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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-06-29, Vol.336 (6089), p.1704-1708
    Description: Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F₂ mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.
    Subject(s): Alkaloids ; Enzymes ; Capsules ; Genes ; REPORTS ; Biosynthesis ; Genomes ; Libraries ; Open reading frames ; Latex ; Morphinans ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Classical genetics, quantitative genetics, hybrids ; Biological and medical sciences ; Vegetals ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Pteridophyta, spermatophyta ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic - biosynthesis ; Multigene Family ; Genes, Plant ; Papaver - enzymology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Noscapine - metabolism ; Physiological aspects ; Gene silencing ; Genetic aspects ; Research
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 1354-4187 
    Language: English
    In: British journal of learning disabilities, 2015-12, Vol.43 (4), p.246-253
    Description: Accessible summary More people with learning disabilities are living longer. This is a good news story! But, the bad news is that they do not live as long as the rest of the population. Health and other services need to be better organised to ensure that people with learning disabilities get better healthcare and other services which would help them lead more healthy lives. Most older people with learning disabilities live at home with their Mum or Dad, who are getting older too and find life more difficult. Care and support services need to adapt as families' needs change, but often this does not happen. We need to know more about these problems, which people with learning disabilities and their family carers face as they get older. This article looks at what we know and what more we need to find out to help older people with learning disabilities and their family carers live happier and healthier lives. Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning disability, ageing and family and social care with a view to learning lessons from these separate fields, identifying possibilities for collaboration and identifying gaps in knowledge. Results: The article concludes that existing research in the fields of ageing and family and social care can add significantly to an understanding of the impact of ageing on people with learning disabilities and their carers but, to date, there has been little collaboration or sharing of knowledge between the three areas. Conclusion: The article concludes that further research is required to fully understand the impact of ageing on the quality of life of people with learning disabilities and their family carers and to inform the design and delivery of services. A useful and productive way forward would be learn from and to work with researchers in cogniscent fields, notably, but not only, in the fields of social gerontology and family and social care.
    Subject(s): Family ; learning (intellectual) disabilities ; health & social care policy and practice ; research ; Health care industry ; Learning disabilities ; Learning disabled ; Target marketing
    ISSN: 1354-4187
    E-ISSN: 1468-3156
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2014-06-09, Vol.5 (1), p.4091-4091
    Description: DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is a highly regulated process performed predominantly by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways. How these pathways are coordinated in the context of chromatin is unclear. Here we uncover a role for histone H3K36 modification in regulating DSB repair pathway choice in fission yeast. We find Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation reduces chromatin accessibility, reduces resection and promotes NHEJ, while antagonistic Gcn5-dependent H3K36 acetylation increases chromatin accessibility, increases resection and promotes HR. Accordingly, loss of Set2 increases H3K36Ac, chromatin accessibility and resection, while Gcn5 loss results in the opposite phenotypes following DSB induction. Further, H3K36 modification is cell cycle regulated with Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation peaking in G1 when NHEJ occurs, while Gcn5-dependent H3K36 acetylation peaks in S/G2 when HR prevails. These findings support an H3K36 chromatin switch in regulating DSB repair pathway choice.
    Subject(s): Chromatin - metabolism ; Acetyltransferases - metabolism ; Recombinational DNA Repair ; Schizosaccharomyces - genetics ; Schizosaccharomyces - metabolism ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase - metabolism ; DNA End-Joining Repair ; DNA Repair ; DNA, Fungal - metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins - metabolism ; Acetylation ; Histones - metabolism ; Methylation
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuro-oncology, 2016-05, Vol.127 (3), p.463-472
    Description: The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked.
    Subject(s): Neurology ; Spectroscopy ; Medicine & Public Health ; Diagnostics ; Glioma ; ATR-FTIR ; Oncology ; Serum ; Rapid ; Cancer ; Prognosis ; Follow-Up Studies ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Support Vector Machine ; Case-Control Studies ; Biomarkers, Tumor - blood ; Young Adult ; Algorithms ; Neoplasm Grading ; Adolescent ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Aged, 80 and over ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Cell Differentiation ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Gliomas ; Analysis ; Mortality ; Brain tumors ; Metastasis ; Diagnosis ; Health aspects ; Laboratory Investigation
    ISSN: 0167-594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2015-07-17, Vol.349 (6245), p.309-312
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.
    Subject(s): REPORTS
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    2018
    ISSN: 0002-5240 
    Language: English
    In: Algebra universalis, 2018-06, Vol.79 (2), p.1-31
    Description: For L a complete lattice L and $$\mathfrak {X}=(X,(R_i)_I)$$ X=(X,(Ri)I) a relational structure, we introduce the convolution algebra $$L^{\mathfrak {X}}$$ LX . This algebra consists of the lattice $$L^X$$ LX equipped with an additional $$n_i$$ ni -ary operation $$f_i$$ fi for each $$n_i+1$$ ni+1 -ary relation $$R_i$$ Ri of $$\mathfrak {X}$$ X . For $$\alpha _1,\ldots ,\alpha _{n_i}\in L^X$$ α1,…,αni∈LX and $$x\in X$$ x∈X we set $$f_i(\alpha _1,\ldots ,\alpha _{n_i})(x)=\bigvee \{\alpha _1(x_1)\wedge \cdots \wedge \alpha _{n_i}(x_{n_i}):(x_1,\ldots ,x_{n_i},x)\in R_i\}$$ fi(α1,…,αni)(x)=⋁{α1(x1)∧⋯∧αni(xni):(x1,…,xni,x)∈Ri} . For the 2-element lattice 2, $$2^\mathfrak {X}$$ 2X is the reduct of the familiar complex algebra $$\mathfrak {X}^+$$ X+ obtained by removing Boolean complementation from the signature. It is shown that this construction is bifunctorial and behaves well with respect to one-one and onto maps and with respect to products. When L is the reduct of a complete Heyting algebra, the operations of $$L^\mathfrak {X}$$ LX are completely additive in each coordinate and $$L^\mathfrak {X}$$ LX is in the variety generated by $$2^\mathfrak {X}$$ 2X . Extensions to the construction are made to allow for completely multiplicative operations defined through meets instead of joins, as well as modifications to allow for convolutions of relational structures with partial orderings. Several examples are given.
    Subject(s): Relation algebra ; 06D20 ; Complex algebra ; Heyting algebra ; Algebra ; Boolean algebra with operators ; Convolution ; Kripke frame ; Type-2 truth value algebra ; Mathematics ; 03B45 ; 03G10 ; Construction ; Boolean algebra
    ISSN: 0002-5240
    E-ISSN: 1420-8911
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 0884-8173 
    Language: English
    In: International journal of intelligent systems, 2016-03, Vol.31 (3), p.257-275
    Description: The algebra of truth values of type‐2 fuzzy sets is the set of maps from the unit interval to itself with convolution ordering. In applications of type‐2 fuzzy sets, the full algebra is seldom used, but rather certain subalgebras that satisfy useful algebraic properties. The algebra of truth values of type‐2 fuzzy sets is not itself a lattice, but the subalgebras considered here are lattices and, in fact, are complete distributive lattices. The subalgebras of special interest are the lattice of convex normal maps, the lattice of convex strongly normal maps, and the lattice of upper semicontinuous convex normal maps. We review and summarize some interesting properties of these subalgebras. A special feature of our treatment is a representation of these algebras as sets of monotone functions with pointwise order, making the operations more intuitive.
    ISSN: 0884-8173
    E-ISSN: 1098-111X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of biophotonics, 2014-04, Vol.7 (3-4), p.189-199
    Description: Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours in adults with over 9,000 people diagnosed each year in the UK. A rapid, reagent‐free and cost‐effective diagnostic regime using serum spectroscopy would allow for rapid diagnostic results and for swift treatment planning and monitoring within the clinical environment. We report the use of ATR‐FTIR spectral data combined with a RBF‐SVM for the diagnosis of gliomas (high‐grade and low‐grade) from non‐cancer with sensitivities and specificities on average of 93.75 and 96.53% respectively. The proposed diagnostic regime has the ability to reduce mortality and morbidity rates. (© 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Subject(s): filtrate ; spectroscopy ; ATR-FTIR ; rapid ; glioma ; infrared ; cancer ; serum ; ATR‐FTIR ; Reproducibility of Results ; Glioma - diagnosis ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Mass Screening - methods ; Young Adult ; Glioma - blood ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Adolescent ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Aged, 80 and over ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Drugstores ; Hospitals ; Gliomas ; Pharmacy ; Mortality ; Brain tumors
    ISSN: 1864-063X
    E-ISSN: 1864-0648
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Brain (London, England : 1878), 2006-05-02, Vol.129 (7), p.1884-1891
    Description: Oligodendroglial neoplasms with the −1p/−19q genotype are more indolent with longer survival and increased therapeutic responsiveness than those with intact 1p/19q, but the biological basis for these clinical differences is unclear. Recent research suggests that oligodendrogliomas with and without the −1p/−19q genotype may be distinguished by their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, suggesting possible differences in growth characteristics. This study examined the relationship between genotype and histological growth patterns of oligodendroglial neoplasms in association with MR imaging characteristics. Tumour imaging features assessed on MRI included sharp-versus-indistinct border, smooth-versus-irregular contour, homogeneous-versus-heterogeneous signal, contrast enhancement and paramagnetic susceptibility effect. Growth patterns (solid : mixed : infiltrative), tumour-margin transitions in cellularity and calcification were determined histopathologically. Allelic imbalance in chromosomes 1p36 and 19q13 was determined. Thirty-three oligodendrogliomas (25 with 1p/19q loss) and 53 oligoastrocytomas (18 with 1p/19q loss) were investigated. Solid, mixed or infiltrative growth patterns were seen in grade II and grade III tumours with or without 1p/19q loss, but infiltrative growth was more common in tumours with intact 1p/19q (χ2: P = 0.029). Grade III tumours were more likely to have a solid growth pattern (χ2: P = 0.046) associated with contrast enhancement (χ2: P = 0.011). Transition in cellularity at the radiological margin did not differ according to genotype. All cases with T1 or T2 signal homogeneity had intact 1p/19q. Tumours with sharp/smooth borders were more likely to have intact 1p/19q than those with indistinct/irregular borders (χ2: P 〈 0.001), but this was not related to histological growth characteristics. This study identified a group of oligodendroglial tumours with intact 1p/19q displaying distinctive MR imaging features that were unrelated to the histopathology characteristics.
    Subject(s): molecular genetics ; histopathology ; MRI ; brain tumour ; Neurology ; Radiodiagnosis. Nmr imagery. Nmr spectrometry ; Investigative techniques, diagnostic techniques (general aspects) ; Tumors of the nervous system. Phacomatoses ; Biological and medical sciences ; Nervous system ; Medical sciences ; Oligodendroglioma - genetics ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Brain Neoplasms - pathology ; Brain Neoplasms - genetics ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Genotype ; Male ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted - methods ; Allelic Imbalance ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 - genetics ; Oligodendroglioma - pathology ; Adult ; Female ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 - genetics ; Abridged Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0006-8950
    E-ISSN: 1460-2156
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: TechTrends, 2011-03, Vol.55 (2), p.31-38
    Description: Understanding the covert events surrounding the undergraduate students’ experience is essential to educators’ and counselors’ involvement in their success. Research into bullying behaviors has documented victims’ feelings of anger, sadness and poor concentration. Affordable technologies have propagated this concern into cyberspace. This exploratory study evaluated the instances of cyberbullying experienced by undergraduate students. Additionally, the forms of technology utilized in cyberbullying were queried. A 27-item survey was distributed to 120 undergraduate students in social science, technology and education departments. The majority of all respondents (54%) and 100% of male respondents indicated they knew someone who had been cyberbullied. The perpetrators primarily used cell phones, Facebook and instant messaging. The study results provide legitimate concerns regarding the undergraduate students’ exposure to cyberbullying and numerous areas for future research.
    Subject(s): cyberbullying ; cyberharrassment ; Learning & Instruction ; Education ; undergraduate university students ; Educational Technology ; technology and information systems ; bullying ; College students ; Universities and colleges ; Cyberbullying ; Instant messaging ; Bullying ; Studies ; Internet ; University students
    ISSN: 8756-3894
    E-ISSN: 1559-7075
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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