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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Preventive medicine reports, 2016, Vol.4, p.397-403
    Description: Abstract Increasing consumption of pre-packaged foods is likely an important driver of diet-related diseases in China. From January 2013 it became mandatory to provide a standardised nutrient declaration on pre-packaged foods in China. We collected data on pre-packaged foods from large chain supermarkets in Beijing in 2013, examined the completeness of the nutrient declaration of core required nutrients and summarised the average nutritional composition of 14 different major food groups. We also illustrated the potential use of the data by comparing sodium levels. Photos of 14,279 pre-packaged foods were collected from 16 chain supermarkets in Beijing. Data for 11,489 products were included in the evaluation of nutrient declarations and data for 10,048 in the summary analysis of average nutritional composition. Compliant nutrient declarations were displayed by 87% of products with 88% of foods displaying data for each of energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate and sodium. Nutrients not required by the Chinese regulation were infrequently reported: saturated fat (12%), trans fat (17%) and sugars (11%). Mean sodium levels were higher in Chinese products compared to UK products for 8 of 11 major food categories, often markedly so (e.g. 1417 mg/100 g vs. 304 mg/100 g for convenience foods). There has been substantial uptake of the recently introduced Chinese nutrition labelling regulation which should help consumers to choose healthier foods. As the comparison against corresponding data about sodium from the United Kingdom shows, the nutrient data can also be used to identify broader opportunities for improvement of the food supply.
    Subject(s): Internal Medicine ; Nutrition labelling ; Nutrient declaration ; Nutritional composition ; Pre-packaged foods ; China ; Regular
    ISSN: 2211-3355
    E-ISSN: 2211-3355
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Circulation (New York, N.Y.), 2014-10-07, Vol.130 (15), p.1245-1253
    Description: BACKGROUND—Although omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) have been recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), controversy remains about benefits versus harms, including concerns over theorized proinflammatory effects of n-6 PUFA. We investigated associations of circulating n-6 PUFA including linoleic acid (the major dietary PUFA), γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid, with total and cause-specific mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based U.S. cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS—Among 2792 participants(aged ≥65 years) free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFA were measured at baseline using standardized methods. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, and total incident CHD and stroke, were assessed and adjudicated centrally. Associations of PUFA with risk were assessed by Cox regression. During 34 291 person-years of follow-up (1992–2010), 1994 deaths occurred (678 cardiovascular deaths), with 427 fatal and 418 nonfatal CHD, and 154 fatal and 399 nonfatal strokes. In multivariable models, higher linoleic acid was associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratio =0.87 (P trend=0.005). Lower death was largely attributable to cardiovascular disease causes, especially nonarrhythmic CHD mortality (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.32–0.82; P trend=0.001). Circulating γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid were not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality (eg, for arachidonic acid and CHD death, the extreme-quintile hazard ratio was 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.70–1.34; P trend=0.87). Evaluated semiparametrically, linoleic acid showed graded inverse associations with total mortality (P=0.005). There was little evidence that associations of n-6 PUFA with total mortality varied by age, sex, race, or plasma n-3 PUFA. Evaluating both n-6 and n-3 PUFA, lowest risk was evident with highest levels of both. CONCLUSIONS—High circulating linoleic acid, but not other n-6 PUFA, was inversely associated with total and CHD mortality in older adults.
    Subject(s): Linoleic Acid - blood ; Coronary Disease - blood ; Prospective Studies ; Fatty Acids, Omega-6 - blood ; Follow-Up Studies ; United States ; Humans ; Risk Factors ; Arachidonic Acid - blood ; Male ; Survival Rate ; Biomarkers - blood ; Coronary Disease - mortality ; Stroke - blood ; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - blood ; Regression Analysis ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - blood ; Female ; Aged ; Stroke - mortality ; Cohort Studies ; Usage ; Care and treatment ; Fatty acids ; Heart diseases ; Mortality ; Risk factors ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus ; Fatty Acids ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Epidemiology ; Omega-6
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 1524-4539
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: American Heart Association Journals
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Diabetes & metabolism journal, 2020, Vol.44 (3), p.436-445
    Description: BACKGROUNDTo examine the prospective association between higher blood pressure (BP) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. METHODSA total of 9,642 middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults (≥45 years old; 47.30% men) without diabetes from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were included for analyses. Participants were categorized into three groups: normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension, according to the 2010 Chinese Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. The incidence of T2DM was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis during two follow-up surveys conducted in 2013 to 2014 and 2015 to 2016. RESULTSDuring the 4-year follow-up, 429 participants (4.45%) developed T2DM, including 3.51% of the men and 5.29% of the women. The incidence rates of T2DM were 2.57%, 3.75%, and 6.71% in the normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education level, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, and dyslipidemia, both prehypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.77) and hypertension (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.64) were associated with increased risk of T2DM, compared to those with a normal BP. The ORs associated with T2DM were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.13) for an increase of 10 mm Hg in systolic BP and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10) for an increase of 5 mm Hg in diastolic BP. CONCLUSIONHigher BP is a risk factor for T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chines. It may be a potential target for diabetes prevention.
    Subject(s): Index Medicus ; Hypertension ; Blood pressure ; Original ; China ; Diabetes mellitus ; blood pressure ; diabetes mellitus ; china ; hypertension ; 내과학
    ISSN: 2233-6079
    E-ISSN: 2233-6087
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings, 2019-03-05, Vol.8 (1), p.4
    Description: Background: Breakfast is considered to be an essential meal for children, offering valuable nutrition for growing bodies [...]
    Subject(s): n/a
    ISSN: 2504-3900
    E-ISSN: 2504-3900
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2011, Vol.58 (20), p.2047-2067
    Description: We reviewed available evidence for cardiovascular effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption, focusing on long chain (seafood) n-3 PUFA, including their principal dietary sources, effects on physiological risk factors, potential molecular pathways and bioactive metabolites, effects on specific clinical endpoints, and existing dietary guidelines. Major dietary sources include fatty fish and other seafood. n-3 PUFA consumption lowers plasma triglycerides, resting heart rate, and blood pressure and might also improve myocardial filling and efficiency, lower inflammation, and improve vascular function. Experimental studies demonstrate direct anti-arrhythmic effects, which have been challenging to document in humans. n-3 PUFA affect a myriad of molecular pathways, including alteration of physical and chemical properties of cellular membranes, direct interaction with and modulation of membrane channels and proteins, regulation of gene expression via nuclear receptors and transcription factors, changes in eicosanoid profiles, and conversion of n-3 PUFA to bioactive metabolites. In prospective observational studies and adequately powered randomized clinical trials, benefits of n-3 PUFA seem most consistent for coronary heart disease mortality and sudden cardiac death. Potential effects on other cardiovascular outcomes are less-well-established, including conflicting evidence from observational studies and/or randomized trials for effects on nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Research gaps include the relative importance of different physiological and molecular mechanisms, precise dose-responses of physiological and clinical effects, whether fish oil provides all the benefits of fish consumption, and clinical effects of plant-derived n-3 PUFA. Overall, current data provide strong concordant evidence that n-3 PUFA are bioactive compounds that reduce risk of cardiac death. National and international guidelines have converged on consistent recommendations for the general population to consume at least 250 mg/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA or at least 2 servings/week of oily fish.
    Subject(s): Cardiovascular ; Internal Medicine ; cardiovascular disease ; omega 3 fatty acids ; review ; Medical colleges ; Prosthesis ; Genes ; Atrial fibrillation ; Anti-arrhythmia drugs ; Triglycerides ; DNA binding proteins ; Gene expression ; Essential fatty acids ; Risk factors ; Heart attack ; Unsaturated fatty acids ; Travel ; Tachycardia ; Heart beat ; Metabolites ; Implants, Artificial ; Physiological aspects ; Polychlorinated biphenyls ; Fish as food ; Chemical properties ; Heart diseases ; Public health ; Heart ; Nutrition ; Genetic transcription ; Epidemiology ; Requirements ; Stroke (Disease) ; Monounsaturated fatty acids
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2011, Vol.58 (20), p.2047-2067
    Description: We reviewed available evidence for cardiovascular effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption, focusing on long chain (seafood) n-3 PUFA, including their principal dietary sources, effects on physiological risk factors, potential molecular pathways and bioactive metabolites, effects on specific clinical endpoints, and existing dietary guidelines. Major dietary sources include fatty fish and other seafood. n-3 PUFA consumption lowers plasma triglycerides, resting heart rate, and blood pressure and might also improve myocardial filling and efficiency, lower inflammation, and improve vascular function. Experimental studies demonstrate direct anti-arrhythmic effects, which have been challenging to document in humans. n-3 PUFA affect a myriad of molecular pathways, including alteration of physical and chemical properties of cellular membranes, direct interaction with and modulation of membrane channels and proteins, regulation of gene expression via nuclear receptors and transcription factors, changes in eicosanoid profiles, and conversion of n-3 PUFA to bioactive metabolites. In prospective observational studies and adequately powered randomized clinical trials, benefits of n-3 PUFA seem most consistent for coronary heart disease mortality and sudden cardiac death. Potential effects on other cardiovascular outcomes are less-well-established, including conflicting evidence from observational studies and/or randomized trials for effects on nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Research gaps include the relative importance of different physiological and molecular mechanisms, precise dose-responses of physiological and clinical effects, whether fish oil provides all the benefits of fish consumption, and clinical effects of plant-derived n-3 PUFA. Overall, current data provide strong concordant evidence that n-3 PUFA are bioactive compounds that reduce risk of cardiac death. National and international guidelines have converged on consistent recommendations for the general population to consume at least 250 mg/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA or at least 2 servings/week of oily fish.
    Subject(s): Cardiology. Vascular system ; Biological and medical sciences ; Medical sciences ; Atherosclerosis (general aspects, experimental research) ; Blood and lymphatic vessels ; Animals ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - metabolism ; Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control ; Humans ; Risk Factors ; Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - therapeutic use ; Seafood ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, 2012, Vol.142 (3), p.614-625
    Description: Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially for DPA. Nonetheless, the present evidence suggests that EPA and DHA have both shared and complementary benefits. Based on current evidence, increasing consumption of either would be advantageous compared to little or no consumption. Focusing on their combined consumption remains most prudent given the potential for complementary effects and the existing more robust literature on cardiovascular benefits of their combined consumption as fish or fish oil for cardiovascular benefits.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Feeding. Feeding behavior ; Biological and medical sciences ; Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems ; Arachidonic Acid - metabolism ; Cardiotonic Agents - metabolism ; Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control ; Humans ; Ion Channels - drug effects ; Eicosapentaenoic Acid - administration & dosage ; Nutrition Policy ; Plant Oils - administration & dosage ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - metabolism ; Cardiovascular Diseases - metabolism ; Risk Factors ; Eicosapentaenoic Acid - metabolism ; Cardiovascular System - drug effects ; Docosahexaenoic Acids - administration & dosage ; Drug Synergism ; Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Animals ; Cardiotonic Agents - administration & dosage ; Ion Channels - metabolism ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Lipid Metabolism - drug effects ; Plant Oils - metabolism ; Hemodynamics - drug effects ; Oxidative Stress - drug effects ; Seafood - analysis ; Docosahexaenoic Acids - metabolism ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear - metabolism ; Fish oils ; Health aspects ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0022-3166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, Vol.61 (21), p.2194-2196
    Subject(s): Cardiovascular ; Internal Medicine ; Sects ; Medical colleges ; Hospitals ; Heart beat ; Atrial fibrillation
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Circulation research, 2018-01-19, Vol.122 (2), p.369-384
    Description: A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being. Flavonoids, for example, have effects on skeletal muscle, adipocytes, liver, and pancreas, and myocardial, renal, and immune cells, for instance, related to 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, endothelial NO synthase activation, and suppression of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) and TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4). Effects of dairy are similarly complex and may be mediated by specific amino acids, medium-chain and odd-chain saturated fats, unsaturated fats, branched-chain fats, natural trans fats, probiotics, vitamin K1/K2, and calcium, as well as by processing such as fermentation and homogenization. These characteristics of dairy foods influence diverse pathways including related to mammalian target of rapamycin, silent information regulator transcript-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors, osteocalcin, matrix glutamate protein, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, hepatic and adipose fatty acid oxidation and inflammation, and gut microbiome interactions such as intestinal integrity and endotoxemia. The complexity of these emerging pathways and corresponding biological responses highlights the rapid advances in nutritional science and the continued need to generate robust empirical evidence on the mechanistic and clinical effects of specific foods.
    Subject(s): Cardiovascular Diseases - diet therapy ; Cardiovascular Diseases - metabolism ; Metabolic Diseases - diet therapy ; Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control ; Humans ; Cardiovascular System - drug effects ; Animals ; Cardiovascular System - metabolism ; Metabolic Diseases - metabolism ; Flavonoids - metabolism ; Flavonoids - administration & dosage ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; Metabolic Diseases - prevention & control ; Energy Metabolism - physiology ; Energy Metabolism - drug effects ; Dairy Products ; Care and treatment ; Dairy products ; Flavonoids ; Flavones ; Bioflavonoids ; Nutritional aspects ; Research ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Protein kinases ; Index Medicus ; cardiovascular disease ; nutrition ; flavonoids ; dairy ; diabetes
    ISSN: 0009-7330
    E-ISSN: 1524-4571
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: American Heart Association Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 2020-10, Vol.44 (5), p.419-420
    Description: Objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) has set a goal of prompt, complete and sustained elimination of industrially produced trans fats (iTFA) in the global food supply by 2023. We aimed to assess the number of products in the Australian packaged food supply likely to contain iTFA. Methods: Using a large pre‐packaged food monitoring database collected in 2018, we searched the ingredient list using specific and non‐specific ingredient terms to identify products likely to contain iTFA. Results: In total, 28,349 foods were included for analysis: 131 (0.5%) products contained specific ingredients indicative of iTFA, and 1,626 (5.7%) products contained non‐specific ingredients that may indicate the presence of iTFA. Bread and bakery products, cereal and grain products and confectionery were the top three food groups that contained specific ingredients indicative of iTFA. Only 19 (14.5%) products with specific iTFA‐indicating ingredients declared the amount of trans fats. Conclusions and implications for public health: Compared to other countries, the use of iTFA‐containing ingredients is low in Australia, but repeated exposure to products containing iTFA could still put consumers at risk of excessive consumption. Legislation to eliminate iTFA should be considered to minimise the exposure to these harmful chemicals.
    Subject(s): nutrition labelling ; trans fats ; pre‐packaged food ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1326-0200
    E-ISSN: 1753-6405
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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