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  • 1
    Language: German
    Description: Digitalisat der Ausgabe von 1886, erschienen 2020
    Subject(s): Frankreich ; Bildung ; ddc:371 ; Schulwesen
    Source: Dokumentenserver der FU Berlin
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Description: New teachers entering the profession are said to bring with them enthusiasm, idealism and recent training – a promising combination for innovative teaching. However, these early career teachers are also commonly portrayed as professionals facing exceptional challenges, with fragile identities who leave the career in high proportions. Can these new teachers help schools to innovate while trying to perform as effective teachers during their initial years? This paper argues that the difficulties most early career teachers encounter, which have largely remained unchanged over the last 50 years, are embedded characteristics of the teaching profession. Further, it discusses the importance of the first five years of the teacher career in acquiring critical professional skills, and highlights the importance of context over experience per se. The paper concludes by making the case that these first five years could work as a residency for early career teachers – similar to that of medical training – where they could receive support to experiment in sheltered environments. This professional residency might represent a policy milestone in the building of a continuum of teachers’ professional growth and development.
    E-ISSN: 1993-9019
    Source: OECD iLibrary
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2008
    ISSN: 1468-2672  ISSN: 0266-7215 
    Language: English
    In: European sociological review, 2008, Vol.24 (5), p.543-565
    Description: "Research has repeatedly shown that educational opportunities are distributed unevenly in all countries. Therefore, the question is not whether family background and educational outcomes are related but to what degree they are related. This latter question then invites a comparative perspective. That is, does social inequality in education differ across time and countries? If yes, which institutional characteristics can explain differences in educational inequality? Educational inequality is conceptualized as the association between individuals' and their parents' highest educational level attained. Intergenerational educational mobility processes are analysed for 20 industrialized nations by means of log-linear and log-multiplicative models. The results show that the degree of educational mobility has remained stable across the second half of the 20th century in virtually all countries. However, nations differ widely in the extent to which parents' education influences their children's educational attainment. The degree of educational inequality is associated with the institutional structure of national education systems. Rigid systems with dead-end educational pathways appear to be a hindrance to the equalization of educational opportunities, especially if the sorting of students occurs early in the educational career. This association is not mediated by other institutional characteristics included in this analysis that do not exert notable influences on educational mobility." Die Untersuchung enthält quantitative Daten. Forschungsmethode: empirisch-quantitativ; empirisch; Sekundäranalyse; Querschnitt; Längsschnitt. Die Untersuchung bezieht sich auf den Zeitraum 1994 bis 1998. (author's abstract, IAB-Doku).
    Subject(s): Schulwahl ; Bildung ; Chancengleichheit ; Soziale Mobilität ; Bildungsabschluss ; Generationenbeziehung ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; OECD (Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung) ; Bildungschance ; Internationaler Vergleich ; Soziale Herkunft ; Mobilität ; Schullaufbahnentscheidung ; Altersabhängigkeit ; Bildungsmobilität ; Bildungssystem ; Schulwesen ; Higher education ; Secondary education ; Vocational education ; Parents ; Educational mobility ; Secondary schools ; Children ; Equal education ; Educational attainment ; Sociology ; Sociology of education. Educational systems. Lifelong education
    ISSN: 1468-2672
    ISSN: 0266-7215
    E-ISSN: 1468-2672
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 1468-2672  ISSN: 0266-7215 
    Language: English
    In: European sociological review, 2017, Vol.33 (5), p.633-644
    Subject(s): Allgemein bildendes Schulwesen ; Regionaler Vergleich ; Bundesland ; Reformpolitik ; Bildung ; Chancengleichheit ; Soziale Mobilität ; Bildungspolitik ; Generationenbeziehung ; Bildungschance ; Mobilität ; Arbeitsmarktchance ; Schullaufbahnentscheidung ; Schulzeit ; Schulpflicht ; Bildungsmobilität
    ISSN: 1468-2672
    ISSN: 0266-7215
    E-ISSN: 1468-2672
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 5
    Book
    Book
    2011
    ISBN: 9789264130845  ISBN: 9264130845 
    Language: English
    Description: Across OECD countries, almost one in every five students does not reach a basic minimum level of skills. In addition, students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds are twice as likely to be low performers. Lack of fairness and inclusion can lead to school failure and this means that one in every five young adults on average drop out before completing upper secondary education. Reducing school failure pays off for both society and individuals. The highest performing education systems across OECD countries combine quality with equity. This report presents policy recommendations for education systems to help all children succeed in their schooling.
    Subject(s): Students with disabilities ; Educational equalization ; Education ; Government policy ; Educational indicators
    ISBN: 9789264130845
    ISBN: 9264130845
    Source: OECD iLibrary
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: For many people, working after beginning retirement benefit collection is a way to enhance financial security by increasing income. Existing research has shown that retirees are sensitive to the Social Security earnings test, which restricts the amount of earnings some beneficiaries can receive. However, little is known about the effects of other types of policies on post-retirement employment. Instead of restricting earnings, many public pension plans restrict the number of hours beneficiaries can work. I use return-to-work rules limiting the number of hours of employment in a state’s public pension plan and administrative data on employment and retirement to determine the rules’ effects on retirement decisions and post-retirement labor supply. I find that the increases in the maximum number of hours of post-retirement employment lead to no change in retirement benefit collection and to increases in part-time work among retirees. As such, these policies appear to be binding on the labor supply decisions of some employees. Policymakers should take this into account when designing policies aimed at extending work-lives or improving the health of pension systems.
    Subject(s): Economics of Aging ; Labor Studies ; Economics of Education
    Source: NBER Working Papers
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: High school vocational education has a controversial history in the United States, largely due to a perceived tradeoff between teaching readily deployable occupational skills versus shunting mostly disadvantaged students away from the educational and career flexibility afforded by general academic courses. We study the effects of a nationwide high school reform in Norway that aimed to move beyond this tradeoff. Reform 94, implemented in one step in the fall of 1994, integrated more general education into the vocational track, offered vocational students a pathway to college through a supplementary semester of academic courses, and sought to improve the quality of the vocational track through greater access to apprenticeships. We identify the impacts of the reform through a difference-in-discontinuity research design, comparing students born just before and after the reform’s birthdate eligibility cutoff to students born around the same cutoff in placebo years. Linking multiple administrative registries covering the entire Norwegian population, we find that the reform substantially increased initial enrollment in the vocational track, but with different subsequent outcomes for different groups. More men complete the vocational track at the expense of academic diplomas, but this has no detectable impact on college-going and leads to reduced criminal activity and higher earnings in adulthood, especially among disadvantaged men. For disadvantaged women, the initial surge in vocational enrollment leads to fewer high school dropouts and more vocational degrees with the college-prep supplement, and hence an increase in the share of college-eligible women; however, this translates into only small and insignificant increases in college completion and adult earnings. We show that men overwhelmingly pursue vocational education in higher-paying skilled trade fields, while women almost exclusively pursue vocational education in lower-paying service-based fields, which helps in interpreting some of these results. Overall, the reform succeeded at improving social mobility, particularly among men, but it somewhat exacerbated the gender gap in adult earnings.
    Subject(s): Labor Studies ; Economics of Education
    Source: NBER Working Papers
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of European social policy, 2018, Vol.28 (1), p.34-54
    Subject(s): Großbritannien ; Allgemein bildendes Schulwesen ; Bildung ; Spanien ; Vorschule ; Bildungspolitik ; Ausgaben ; Sozialausgaben ; Öffentliche Meinung ; Berufsausbildung ; Investition ; Internationaler Vergleich ; Dänemark ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Deutschland ; Frankreich ; Schweden ; Irland ; Italien ; Elementarbereich ; Hochschulbildung
    ISSN: 1461-7269
    ISSN: 0958-9287
    E-ISSN: 1461-7269
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Book
    Book
    2015
    ISBN: 0804796920  ISBN: 9780804796927 
    Language: English
    Description: Images of Chinese teens with their heads buried in books for hours on end, preparing for high-stakes exams, dominate understandings of Chinese youth in both China and the West. But what about young people who are not on the path to academic success? What happens to youth who fail the state's high-stakes exams? What many-even in China-don't realize is that up to half of the nation's youth are flunked out of the academic education system after 9th grade. Class Work explores the consequences for youth who have failed these exams, through an examination of two urban vocational schools in Nanjing, China. Through a close look at the students' backgrounds, experiences, the schools they attend, and their trajectories into the workforce, T.E. Woronov explores the value systems in contemporary China that stigmatize youth in urban vocational schools as "failures," and the political and economic structures that funnel them into working-class futures. She argues that these marginalized students and schools provide a privileged window into the ongoing, complex intersections between the socialist and capitalist modes of production in China today and the rapid transformation of China's cities into post-industrial, service-based economies. This book advances the notion that urban vocational schools are not merely "holding tanks" for academic failures; instead they are incipient sites for the formation of a new working class.
    Subject(s): Vocational education ; China ; Educational sociology ; Urban youth ; Vocational school students
    ISBN: 0804796920
    ISBN: 9780804796927
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
    Source: Ebook Central - Academic Complete
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Description: We explore the links between social capital and labor market networks at the neighborhood level. We harness rich data taken from multiple sources, including matched employer-employee data with which we measure the strength of labor market networks, data on behavior such as voting patterns that have previously been tied to social capital, and new data – not previously used in the study of social capital – on the number and location of non-profit sector establishments at the neighborhood level. We use a machine learning algorithm to identify important potential social capital measures that best predict neighborhood-level variation in labor market networks. We find evidence suggesting that smaller and less centralized schools, and schools with fewer poor students, foster social capital that builds labor market networks, as does a larger Republican vote share. The presence of establishments in a number of non-profit oriented industries are identified as predictive of strong labor market networks, likely because they either provide public goods or facilitate social contacts. These industries include, for example, churches and other religious institutions, police departments, fire and rescue services including volunteer fire departments, country clubs, mayors’ offices, chamber music groups, hobby clubs, and museums.
    Subject(s): Labor Studies
    Source: NBER Working Papers
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