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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European journal of epidemiology, 2014-01-01, Vol.29 (12), p.871-885
    Description: Chronic obstructive lung diseases, like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have high prevalences and are a major public health concern. Chronic obstructive lung diseases have at least part of their origins in early life. Exposure to an adverse environment during critical periods in early life might lead to permanent developmental adaptations which results in impaired lung growth with smaller airways and lower lung volume, altered immunological responses and related inflammation, and subsequently to increased risks of chronic obstructive lung diseases throughout the life course. Various pathways leading from early life factors to respiratory health outcomes in later life have been studied, including fetal and early infant growth patterns, preterm birth, maternal obesity, diet and smoking, children’s diet, allergen exposure and respiratory tract infections, and genetic susceptibility. Data on potential adverse factors in the embryonic and preconception period and respiratory health outcomes are scarce. Also, the underlying mechanisms how specific adverse exposures in the fetal and early postnatal period lead to chronic obstructive lung diseases in later life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that interactions between early environmental exposures and genetic factors such as changes in DNA-methylation and RNA expression patterns may explain the early development of chronic obstructive lung diseases. New well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to identify specific critical periods and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic obstructive lung disease throughout the life course.
    Subject(s): Allergies ; Asthma ; Asthma - epidemiology ; Asthma in children ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cardiology ; Child ; Child development ; Childhood ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma ; Cohort studies ; Cohort study ; Diet ; Early origins ; Environmental Exposure - adverse effects ; Epidemiology ; Female ; General aspects ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Hematocrit ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Infectious Diseases ; Lung Diseases, Obstructive - epidemiology ; Lungs ; Medical sciences ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Methylation ; Miscellaneous ; Oncology ; Pneumology ; Pregnancy ; Public Health ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - etiology ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - prevention & control ; REVIEW ; Risk Factors ; RNA ; School age children ; Smoking - adverse effects ; Wheezing
    ISSN: 0393-2990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European journal of public health, 2006-11-23, Vol.17 (4), p.369-374
    Description: Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded with measured body weight and height. In addition, we studied the determinants and the consequences of differences between reported and measured data. Methods: Data on body weight and height of 864 4-year-old Dutch children born in 1996/1997 enrolled in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were collected via a questionnaire and a medical examination. Overweight was defined according to standard international age and gender specific definitions. Results: Mean differences between measured and reported body weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were small. Parents of children with a low BMI tended to over report body weight while parents of children with a high BMI tended to underreport body weight. Whereas 9.5% of the children were overweight according to reported BMI, the prevalence of overweight was 13.4% based on measured BMI. Over 45% of the overweight children according to measured BMI were missed when reported BMI was used. Conclusion: These findings suggest that overweight prevalence rates in children are underestimated when based on reported weight and height.
    Subject(s): Anthropometry ; BMI ; Body Weight ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Netherlands - epidemiology ; Obesity - epidemiology ; Overweight ; Parents ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Validation study
    ISSN: 1101-1262
    E-ISSN: 1464-360X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European journal of epidemiology, 2014-01-01, Vol.29 (12), p.911-927
    Description: The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. In total, 9,778 mothers were enrolled in the study. Data collection in children and their parents include questionnaires, interviews, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and biological samples. Efforts have been conducted for collecting biological samples including blood, hair, faeces, nasal swabs, saliva and urine samples and generating genomics data on DNA, RNA and microbiome. In this paper, we give an update of the collection, processing and storage of these biological samples and available measures. Together with detailed phenotype measurements, these biological samples provide a unique resource for epidemiological studies focused on environmental exposures, genetic and genomic determinants and their interactions in relation to growth, health and development from fetal life onwards.
    Subject(s): Biobank ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biological samples ; Biological Specimen Banks ; Blood ; Cardiology ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Childhood ; Children ; Cohort ; Cohort studies ; Data Collection - methods ; DNA ; Environment ; Environmental Exposure ; Epidemiology ; Female ; Fetal ; Fetal Development ; Fetus ; General aspects ; Genomics ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Infectious Diseases ; Male ; Medical genetics ; Medical sciences ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Miscellaneous ; Oncology ; Ophthalmology ; Physical Examination - methods ; Population Surveillance ; Predisposing factors ; Pregnancy ; Prospective Studies ; Public Health ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Research Design ; RNA ; Saliva ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Specimen Handling - methods ; STUDY UPDATE ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Urine
    ISSN: 0393-2990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European journal of epidemiology, 2012-01-01, Vol.27 (9), p.739-756
    Description: The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on six areas of research: (1) maternal health; (2) growth and physical development; (3) behavioural and cognitive development; (4) respiratory health and allergies; (5) diseases in childhood; and (6) health and healthcare for children and their parents. Main exposures of interest include environmental, endocrine, genetic and epigenetic, lifestyle related, nutritional and socio-demographic determinants. In total, n = 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. Response at baseline was 61 %, and general follow-up rates until the age of 6 years exceed 80 %. Data collection in mothers, fathers and children include questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome and epigenome wide association screen is available in the participating children. From the age of 5 years, regular detailed hands-on assessments are performed in a dedicated research center including advanced imaging facilities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cardiology ; Child ; Child Behavior - physiology ; Child care ; Child Development - physiology ; Childhood ; Children ; Cognition ; Cohort ; Cohort Studies ; Data Collection - methods ; Environment ; Epidemiologic Research Design ; Epidemiology ; Family Characteristics ; Female ; Fetal ; Fetal Development - genetics ; Fetal Development - physiology ; General aspects ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Growth Disorders - epidemiology ; Growth Disorders - etiology ; Growth Disorders - genetics ; Humans ; Infant ; Infants ; Infectious Diseases ; Male ; Maternal Health Services ; Medical sciences ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Miscellaneous ; Mortality ; Mothers ; Netherlands - epidemiology ; Oncology ; Physical Examination - methods ; Pregnancy ; Public Health ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Questionnaires ; Research Design ; School age children ; STUDY UPDATE ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Ultrasonography
    ISSN: 0393-2990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Thorax, 2018-02, Vol.73 (2), p.167-173
    Description: BackgroundEarly-life respiratory tract infections could affect airway obstruction and increase asthma risk in later life. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent.ObjectiveWe examined the associations of early-life respiratory tract infections with lung function and asthma in school-aged children.MethodsThis study among 5197 children born between April 2002 and January 2006 was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on physician-attended upper and lower respiratory tract infections until age 6 years (categorised into ≤ 3 and 〉3–6 years) was obtained by annual questionnaires. Spirometry measures and physician-diagnosed asthma were assessed at age 10 years.ResultsUpper respiratory tract infections were not associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Compared with children without lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years, children with lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years had a lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1:FVC and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75) (Z-score (95% CI): ranging from −0.22 (−0.31 to –0.12) to −0.12 (−0.21 to −0.03)) and an increased risk of asthma (OR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.19 to 2.59)). Children with lower respiratory tract infections 〉3–6 years had an increased risk of asthma (3.53 (2.37 to 5.17)) only. Results were not mediated by antibiotic or paracetamol use and not modified by inhalant allergic sensitisation. Cross-lagged modelling showed that results were not bidirectional and independent of preschool wheezing patterns.ConclusionEarly-life lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years are most consistently associated with lower lung function and increased risk of asthma in school-aged children.
    Subject(s): Adults ; Age ; Age Factors ; Airway management ; Airway obstruction (Medicine) ; Allergies ; Analgesics ; Analysis ; Antibiotics ; Asthma ; Asthma - epidemiology ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Children & youth ; clinical epidemiology ; Complications and side effects ; Diagnosis ; Epidemiology ; Female ; Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology ; Health risk assessment ; Humans ; Infant ; Infections ; Male ; Outcome and process assessment (Health Care) ; Population ; Prospective Studies ; Respiratory infection ; Respiratory syncytial virus ; Respiratory tract infections ; Respiratory Tract Infections - complications ; Respiratory Tract Infections - physiopathology ; Risk Factors ; Studies ; Usage ; Vital Capacity - physiology
    ISSN: 0040-6376
    E-ISSN: 1468-3296
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2011, Vol.127 (6), p.1505-1512.e14
    Description: Background Asthma has its origins in early childhood, but different patterns of childhood wheezing vary in their associations with subsequent asthma, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Novel wheezing phenotypes have been identified on the basis of analyses of longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC). It is unclear whether these phenotypes can be replicated in other birth cohorts. Objective To compare wheezing phenotypes identified in the first 8 years of life in the ALSPAC study and the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Methods We used longitudinal latent class analysis to identify phenotypes on the basis of repeated reports of wheezing from 0 to 8 years in 5760 children from the ALSPAC study and 2810 children from the PIAMA study. Phenotypes were compared between cohorts. Associations with asthma, atopy, BHR, and lung function were analyzed by using weighted regression analyses. Results The model with the best fit to PIAMA data in the first 8 years of life was a 5-class model. Phenotypes identified in the PIAMA study had wheezing patterns that were similar to those previously reported in ALSPAC, adding further evidence to the existence of an intermediate-onset phenotype with onset of wheeze after 2 years of age. Associations with asthma, atopy, BHR, and lung function were remarkably similar in the 2 cohorts. Conclusion Wheezing phenotypes identified by using longitudinal latent class analysis were comparable in 2 large birth cohorts. Study of genetic and environmental factors associated with different phenotypes may help elucidate the origins of asthma.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Age of Onset ; Allergic reaction ; Allergy ; Allergy and Immunology ; Asthma ; Asthma - classification ; Asthma - etiology ; Asthma - physiopathology ; Asthma in children ; ASTHMA PHENOTYPES ; Biological and medical sciences ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma ; Cohort Studies ; Comparative analysis ; DISEASE ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Fundamental immunology ; Genetic aspects ; Humans ; Immunopathology ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; latent class analysis ; LIFE LUNG-FUNCTION ; Longitudinal Studies ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Models, Biological ; Netherlands ; Phenotype ; Pneumology ; POLYMORPHISMS ; Pregnancy ; PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; Public health ; Respiratory Sounds - classification ; Respiratory Sounds - physiopathology ; RISK ; Sarcoidosis. Granulomatous diseases of unproved etiology. Connective tissue diseases. Elastic tissue diseases. Vasculitis ; SENSITIZATION ; SYMPTOMS ; United Kingdom ; Universities and colleges ; Wheeze
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2013, Vol.133 (1), p.59-67.e12
    Description: Background Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy might affect fetal lung development and subsequently predispose children to childhood asthma. Objective We sought to assess the associations of maternal psychological distress during pregnancy with early childhood wheezing. Methods We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 4848 children. We assessed maternal and paternal psychological distress at the second trimester of gestation and 3 years after delivery and maternal psychological distress at 2 and 6 months after delivery by using the Brief Symptom Inventory questionnaire. Wheezing in the children was annually examined by using questionnaires from 1 to 4 years. Physician-diagnosed ever asthma was reported at 6 years. Results Mothers with psychological distress during pregnancy had increased odds of wheezing in their children from 1 to 4 years of life (overall distress: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.32-1.93]; depression: OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.20-1.77]; and anxiety: OR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.15-1.67]). We observed similar positive associations with the number of wheezing episodes, wheezing patterns, and physician-diagnosed asthma at 6 years. Paternal distress during pregnancy and maternal and paternal distress after delivery did not affect these results and were not associated with childhood wheezing. Conclusion Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is associated with increased odds of wheezing in their children during the first 6 years of life independent of paternal psychological distress during pregnancy and maternal and paternal psychological distress after delivery. These results suggest a possible intrauterine programming effect of maternal psychological distress leading to respiratory morbidity.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Allergy and Immunology ; Anxiety ; asthma ; Biological and medical sciences ; Child ; child development ; Child, Preschool ; Cohort Studies ; depression ; Early childhood education ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Fundamental immunology ; Humans ; Immunopathology ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Maternal Exposure - adverse effects ; Medical sciences ; Miscellaneous ; Mothers - psychology ; Parenting ; Paternal Exposure - adverse effects ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology ; Pregnant women ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology ; preschool ; Prospective Studies ; psychological ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Respiratory Sounds ; Sarcoidosis. Granulomatous diseases of unproved etiology. Connective tissue diseases. Elastic tissue diseases. Vasculitis ; stress ; Stress (Psychology) ; Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2009, Vol.124 (5), p.903-910.e7
    Description: Background Clinicians have difficulty in diagnosing asthma in preschool children with suggestive symptoms. Objective We sought to develop a clinical asthma prediction score for preschool children who have asthma-like symptoms for the first time. Methods The Prevalence and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort followed 3,963 children for 8 years. Between 0 and 4 years of age, 2,171 (55%) children reported “wheezing,” “coughing at night without a cold,” or both. In these children possible predictor variables for asthma were assessed at the age respiratory symptoms were first reported. Asthma was defined as wheezing, inhaled steroid prescription, or a doctor's diagnosis of asthma at both age 7 and 8 years of age. Results Eleven percent of children with symptoms at 0 to 4 years of age had asthma at 7 to 8 years of age. Eight clinical parameters independently predicted asthma at 7 to 8 years of age: male sex, postterm delivery, parental education and inhaled medication, wheezing frequency, wheeze/dyspnea apart from colds, respiratory infections, and eczema. In 72% of the cases, the model accurately discriminated between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. A clinical risk score was developed (range, 0-55 points). Symptomatic children with a score of less than 10 points had a 3% risk, whereas children with a score of 30 points or greater had a 42% risk of asthma. Conclusion A risk score based on 8 readily available clinical parameters at the time preschool children first reported asthma-like symptoms predicted the risk of asthma at 7 to 8 years of age.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Allergens - immunology ; Allergy and Immunology ; Animals ; Asthma ; Asthma - epidemiology ; Asthma - immunology ; Asthma in children ; Biological and medical sciences ; birth cohort ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; children ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma ; cough ; Early childhood education ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Fundamental immunology ; Humans ; Immunopathology ; Incidence ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Information services ; Information services industry ; longitudinal ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Multivariate Analysis ; Netherlands - epidemiology ; Pneumology ; prediction ; Prevalence ; Prognosis ; Public health ; Pyroglyphidae - immunology ; Respiratory agents ; Risk Factors ; Sarcoidosis. Granulomatous diseases of unproved etiology. Connective tissue diseases. Elastic tissue diseases. Vasculitis ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; wheeze
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2013, Vol.133 (6), p.1599-1605.e2
    Description: Background Data from asthma diaries are frequently used as an end point in asthma studies; however, data on the validity of Web-based diaries are scarce. Objectives First, we examined the validity of a Web-based diary in assessing asthma control. Second, we determined the cutoff points for well-controlled asthma of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and calculated the minimal important difference for both tests. Methods Children with asthma, ages 4-18 years (n = 228) completed a 4-week Web-based diary, C-ACT, ACT, and an asthma-related quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. Results The completion rate of the Web-based diaries was 89%. The diary scores correlated strongly with C-ACT and ACT scores ( r  = −0.73, P  〈 .01; r  = −0.64, P  〈 .01, respectively) and the changes in diary scores correlated well with changes in C-ACT and ACT scores. The best cutoff points for well-controlled asthma were C-ACT ≥ 22 and ACT ≥ 23. The minimal important differences were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3-2.5) for ACT and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.1) for C-ACT, and −0.7 points/d (95% CI, −1.1 to −0.4) for the Web-based diary. Conclusions Our Web-based diary was valid for recording asthma symptoms. Cutoff points of ≥22 (C-ACT) and ≥23 (ACT) define well-controlled asthma. We recommend a 2 C-ACT and ACT points difference as minimally important.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adolescent ; Allergy and Immunology ; Asthma ; Asthma - diagnosis ; Asthma - drug therapy ; Asthma - physiopathology ; asthma diaries ; Asthma in children ; asthma-related quality of life ; Biological and medical sciences ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; childhood asthma control test ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma ; Exhalation ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Fundamental immunology ; GINA ; Health Records, Personal ; Humans ; Immunopathology ; Internet ; Internet diaries ; Male ; Medical sciences ; minimal important difference ; Nitric Oxide - analysis ; Patient Compliance ; pediatrics ; Pneumology ; Quality of Life ; Respiratory Function Tests ; Sarcoidosis. Granulomatous diseases of unproved etiology. Connective tissue diseases. Elastic tissue diseases. Vasculitis ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Treatment Outcome ; validity
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2013, Vol.133 (1), p.68-76.e4
    Description: Background It has been hypothesized that a disturbed early lung development underlies the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about whether subjects genetically predisposed to COPD show their first symptoms or reduced lung function in childhood. Objective We investigated whether replicated genes for COPD associate with transient early wheeze (TEW) and lung function levels in 6- to 8-year-old children and whether cigarette smoke exposure in utero and after birth (environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]) modifies these effects. Methods The association of COPD-related genotypes of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 genes with TEW, FEV1 , forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 /FVC ratio was studied in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort (n = 1996) and replicated in the Child, parents and health: lifestyle and genetic constitution (KOALA) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohorts. Results AGER showed replicated association with FEV1 /FVC ratio. TNS1 associated with more TEW in PIAMA and lower FEV1 in ALSPAC. TNS1 interacted with ETS in PIAMA, showing lower FEV1 in exposed children. HHIP rs1828591 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA and with ETS in ALSPAC, with lower lung function in nonexposed children. SERPINE2 , FAM13A , and MMP12 associated with higher FEV1 and FVC, and SERPINE2 , HHIP , and TGFB1 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA only, showing adverse effects of exposure on FEV1 being limited to children with genotypes conferring the lowest risk of COPD. Conclusion Our findings indicate relevant involvement of at least 3 COPD genes in lung development and lung growth by demonstrating associations pointing toward reduced airway caliber in early childhood. Furthermore, our results suggest that COPD genes are involved in the infant's lung response to smoke exposure in utero and in early life.
    Subject(s): Age of Onset ; Allergy and Immunology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Fundamental immunology ; Genes ; Genetic aspects ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genetic research ; Humans ; Immunopathology ; in utero exposure ; Infant ; Lung - growth & development ; Lung - physiopathology ; Lung diseases, Obstructive ; lung function growth ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Netherlands ; Pneumology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Public health ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - genetics ; Respiration - genetics ; Respiratory agents ; Respiratory Function Tests ; Respiratory Sounds - genetics ; Respiratory Sounds - physiopathology ; Sarcoidosis. Granulomatous diseases of unproved etiology. Connective tissue diseases. Elastic tissue diseases. Vasculitis ; Serpin E2 - genetics ; Serpin E2 - metabolism ; Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects ; transient early wheeze
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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