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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The British journal of educational psychology, December 2019, Vol.89(4), pp.600-615
    Description: Social and emotional learning (SEL) positively impacts children's school achievement and adult productivity. Successful implementation of SEL relies on teachers' pedagogical beliefs and practices. We examined whether the Teachers' SEL Belief Scale designed in the United States is adoptable in low-income countries such as Malawi in response to a growing interest in teacher practices in SEL but a lack of research instruments in these countries. The data used in this study were from 432 teachers working in 34 randomly selected primary schools in Zomba, a rural district in Malawi. We used multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis to investigate the factor structure and the invariance of the adapted scale across teachers with different characteristics such as gender and training experience in SEL. When invariant, we compared group mean differences among teachers in our sample by gender and training experience. We found that the Teachers' SEL Belief Scale measured a similar construct of pedagogical perceptions of SEL among the sampled teachers, and it functioned equivalently across teachers with different genders and training experiences. Female teachers had lower perceived institutional support for SEL instruction compared to male teachers. Untrained teachers had lower levels of pedagogical comfort as well as perceived support for SEL compared to trained teachers. Our findings validate the adaptability of the Teachers' SEL Belief Scale in low-income contexts such as Malawi. We did not find evidence of systematic bias relative to group membership. In addition, significantly lower pedagogical comfort and institutional support among female and untrained teachers suggest areas for policy intervention to improve teacher performance in SEL in Malawi.
    Subject(s): Malawi ; Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis ; Social and Emotional Learning ; Teacher Perceptions and Practices ; Emotional Regulation ; Rural Population ; School Teachers ; Social Learning ; Social Skills ; Psychometrics -- Standards
    ISSN: 0007-0998
    E-ISSN: 2044-8279
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: AIDS care, 01 May 2012, Vol.24(5), pp.562-576
    Description: Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors-sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use-and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for...
    Subject(s): Sub-Saharan Africa ; Quantitative Methods ; Prevention ; Social Cognition ; HIV/AIDS ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0954-0121
    E-ISSN: 1360-0451
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: McCoy, Dana Charles, Stephanie Simmons Zuilkowski, and Günther Fink. 2015. “Poverty, Physical Stature, and Cognitive Skills: Mechanisms Underlying Children’s School Enrollment in Zambia.” Developmental Psychology 51 (5): 600–614. doi:10.1037/a0038924.  ISSN: 1939-0599  ISSN: 00121649 
    Language: English
    In: Quick submit: 2015-11-05T15:07:26-05:00
    Description: Past research suggests robust positive associations between household socioeconomic status and children’s early cognitive development in Western countries. Relatively little is known about these relations in low-income country settings characterized by economic adversity, high prevalence of malnutrition and infectious disease, and relatively lower school enrollment. The present study develops and empirically evaluates an adapted model of early childhood development using a sample of 2,711 Zambian 6-year-olds. Early learning in and out of the home was found to explain much of the relation between socioeconomic status and children’s cognitive skills, including language, nonverbal reasoning, and executive function. Child height-for-age (a proxy for overall nutritional status and health) was also predictive of children’s cognitive skills and both early and on-time school enrollment. Implications for global child development, intervention, and future work are discussed
    Subject(s): Body Height ; Child ; Child Development ; Cognition ; Cohort Studies ; Developing Countries ; Executive Function ; Female ; Humans ; Language ; Male ; Poverty ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Students ; Zambia ; Cognitive Ability ; Poverty ; School Enrollment ; Childhood Development ; Cognitive Development ; Learning ; Socioeconomic Status ; Educational Psychology ; Cognition ; Poverty ; Zambia ; Child Development ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Empirical Study ; Quantitative Study ; Human ; Male ; Female ; Childhood (Birth-12 Yrs) ; School Age (6-12 Yrs) ; Zambia ; Article;
    ISSN: McCoy, Dana Charles, Stephanie Simmons Zuilkowski, and Günther Fink. 2015. “Poverty, Physical Stature, and Cognitive Skills: Mechanisms Underlying Children’s School Enrollment in Zambia.” Developmental Psychology 51 (5): 600–614. doi:10.1037/a0038924.
    ISSN: 1939-0599
    ISSN: 00121649
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  • 4
    In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, September 2014, Vol.84(3), pp.483-501
    Description: Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood malaria. Does intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) during early childhood reduce the risk of dropout? If so, does this effect vary by school type--government school versus madrassa? Sample: We use data from a 2001 follow-up of a 1985-1987 malaria prevention randomized controlled trial in the Gambia. The sample consists of 562 youth born between 1981 and 1986. Methods: We use discrete-time survival analysis to identify the impact of the intervention on dropout risk over time. Results: We find that IPT has a positive impact on dropout for government school students, but not for madrassa attendees. The difference was striking: in government schools, the odds of dropout in the treatment group were one third of those in the control group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that preventing early childhood malaria may reduce dropout at a relatively low cost. In this intervention, the drugs cost less than one dollar per year per child. While IPT is no longer practised in many countries due to concerns over drug resistance, these results support the conclusion that any type of effective malaria control programme protecting young children, such as consistent and correct use of bed nets, could improve educational attainment in areas where malaria is prevalent.
    Subject(s): Malaria ; Dropout ; The Ambia ; Madrassa
    ISSN: 0007-0998
    E-ISSN: 2044-8279
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cross-cultural psychology, January 2018, Vol.49(1), pp.82-98
    Description: The recent growth of schooling and urban residence represents a major change to the cultural context of child development across Africa. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between these social changes in the Gambia and the development of both cognitive skills and behaviors viewed by participant communities as the basis for success in village life, comprising six aspects of social responsibility. We compared these skills and behaviors in a sample of 562 Gambian adolescents (M age = 17.1 years) from 10 villages who had either attended a government primary school (n = 207; 36.8%) or a madrasa (n = 355; 63.2%). A total of 235 participants (41.8%) had spent a short time living in the Gambia’s major urban center (median visit duration of 4.2 months). This temporary urban residence was associated with improved performance in all six cognitive tests and a decrease in five of the six social responsibility scores, as rated by adults in the community. Government schooling...
    Subject(s): Africa ; Social and Emotional Learning ; Cognitive Ability ; Gambia ; Culture ; Urbanization ; Schooling ; Social Responsibility ; Developmental: Child/Adolescent ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-0221
    E-ISSN: 1552-5422
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cross-cultural psychology, April 2016, Vol.47(3), pp.341-354
    Description: Over the past decade, researchers have shown increased interest in examining the cognitive development of children in non-Western countries, often in connection with evaluations of health and educational interventions. However, many studies have used Western-developed measures without proper consideration of contextual validity. Across domains—from language to cognition to non-cognitive skills—this results in varying degrees of bias that call into question the findings of these studies. In this article, we focus in particular on the problem of differences in dimensionality perception between children in sub-Saharan Africa and those in Western countries. Although most Western children are exposed to extensive two-dimensional materials during early childhood, such as picture books and photographs, most rural African children are not. We therefore argue that assessments using two-dimensional stimuli, such as line drawings or patterns, may be inappropriate for capturing cognitive...
    Subject(s): Developmental ; Child/Adolescent ; Indigenous Psychologies ; Learning/Cognition ; Psychodiagnostics ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-0221
    E-ISSN: 1552-5422
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Review of Education, 2015, Vol.61(2), pp.153-171
    Description: In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue – should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students’ scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators – it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment. Évaluer la maîtrise de la lecture au Kenya : lecture à haute voix ou silencieuse ? – Dans les dernières années, l’initiative de l’Éducation pour Tous ne se préoccupe plus uniquement de l’accès à l’école et accorde davantage d’importance à la qualité de l’enseignement et apprentissage. Nombreuses interventions récentes visant l’amélioration de la qualité de l’éducation maintenant mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage de la lecture, qui est la compétence indispensable à la réussite scolaire ultérieure. Pourtant, malgré cette priorité accordée à la qualité de l’enseignement de la lecture dans les pays en développement, peu de recherches rigoureuses ont été effectuées sur un aspect essentiel, notamment l’évaluation des compétences des élèves. La présente analyse, qui exploite les données tirées de l’Initiative calcul et lecture au niveau primaire (Primary Math and Reading Initiative, PRIMR) du Kenya, constitue un premier pas en vue de combler cette lacune en traitant une question centrale de l’évaluation : faut-il évaluer les compétences en lecture au Kenya avec une méthode orale ou silencieuse ? Les auteurs ont comparé les résultats obtenus par des élèves de la deuxième année lors d’exercices de lecture orale et silencieuse en kiswahili et en anglais dans le cadre d’une évaluation des compétences fondamentales en lecture (Early Grade Reading Assessment, EGRA) et ils n’ont trouvé aucune différence statistique significative entre ces deux méthodes d’évaluation dans aucune des deux langues. Ils ont néanmoins constaté une corrélation plus marquée entre les résultats obtenus en lecture orale et ceux en compréhension du texte. L’évaluation de la lecture à haute voix présente un autre avantage pour les évaluateurs de programmes : elle permet de relever des informations sur les erreurs des élèves, et donc de recenser les mots lus correctement par minute, au lieu du nombre de mots simplement lus par minute. Les auteurs recommandent par conséquent d’évaluer, au Kenya et dans les contextes comparables, la fluidité en lecture des élèves par une lecture orale et non silencieuse.
    Subject(s): Literacy ; Assessment ; International education ; Comprehension ; Reading ; Oral reading fluency (ORF) ; Kenya
    ISSN: 0020-8566
    E-ISSN: 1573-0638
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Comparative Education Review, 01, 28 August May 2014 2014, Vol.58(3), pp.457-481
    Description: This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students’ risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated with lower risk of dropout over time.
    Subject(s): Dropouts ; Sierra Leone ; Risk ; War ; Students ; Social Support ; Youth ; Financial Support ; Schools ; Sociology of Education; Sociology of Education ; Article;
    ISSN: 00104086
    E-ISSN: 1545701X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Review of Education, Apr 2015, Vol.61(2), pp.153-171
    Description: In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral...
    Subject(s): Kenya ; Literacy ; Quality of Education ; International Education ; Reading Comprehension ; Developing Countries–Ldcs
    ISSN: 00208566
    E-ISSN: 15730638
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Language testing, January 2016, Vol.33(1), pp.75-98
    Description: Despite rapid growth in literacy-related programmes and evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa, little critical attention has been paid to the relevance of assumptions that underlie existing assessment methods. This study focuses on the issue of timing in the assessment of oral reading fluency, a critical component of successful reading (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2000; Pikulski & Chard, 2005). Within the context of the Primary Math and Reading Initiative, a randomized controlled trial of several instructional interventions in Kenya, timed and untimed Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) oral reading fluency and reading comprehension tasks were administered to 4385 students in 95 government and 125 informal schools. Using the data from the EGRA – whose administration has expanded within sub-Saharan Africa recently – we found that students did not perform significantly better on the assessments when they had...
    Subject(s): Assessment ; Comprehension ; International Education ; Kenya ; Literacy ; Reading ; Languages & Literatures
    ISSN: 0265-5322
    E-ISSN: 1477-0946
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