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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of communication, 2014-02, Vol.64 (1), p.167-192
    Description: This study measured arousal responses to multitasking by recording switches between content on personal computers over a day. Results showed that switches occurred every 19 seconds, more often than has been reported in previous research. Arousal was highest at the point of a switch with declines in skin conductance afterward. Switches were also preceded by a 12‐second period of increasing skin conductance. 2 new methods were used, one an original application that recorded screen shots, and another that measured changes in skin conductance during the day using a wrist sensor. Results are discussed in light of increasing use of single devices displaying multiple types of content, rather than multitasking that occurs when attention is divided between content on multiple devices.
    Subject(s): Communication ; Multitasking ; Multitasking (Human behavior) ; Personal computers
    ISSN: 0021-9916
    E-ISSN: 1460-2466
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 1521-3269 
    Language: English
    In: Media psychology, 2016-01-02, Vol.19 (1), p.49-71
    Description: Media psychologists have theoretical interests in both people and media, yet research investments considerably favor subjects over stimuli. An analysis of 306 studies, taken from the journal Media Psychology over the last 10 years, and from the most cited media experiments in other journals, shows that studies invested in tens of thousands of human subjects but the studies used small samples of media material that were often narrow and unrepresentative. The vast majority of experiments (65%) used single examples of media messages per condition yet they discussed large categories of real world media experiences. Analysis of specific selections showed that media represented in research are less variant, nuanced, and idiosyncratic than media found in the real world. Two categories of solutions are discussed. First, new statistical solutions promote more attention to media repetitions analyzed as random factors. Second, we review the advantages of uncommon research designs that emphasize stimulus investments, including single subject designs that collect intra-individual data and that construct unique models using the entirety, rather than samples, of messages that people experience.
    Subject(s): Consumer attitudes ; Decades ; Media ; Social psychology
    ISSN: 1521-3269
    E-ISSN: 1532-785X
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of marketing research, 2011-01-01, Vol.48 (SPL), p.S23-S37
    Description: Many people fail to save what they will need for retirement. Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by precommitting to decisions or elaborating the value of future rewards both can make decisions more future oriented. The authors explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards but with present and future selves. In line with research that shows that people may fail, because of a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves, the authors propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources to the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with their virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.
    Subject(s): Age ; Age progression (Forensic science) ; Analytical forecasting ; Consumer behavior ; Discounting ; future self-continuity ; immersive virtual reality ; intertemporal choice ; Marketing ; Methods ; Photographs ; Research ; Retirement ; Retirement income ; Retirement planning ; Retirement saving ; Rewards ; Savings ; Self ; Self-evaluation ; Studies ; Technology application ; temporal discounting ; Usage ; Virtual avatars ; Virtual reality
    ISSN: 0022-2437
    E-ISSN: 1547-7193
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Media psychology, 2018-07-03, Vol.21 (3), p.377-402
    Description: Personal computers allow multitasking among a greater variety of content than has ever been possible on a single device. We logged all switches made for 4 days for 30 people on personal computers used in natural environments. The median time before a switch occurred was 11 sec, shorter than previously observed. We also measured individual differences in appetitive versus defensive motivations to switch. Those people high on both motivations (Coactives) had the most switches per session. Risk takers had the shortest content segment lengths; risk avoiders and inactives were lower on the number of switches and anticipated arousal. Different patterns of content selection, in addition to switching behavior, were also observed for the different motivation activation groups. Results highlight how threads of experience that mix radically different short media segments may better define how people now search, process, and evaluate information. Implications in light of technological trends and individual differences are discussed.
    Subject(s): Personal computers
    ISSN: 1521-3269
    E-ISSN: 1532-785X
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environment and behavior, 2015-01, Vol.47 (1), p.102-115
    Description: Energy information for consumers can be complex and uninteresting. Games offer a compelling new context for home energy information that may engage consumers and change behaviors. Based on research showing the effectiveness of game elements used in serious contexts, we built a professional quality social game about energy use in a virtual home. In a laboratory experiment, playing the game for 30 min resulted in significant increases in energy efficient behaviors (e.g., turning off room lights) after play ended. In a field test of the same game, smart meter data showed a significant decrease in electricity usage compared with 30-day periods before and after play. Taken together, these results demonstrate that energy information embedded in an entertaining commercial-grade game can produce significant changes in energy behavior.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Behavior ; Energy consumption ; Energy efficiency ; Entertainment ; Experiments ; Game theory ; Games ; Social media ; Usage
    ISSN: 0013-9165
    E-ISSN: 1552-390X
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Human-computer interaction, 2015-09-03, Vol.30 (5), p.401-432
    Description: Existing research has investigated whether virtual representations perceived to be controlled by humans (i.e., avatars) or those perceived to be controlled by computer algorithms (i.e., agents) are more influential. A meta-analysis (N = 32) examined the model of social influence in virtual environments (Blascovich, 2002) and investigated whether agents and avatars in virtual environments elicit different levels of social influence. Results indicated that perceived avatars produced stronger responses than perceived agents. Level of immersion (desktop vs. fully immersive), dependent variable type (subjective vs. objective), task type (competitive vs. cooperative vs. neutral), and actual control of the representation (human vs. computer) were examined as moderators. An interaction effect revealed that studies conducted on a desktop that used objective measures showed a stronger effect for agency than those that were conducted on a desktop but used subjective measures. Competitive and cooperative tasks showed greater agency effects than neutral tasks. Studies in which both conditions were actually human controlled showed greater agency effects than studies in which both conditions were actually computer controlled. We discuss theoretical and design implications for human-computer interaction and computer-mediated communication.
    ISSN: 0737-0024
    E-ISSN: 1532-7051
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of communication, 2014-02, Vol.64 (1), p.167-192
    ISSN: 0021-9916
    E-ISSN: 1460-2466
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: This field study applies both state and trait based theories to explore the concept of media multitasking, operationalized as task-switching on a computer. A motivated cognition perspective makes predictions about long-term individual trait differences in content selection and pacing while multitasking. In contrast, mood management predicts that individuals have a tendency to manage short-term situations and maximize positive mood states during media use. This study employs two novel methods. The first accurately and objectively records switching activity in the field by logging screen content every five seconds for four days. The second advances traditional experience sampling methods by contextually surveying emotional state based on switching behavior. Results revealed extremely fast switching between content at the computer: median segment length was just 11 seconds, comparable to 19 seconds found in past research (Yeykelis, Cummings, & Reeves, 2014). Individuals with high baseline levels of appetitive activation (high ASA) switched more, cycled through content faster, had higher arousal at the computer, and preferred more entertainment content than individuals with low appetitive activation (low ASA). Evidence of mood management was found on one day of the experimental period: valence over a day increased for those with high ASA but decreased for those with low ASA. Novel visualizations showed that individual differences in content selection were substantial in the user-selected construction of a media day. Further, the data determined that switching and content predictors of valence and arousal varied greatly across individuals.
    Subject(s): Behavioral Sciences ; Cognitive psychology ; Computer science
    ISBN: 9798698513315
    Source: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global
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