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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2016-08-23, Vol.7 (1), p.12558-12558
    Description: Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km(2) resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% the planet's land surface is experiencing measurable human pressures. Moreover, pressures are perversely intense, widespread and rapidly intensifying in places with high biodiversity. Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains.
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Smithsonian Digital Repository
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2018-05-18, Vol.360 (6390), p.788-791
    Description: In an era of massive biodiversity loss, the greatest conservation success story has been the growth of protected land globally. Protected areas are the primary defense against biodiversity loss, but extensive human activity within their boundaries can undermine this. Using the most comprehensive global map of human pressure, we show that 6 million square kilometers (32.8%) of protected land is under intense human pressure. For protected areas designated before the Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1992, 55% have since experienced human pressure increases. These increases were lowest in large, strict protected areas, showing that they are potentially effective, at least in some nations. Transparent reporting on human pressure within protected areas is now critical, as are global targets aimed at efforts required to halt biodiversity loss.
    Subject(s): Biodiversity ; Forecasts and trends ; Human beings ; Influence on nature ; Landscape ; Pressure ; Protected areas ; Social aspects ; Wildcats ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2018-11-05, Vol.9 (1), p.4621-9
    Description: Predicting how species respond to human pressure is essential to anticipate their decline and identify appropriate conservation strategies. Both human pressure and extinction risk change over time, but their inter-relationship is rarely considered in extinction risk modelling. Here we measure the relationship between the change in terrestrial human footprint (HFP)-representing cumulative human pressure on the environment-and the change in extinction risk of the world's terrestrial mammals. We find the values of HFP across space, and its change over time, are significantly correlated to trends in species extinction risk, with higher predictive importance than environmental or life-history variables. The anthropogenic conversion of areas with low pressure values (HFP 〈 3 out of 50) is the most significant predictor of change in extinction risk, but there are biogeographical variations. Our framework, calibrated on past extinction risk trends, can be used to predict the impact of increasing human pressure on biodiversity.
    Subject(s): Animal Distribution ; Animals ; Anthropogenic factors ; Biodiversity ; Biological Evolution ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Endangered & extinct species ; Environment ; Extinction ; Extinction, Biological ; Footprints ; Human influences ; Humans ; Life history ; Low pressure ; Mammals ; Models, Biological ; Models, Statistical ; Phylogeography ; Population Density ; Population Growth ; Pressure ; Risk ; Risk Assessment ; Species extinction ; Species Specificity ; Terrestrial environments ; Trends
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2015-12-04, Vol.350 (6265), p.1255-1258
    Description: Migratory species depend on a suite of interconnected sites. Threats to unprotected links in these chains of sites are driving rapid population declines of migrants around the world, yet the extent to which different parts of the annual cycle are protected remains unknown. We show that just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds. This discrepancy is driven by protected area placement that does not cover the full annual cycle of migratory species, indicating that global efforts toward coordinated conservation planning for migrants are yet to bear fruit. Better-targeted investment and enhanced coordination among countries are needed to conserve migratory species throughout their migratory cycle.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Animal Migration ; Animals ; Bird migration ; Birds ; Breeding ; Conservation ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Financing ; Fruits ; Investment ; Links ; Methods ; Migratory birds ; Placement ; Population Dynamics ; Populations ; Protection and preservation ; REPORTS ; Seasons ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Current biology, 2016-11-07, Vol.26 (21), p.2929-2934
    Description: Humans have altered terrestrial ecosystems for millennia [1], yet wilderness areas still remain as vital refugia where natural ecological and evolutionary processes operate with minimal human disturbance [2–4], underpinning key regional- and planetary-scale functions [5, 6]. Despite the myriad values of wilderness areas—as critical strongholds for endangered biodiversity [7], for carbon storage and sequestration [8], for buffering and regulating local climates [9], and for supporting many of the world’s most politically and economically marginalized communities [10]—they are almost entirely ignored in multilateral environmental agreements. This is because they are assumed to be relatively free from threatening processes and therefore are not a priority for conservation efforts [11, 12]. Here we challenge this assertion using new comparable maps of global wilderness following methods established in the original “last of the wild” analysis [13] to examine the change in extent since the early 1990s. We demonstrate alarming losses comprising one-tenth (3.3 million km2) of global wilderness areas over the last two decades, particularly in the Amazon (30%) and central Africa (14%). We assess increases in the protection of wilderness over the same time frame and show that these efforts are failing to keep pace with the rate of wilderness loss, which is nearly double the rate of protection. Our findings underscore an immediate need for international policies to recognize the vital values of wilderness and the unprecedented threats they face and to underscore urgent large-scale, multifaceted actions needed to maintain them. •Globally important wilderness areas are ignored in conservation policy•We reveal that extensive losses of wilderness have occurred in the last two decades•Efforts aimed at protecting wilderness areas are failing to keep pace with its loss•International policy must recognize the actions needed to maintain wilderness areas Watson et al. discover that the Earth’s wilderness areas are disappearing at a rate that has significantly outpaced their protection over the past two decades. Despite their ecological, climatological, and cultural importance, wilderness areas are ignored in multilateral environmental agreements, highlighting the need for urgent global policy attention.
    Subject(s): Africa, Central ; Analysis ; Biological diversity conservation ; Climatic changes ; conservation biology ; Conservation of Natural Resources - legislation & jurisprudence ; Convention for Biological Diversity ; Ecosystem ; Environmental associations ; Environmental law, International ; environmental mapping ; Environmental Policy - legislation & jurisprudence ; Environmental protection ; Global temperature changes ; habitat intactness ; human footprint ; remote sensing ; South America ; spatial planning ; spatial prioritization ; Wilderness ; Wilderness areas ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2014-11-06, Vol.515 (7525), p.67-73
    Description: Originally conceived to conserve iconic landscapes and wildlife, protected areas are now expected to achieve an increasingly diverse set of conservation, social and economic objectives. The amount of land and sea designated as formally protected has markedly increased over the past century, but there is still a major shortfall in political commitments to enhance the coverage and effectiveness of protected areas. Financial support for protected areas is dwarfed by the benefits that they provide, but these returns depend on effective management. A step change involving increased recognition, funding, planning and enforcement is urgently needed if protected areas are going to fulfil their potential.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms ; Conservation of Natural Resources - economics ; Conservation of Natural Resources - legislation & jurisprudence ; Conservation of Natural Resources - statistics & numerical data ; Ecology - economics ; Ecology - legislation & jurisprudence ; Ecology - statistics & numerical data ; Economic aspects ; Ecosystem ; Federal Government ; Protected areas ; Social aspects ; Wilderness ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2016-11-11, Vol.354 (6313), p.719-719
    Description: Most ecological processes now show responses to anthropogenic climate change. In terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, species are changing genetically, physiologically, morphologically, and phenologically and are shifting their distributions, which affects food webs and results in new interactions. Disruptions scale from the gene to the ecosystem and have documented consequences for people, including unpredictable fisheries and crop yields, loss of genetic diversity in wild crop varieties, and increasing impacts of pests and diseases. In addition to the more easily observed changes, such as shifts in flowering phenology, we argue that many hidden dynamics, such as genetic changes, are also taking place. Understanding shifts in ecological processes can guide human adaptation strategies. In addition to reducing greenhouse gases, climate action and policy must therefore focus equally on strategies that safeguard biodiversity and ecosystems.
    Subject(s): Acclimatization ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; Climate ; Climate Change ; Crops ; Crops, Agricultural - genetics ; Ecology ; Ecosystems ; Fisheries ; Food Chain ; Fresh Water ; Genes ; Genetic Variation ; Genetics ; Humans ; Population Dynamics ; REVIEW SUMMARY ; Sex Ratio ; Strategy
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2019-04-19, Vol.364 (6437), p.239-241
    Description: Outcome-based targets are needed to achieve biodiversity goals.
    Subject(s): Biodiversity ; Conservation ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Oceans ; Protected areas ; Science & Technology ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2018-11, Vol.563 (7729), p.27-30
    Description: Global conservation policy must stop the disappearance of Earth's few intact ecosystems, warn James E. M. Watson, James R. Allan and colleagues.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources - legislation & jurisprudence ; Conservation of Natural Resources - trends ; Ecological restoration ; Ecosystem ; Ecosystems ; Environmental Policy - legislation & jurisprudence ; Environmental Policy - trends ; Extinction, Biological ; Global Warming - prevention & control ; Human Activities - legislation & jurisprudence ; International aspects ; International Cooperation - legislation & jurisprudence ; Oceans and Seas ; Planning ; Protection and preservation ; Wilderness ; Wilderness areas
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Scientific data, 2016-08-23, Vol.3 (1), p.160067-160067
    Description: Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and 8) navigable waterways. Pressures were then overlaid to create the standardized Human Footprint maps for all non-Antarctic land areas. A validation analysis using scored pressures from 3114×1 km(2) random sample plots revealed strong agreement with the Human Footprint maps. We anticipate that the Human Footprint maps will find a range of uses as proxies for human disturbance of natural systems. The updated maps should provide an increased understanding of the human pressures that drive macro-ecological patterns, as well as for tracking environmental change and informing conservation science and application.
    Subject(s): Conservation biology ; Data Descriptor ; Environmental chemistry
    ISSN: 2052-4463
    E-ISSN: 2052-4463
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
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