with DCM. Methods Sixty patients with DCM (New York Heart Association II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%) were included in this single-center university hospital–based case-control study. Patients either were treated with IA/IgG (n = 30) or were followed without IA/IgG (n = 30). At baseline and after 3 months, we compared echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function and spiroergometric exercise parameters. Results In contrast to controls, left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the IA/IgG group from 33.0% ± 1.2% to 40.1% ± 1.5% ( P 〈 .001). In the control group, spiroergometric exercise parameters did not change during follow-up. After 3 months, maximum achieved power increased in the treatment group from 114.2 ± 7.4 to 141.9 ± 7.9 W ( P = .02). Total exercise time increased in the treatment group from 812 ± 29 to 919 ± 30 seconds ( P 〈 .05). Peak oxygen uptake (V o2 ) increased from 17.3 ± 0.9 to 21.8 ± 1.0 mL min−1 kg−1 after IA/IgG ( P 〈 .01). Oxygen pulse (peak V o2 /maximum heart rate) increased in the treatment group (10.7 ± 0.7 vs 13.6 ± 0.7 mL beat−1 min−1 , P 〈 .01). The V o2 at the gas exchange anaerobic threshold increased after 3 months in the treatment group from 10.3 ± 0.5 to 13.2 ± 0.5 mL min−1 kg−1 ( P 〈 .001). The ventilatory response to exercise (VE /V co2 slope) decreased after IA/IgG therapy from 32.3 ± 1.5 to 28.7 ± 0.9 ( P = .02). Conclusions In patients with DCM, IA/IgG therapy may induce improvement in echocardiographic and cardiopulmonary exercise parameters.
    Subject(s): Cardiovascular ; Cardiology. Vascular system ; Heart ; Biological and medical sciences ; Myocarditis. Cardiomyopathies ; Medical sciences ; Surface Plasmon Resonance ; Immunoglobulin G - blood ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Plethysmography, Whole Body ; Oxygen Consumption ; Stroke Volume - physiology ; Male ; Case-Control Studies ; Heart Failure - drug therapy ; Immunosorbent Techniques ; Exercise Test ; Cardiomyopathy, Dilated - immunology ; Electrocardiography ; Exercise Tolerance - immunology ; Female ; Ergometry ; Cardiomyopathy, Dilated - therapy ; Care and treatment ; Exercise ; Analysis ; Immunoglobulin G ; Cardiac patients ; Cardiomyopathy, Dilated ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0002-8703
    E-ISSN: 1097-6744
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2019-06-26, Vol.10 (1), p.2792-2792
    Description: The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders programme has analysed the morphological and molecular phenotypes of embryonic and perinatal lethal mouse mutant lines in order to investigate the causes of embryonic lethality. Here we show that individual whole-embryo RNA-seq of 73 mouse mutant lines (〉1000 transcriptomes) identifies transcriptional events underlying embryonic lethality and associates previously uncharacterised genes with specific pathways and tissues. For example, our data suggest that Hmgxb3 is involved in DNA-damage repair and cell-cycle regulation. Further, we separate embryonic delay signatures from mutant line-specific transcriptional changes by developing a baseline mRNA expression catalogue of wild-type mice during early embryogenesis (4-36 somites). Analysis of transcription outside coding sequence identifies deregulation of repetitive elements in Morc2a mutants and a gene involved in gene-specific splicing. Collectively, this work provides a large scale resource to further our understanding of early embryonic developmental disorders.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Transcriptome ; Transcription, Genetic ; Mice ; Mutation ; Embryo, Mammalian - metabolism
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Annals of neurology, 2004-12, Vol.56 (6), p.854-863
    Description: It is well established that the reorganizational potential of the developing human brain is superior to that of the adult brain, but whether age‐dependent differences exist already in the prenatal and perinatal period is not known. We have studied sensorimotor reorganization in 34 patients with congenital hemiparesis (age range, 5–27 years), using transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging during simple hand movements. Underlying pathologies were brain malformations (first and second trimester lesions; n = 10), periventricular brain lesions (early third trimester lesions; n = 12), and middle cerebral artery infarctions (late third trimester lesions; n = 12). Of this cohort, eight patients with malformations and all patients with periventricular lesions have been published previously. In all three groups of pathologies, transcranial magnetic stimulation identified patients in whom the paretic hand was controlled via ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere (n = 16). In these patients, the motor dysfunction of the paretic hand correlated significantly with the timing period of the underlying brain lesion. This demonstrates that the efficacy of reorganization with ipsilateral corticospinal tracts indeed decreases during pregnancy. Ann Neurol 2004
    Subject(s): Neurology ; Infectious diseases ; Viral diseases ; Viral diseases of the lymphoid tissue and the blood. Aids ; Biological and medical sciences ; Medical sciences ; Human viral diseases ; Diseases of striated muscles. Neuromuscular diseases ; Electromagnetic Fields ; Age Factors ; Humans ; Child, Preschool ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Male ; Gestational Age ; Telencephalon - physiology ; Neuronal Plasticity - physiology ; Telencephalon - abnormalities ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Female ; Child ; Cohort Studies ; Paresis - physiopathology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0364-5134
    E-ISSN: 1531-8249
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage (Orlando, Fla.), 2006, Vol.32 (1), p.400-410
    Description: Hemispheric dominance for language is an important issue in functional neuroimaging, particularly driven by efforts to overcome the need for the invasive Wada test, which is all the more pressing in children. Here, we aimed at developing new paradigms for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for assessment of language dominance that can be used in younger children and allow for performance monitoring. Two new tasks (letter and animal task) were developed and compared to two reference tasks (synonyms and verb generation task) from the literature. Overall, 23 healthy children participated (13 boys, 10 girls, 10.2 ± 2.5 years, range 6.1–15.3 years). Analysis was done using statistical nonparametrical mapping (SnPM2) on SPM2. Both reference tasks show activation in a number of left-frontal brain regions. The letter task induced a very localized activation in the left hemisphere's Broca's region, while not activating other frontal brain regions. Lateralization (as assessed in different anatomically and functionally defined regions) was consistent and strong. The animal task failed to activate frontal brain regions and was not suitable for assessing language dominance in children in this form. We conclude that while both reference tasks are useful for determining language dominance, they coactivate a number of task-related frontal areas not directly involved in language processing. Additionally, one task is not applicable in young children while the other does not allow performance monitoring. The letter task allows to selectively activate language areas in the dominant hemisphere and is applicable even in the very lowest age group amenable to fMRI investigations while still allowing performance monitoring. It may thus be a useful tool in assessing normal and pathological language organization.
    Subject(s): Brain - anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Male ; Reaction Time ; Brain Mapping - methods ; Cerebellum - physiology ; Brain - physiology ; Frontal Lobe - physiology ; Animals ; Dominance, Cerebral - physiology ; Language ; Parietal Lobe - anatomy & histology ; Semantics ; Statistics, Nonparametric ; Female ; Parietal Lobe - physiology ; Cerebellum - anatomy & histology ; Child ; Frontal Lobe - anatomy & histology ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Children ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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