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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases, 2006-03-15, Vol.42 (6), p.836-842
    Description: Despite major advances in the treatment and survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), weight loss and wasting remain common problems. In the HIV-infected population, weight loss is associated with lower CD4+ cell counts and is an independent predictor of mortality. The etiology of weight loss and wasting is complex and multifactorial. We discuss, on the basis of a large longitudinal cohort that examined nutritional status in HIV infection, data on weight loss and wasting from the present clinical era. The definition, prevalence, and significance of HIV-associated weight loss and wasting are summarized. The etiology of weight loss is discussed for 2 main categories: inadequate nutrient intake and altered metabolism. Finally, studies of interventions to treat HIV-associated weight loss and wasting are discussed. This information is intended to raise awareness among health care providers of HIV-infected patients that weight loss and wasting remain important acquired immunodeficiency syndrome—defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART.
    Subject(s): HIV/AIDS ; Highly active antiretroviral therapy ; Body mass index ; Testosterone ; HIV infections ; HIV ; Nutrition ; Body weight ; Weight loss ; Diarrhea ; AIDS ; Antiviral agents ; Immunopathology ; Infectious diseases ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Viral diseases ; Viral diseases of the lymphoid tissue and the blood. Aids ; Biological and medical sciences ; Medical sciences ; Human viral diseases ; Immunodeficiencies. Immunoglobulinopathies ; Immunodeficiencies ; Antibiotics. Antiinfectious agents. Antiparasitic agents ; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active ; HIV Wasting Syndrome - etiology ; HIV Wasting Syndrome - therapy ; Weight Loss ; Humans ; Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Basal Metabolism ; Female ; Male ; HIV Wasting Syndrome - epidemiology ; Cohort Studies ; Causes of ; HIV infection ; Risk factors ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1058-4838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Experimental brain research, 2017-10, Vol.235 (10), p.2983-2996
    Description: Vibell et al. (J Cogn Neurosci 19:109–120, 2007) reported that endogenously attending to a sensory modality (vision or touch) modulated perceptual processing, in part, by the relative speeding-up of neural activation (i.e., as a result of prior entry). However, it was unclear whether it was the fine temporal discrimination required by the temporal-order judgment task that was used, or rather, the type of attentional modulation (spatial locations or sensory modalities) that was responsible for the shift in latencies that they observed. The present study used a similar experimental design to evaluate whether spatial attention would also yield similar latency effects suggestive of prior entry in the early visual P1 potentials. Intriguingly, while the results demonstrate similar neural latency shifts attributable to spatial attention, they started at a somewhat later stage than seen in Vibell et al.’s study. These differences are consistent with different neural mechanisms underlying attention to a specific sensory modality versus to a spatial location.
    Subject(s): Neurology ; Neurosciences ; Biomedicine ; P300 ; Attention ; Prior entry ; Temporal-order judgments ; Event-related potentials ; Visual ; Tactile ; Crossmodal ; Psychological research ; Perception ; Research ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0014-4819
    E-ISSN: 1432-1106
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Leukemia, 2017-01, Vol.31 (1), p.18-25
    Description: Recurrent molecular markers have been routinely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for risk assessment at diagnosis, whereas their post-induction monitoring still represents a debated issue. We evaluated the prognostic value and biological impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) and of the allelic ratio (AR) of FLT3-internal-tandem duplication (ITD) in childhood AML. We retrospectively screened 494 children with de novo AML for FLT3-ITD mutation, identifying 54 harboring the mutation; 51% of them presented high ITD-AR at diagnosis and had worse event-free survival (EFS, 19.2 versus 63.5% for low ITD-AR, 〈0.05). Forty-one percent of children with high levels of MRD after the 1st induction course, measured by a patient-specific real-time-PCR, had worse EFS (22.2 versus 59.4% in low-MRD patients, P〈0.05). Next, we correlated these parameters with gene expression, showing that patients with high ITD-AR or persistent MRD had characteristic expression profiles with deregulated genes involved in methylation and acetylation. Moreover, patients with high CyclinA1 expression presented an unfavorable EFS (20.3 versus 51.2% in low CyclinA1 group, P〈0.01). Our results suggest that ITD-AR levels and molecular MRD should be considered in planning clinical management of FLT3-ITD patients. Different transcriptional activation of epigenetic and oncogenic profiles may explain variability in outcome among these patients, for whom novel therapeutic approaches are desirable.
    Subject(s): fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 - genetics ; Disease-Free Survival ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute - diagnosis ; Prognosis ; Epigenesis, Genetic - genetics ; Humans ; Child, Preschool ; Retrospective Studies ; Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic ; Child ; Neoplasm, Residual - genetics ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute - genetics ; Molecular targeted therapy ; Gene mutations ; Gene expression ; Health aspects ; Innovations ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0887-6924
    E-ISSN: 1476-5551
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Leukemia, 2017-04, Vol.31 (4), p.974-977
    Subject(s): Daunorubicin - therapeutic use ; Prognosis ; Cytarabine - therapeutic use ; Humans ; Up-Regulation - genetics ; Methotrexate - therapeutic use ; Mutation - genetics ; Cyclophosphamide - therapeutic use ; Down-Regulation - genetics ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins - genetics ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - therapeutic use ; Mercaptopurine - therapeutic use ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion - genetics ; Vincristine - therapeutic use ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute - drug therapy ; Biomarkers, Tumor - genetics ; Asparaginase - therapeutic use ; Prednisone - therapeutic use ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute - genetics ; Translocation, Genetic - genetics ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0887-6924
    E-ISSN: 1476-5551
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 2010-07, Vol.468 (7), p.1773-1780
    Description: The majority of the 700,000 osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) that occur annually in the United States affect women. The total treatment costs exceed $17 billion and approximate the total costs of breast cancer ($13 billion) and heart disease ($19 billion). Balloon-assisted percutaneous vertebral augmentation with bone cement (kyphoplasty) reportedly reduces VCF-related pain and accelerates return of independent functional mobility. Kyphoplasty may decrease overall cost of VCF treatment costs by reducing use of posttreatment medical resources.We evaluated complications, mortality, posthospital disposition, and treatment costs of kyphoplasty compared with nonoperative treatment using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database.We identified 5766 VCFs (71% female) in patients 65 years of age or older with nonneoplastic VCF as the primary diagnosis in nonroutine hospital admissions; 15.3% underwent kyphoplasty. Demographic data, medical comorbidities, and fracture treatment type were recorded. Outcomes, including complications, mortality, posthospital disposition, and treatment costs, were compared for each treatment type.Women were more likely to be treated with kyphoplasty than were men. Patients undergoing kyphoplasty had comorbidity indices equivalent to those treated nonoperatively. Kyphoplasty was associated with a greater likelihood of routine discharge to home (38.4% versus 21.0% for nonoperative treatment), a lower rate of discharge to skilled nursing (26.1% versus 34.8%) or other facilities (35.7% versus 47.1%), a complication rate equivalent to nonoperative treatment (1.7% versus 1.0%), and a lower rate of in-hospital mortality (0.3% versus 1.6%). Kyphoplasty was associated with higher cost of hospitalization (mean $37,231 versus $20,112).Kyphoplasty for treatment of VCF in well-selected patients may accelerate the return of independent patient function as indicated by improved measures of hospital discharge. The initially higher cost of treatment may be offset by the reduced use of posthospital medical resources. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    Subject(s): Surgical Orthopedics ; Medicine & Public Health ; Sports Medicine ; Surgery ; Orthopedics ; Conservative Orthopedics ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Length of Stay ; Bone Cements ; Fractures, Compression - etiology ; Humans ; Spinal Fractures - etiology ; Spinal Fractures - surgery ; Male ; Treatment Outcome ; Vertebroplasty - economics ; Cementation ; Recovery of Function ; Spinal Fractures - rehabilitation ; Vertebroplasty - methods ; Health Care Costs ; Osteoporosis - complications ; Sex Factors ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Aged ; Postoperative Complications ; Databases, Factual ; Fractures, Compression - rehabilitation ; Fractures, Compression - surgery ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus ; Gender-specific Issues in Orthopaedic Surgery ; Symposium
    ISSN: 0009-921X
    E-ISSN: 1528-1132
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Leukemia, 2016-09-01, Vol.30 (9), p.1887
    Description: cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is frequently overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acts as a proto-oncogene; however, it is still debated whether such overactivation alone is able to induce leukemia as its pathogenetic downstream signaling is still unclear. We generated a zebrafish model overexpressing CREB in the myeloid lineage, which showed an aberrant regulation of primitive hematopoiesis, and in 79% of adult CREB-zebrafish a block of myeloid differentiation, triggering to a monocytic leukemia akin the human counterpart. Gene expression analysis of CREB-zebrafish revealed a signature of 20 differentially expressed human homologous CREB targets in common with pediatric AML. Among them, we demonstrated that CREB overexpression increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-[delta] (C/EBP[delta]) levels to cause myeloid differentiation arrest, and the silencing of CREB-C/EBP[delta] axis restored myeloid terminal differentiation. Then, C/EBP[delta] overexpression was found to identify a subset of pediatric AML affected by a block of myeloid differentiation at monocytic stage who presented a significant higher relapse risk and the enrichment of aggressive signatures. Finally, this study unveils the aberrant activation of CREB-C/EBP[delta] axis concurring to AML onset by disrupting the myeloid cell differentiation process. We provide a novel in vivo model to perform high-throughput drug screening for AML cure improvement.
    Subject(s): Pediatrics ; Analysis ; Cyclic adenylic acid ; Genetic aspects ; Gene expression ; Cell differentiation ; Protein binding
    ISSN: 0887-6924
    E-ISSN: 1476-5551
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 2007-01-01, Vol.19 (1), p.109-120
    Description: Abstract The speeding-up of neural processing associated with attended events (i.e., the prior-entry effect) has long been proposed as a viable mechanism by which attention can prioritize our perception and action. In the brain, this has been thought to be regulated through a sensory gating mechanism, increasing the amplitudes of early evoked potentials while leaving their latencies unaffected. However, the majority of previous research has emphasized speeded responding and has failed to emphasize fine temporal discrimination, thereby potentially lacking the sensitivity to reveal putative modulations in the timing of neural processing. In the present study, we used a cross-modal temporal order judgment task while shifting attention between the visual and tactile modalities to investigate the mechanisms underlying selective attention electrophysiologically. Our results indicate that attention can indeed speed up neural processes during visual perception, thereby providing the first electrophysiological support for the existence of prior entry.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Electrophysiology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Behavioral psychophysiology ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Visual Fields - physiology ; Visual Perception - physiology ; Humans ; Male ; Reaction Time - physiology ; Brain - physiology ; Electroencephalography - methods ; Evoked Potentials, Visual - physiology ; Analysis of Variance ; Photic Stimulation - methods ; Adolescent ; Brain Mapping ; Adult ; Female ; Spectrum Analysis ; Judgment - physiology ; Perception ; Research ; Modality effects ; Context effects (Psychology) ; Neurophysiology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0898-929X
    ISSN: 1530-8898
    E-ISSN: 1530-8898
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: MIT Press Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery, 2017-06, Vol.137 (6), p.805-811
    Description: Previous studies suggest that patients with larger disc herniations (greater than 6 mm) will have better outcomes following discectomy. This has not been validated in a large series of patients. We sought to empirically evaluate this relationship in a series of patients who had data collected prospectively as part of a randomized trial. This retrospective review included 63 consecutive adult patients who underwent a single-level, primary lumbar discectomy. Outcomes were VAS for leg and back pain and the modified oswestry disability index (MODI). Statistical tests were used to compare patients using different cutoffs of preoperative disc diameters and disc volume removed. Regression analysis was performed to determine if there was a relationship between outcomes and the measured parameters. While patients who achieved substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for MODI had larger disc diameters, this relationship was not found for leg or back pain for any of the measured parameters. Using 5, 6, 7, or 8 mm as a cutoff for disc diameter demonstrated no differences. Regression analysis did not demonstrate a significant relationship between disc volume removed and final MODI scores. While patients with larger disc herniations on average might have a greater likelihood of superior clinical outcomes, the previously suggested "6 mm rule" was not supported.
    Subject(s): Prospective Studies ; Humans ; Postoperative Period ; Organ Size ; Male ; Treatment Outcome ; Intervertebral Disc - diagnostic imaging ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Intervertebral Disc Displacement - diagnosis ; Adult ; Female ; Intervertebral Disc Displacement - surgery ; Diskectomy - instrumentation ; Back pain ; Regression analysis ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0936-8051
    E-ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 2011-08, Vol.469 (8), p.2237-2247
    Description: Bone quality should play an important role in decision-making for orthopaedic treatment options, implant selection, and affect ultimate surgical outcomes. The development of decision-making tools, currently typified by clinical guidelines, is highly dependent on the precise definition of the term(s) and the appropriate design of basic and clinical studies. This review was performed to determine the extent to which the issue of bone quality has been subjected to this type of process.We address the following issues: (1) current methods of clinically assessing bone quality; (2) emerging technologies; (3) how bone quality connects with surgical decision-making and the ultimate surgical outcome; and (4) gaps in knowledge that need to be closed to better characterize bone quality for more relevance to clinical decision-making.PubMed was used to identify selected papers relevant to our discussion. Additional sources were found using the references cited by identified papers.Bone mineral density remains the most commonly validated clinical reference; however, it has had limited specificity for surgical decision-making. Other structural and geometric measures have not yet received enough study to provide definitive clinical applicability. A major gap remains between the basic research agenda for understanding bone quality and the transfer of these concepts to evidence-based practice.Basic bone quality needs better definition through the systematic study of emerging technologies that offer a more precise clinical characterization of bone. Collaboration between basic scientists and clinicians needs to improve to facilitate the development of key questions for sound clinical studies.
    Subject(s): Surgical Orthopedics ; Medicine & Public Health ; Sports Medicine ; Surgery ; Orthopedics ; Conservative Orthopedics ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Reoperation ; Spinal Diseases - surgery ; Bone Density ; Femoral Neck Fractures - surgery ; Acetabulum - physiopathology ; Periprosthetic Fractures - surgery ; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip ; Bone Diseases - physiopathology ; Absorptiometry, Photon ; Bone Diseases - surgery ; Bone and Bones - physiopathology ; Rotator Cuff Injuries ; Orthopedic Procedures ; Fracture Fixation, Internal ; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee ; Medical colleges ; Universities and colleges ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus ; Bone Quality ; From Bench to Bedside ; Symposium
    ISSN: 0009-921X
    E-ISSN: 1528-1132
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of dental research, 2003-11, Vol.82 (11), p.929-932
    Description: Recent research shows that what people hear can influence what they feel. We investigated whether the perception of an electric toothbrush might also be affected by the sound that it makes. Participants were required to make stereotypical brushing movements with a standard electric toothbrush while they rated either the pleasantness or the roughness of the vibrotactile stimulation they felt on their teeth. The results demonstrate that the perception of the sensations experienced during toothbrush use were systematically altered by variations in the auditory feedback elicited by the brushing action. Participants reported that the toothbrush felt more pleasant and less rough when either the overall sound level was reduced, or when just the high-frequency sounds were attenuated. These results highlight the significant role that auditory cues can play in modulating the perception and evaluation of everyday products in use, and provide a paradigm for future study in this area.
    Subject(s): Cues ; Vibration ; Humans ; Toothbrushing - instrumentation ; Toothbrushing - psychology ; Male ; Sound ; Touch ; Patient Satisfaction ; Electricity ; Adult ; Female ; Auditory Perception ; Index Medicus ; Dentistry
    ISSN: 0022-0345
    E-ISSN: 1544-0591
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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