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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2017-04, Vol.31 (2), p.467-478
    Description: Differences in temporal dynamics of radial growth and use of stem water reserves in co-occurring saplings and mature conifers are caused by soil water availability and canopy structure.High-resolution time series of stem radius variations (SRVs) record fluctuations in tree water status and temporal dynamics of radial growth. The focus of this study was to evaluate the influence of tree size (i.e., saplings vs. mature trees) and soil water availability on SRVs. Dendrometers were installed on Pinus sylvestris at an open xeric site and on Picea abies at a dry-mesic site, and the SRVs of co-occurring saplings and mature trees were analyzed during two consecutive years. The results revealed that irrespective of tree size, radial growth in P. sylvestris occurred in April–May, whereas the main growing period of P. abies was April–June (saplings) and May–June (mature trees). Linear relationships between growth-detrended SRVs (SSRVs) of mature trees vs. saplings and climate-SSRV relationships revealed greater use of water reserves by mature P. abies compared with saplings. This suggests that the strikingly depressed growth of saplings compared with mature P. abies was caused by source limitation, i.e., restricted photosynthesis beneath the dense canopy. In contrast, a tree size effect on the annual increment, SSRV, and climate–SSRV relationships was less obvious in P. sylvestris, indicating comparable water status in mature trees and saplings under an open canopy. The results of this study provided evidence that water availability and a canopy atmosphere can explain differences in temporal dynamics of radial growth and use of stem water reserves among mature trees and saplings.
    Subject(s): Plant Anatomy/Development ; Dendrometer ; Stem radial variation ; Conifer ; Radial growth ; Plant Physiology ; Mature trees ; Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Sapling ; Forestry ; Agriculture ; Plant Sciences ; Usage ; Droughts ; Growth ; Soil moisture ; Analysis ; Phytochemistry ; Photosynthesis ; Original
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Canadian journal of forest research, 2013, Vol.43 (7), p.609-618
    Description: Within dry inner Alpine environments, climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated the climate sensitivity of radial growth and the establishment of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from 〉220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean ages of 121 and 174 years) had highly significant responses to May–June precipitation, young trees (mean ages 28 and 53 years) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r 2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. The synchronicity found among trends in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that, although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought-prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry–mesic sites.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Forestry ; Spruce ; Coniferous forests ; Vegetation and climate ; Environmental aspects ; Physiological aspects ; Research ; Regeneration (Biology)
    ISSN: 0045-5067
    E-ISSN: 1208-6037
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2013-02, Vol.27 (1), p.61-69
    Description: We applied dendroclimatological techniques to determine long-term stationarity of climate–growth relationships and recent growth trends of three widespread coniferous tree species of the central Austrian Alps, which grow intermixed at dry mesic sites within a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl). Time series of annual increments were developed from 〉120 mature trees of Picea abies, Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris. Calculation of response functions for the period 1911–2009 revealed significant differences among species in response to climate variables. While precipitation in May–June favored radial growth of P. abies and L. decidua, P. sylvestris growth mainly depended on April–May precipitation. P. abies growth was most sensitive to May–June temperature (inverse relationship). Moving response function coefficients indicated increasing drought sensitivity of all species in recent decades, which is related to a decline in soil moisture availability due to increasing stand density and tree size and higher evapotranspiration rates in a warmer climate. While recent trend in basal area increment (BAI) of L. decidua distinctly declined implying high vulnerability to drought stress, moderately shade-tolerant P. abies showed steadily increasing BAI and quite constant BAI was maintained in drought-adapted P. sylvestris, although at the lowest level of all species. We conclude that synergistic effects of stand dynamics and climate warming increased drought sensitivity, which changed the competitive strength of co-occurring conifers due to differences in the inherent adaptive capacity.
    Subject(s): Plant Anatomy/Development ; Dendroclimatology ; Basal area increment ; Radial growth ; Plant Physiology ; Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Moving response function ; Inner Alpine valley ; Forestry ; Agriculture ; Plant Sciences ; Tree-ring analysis ; Paleoclimatology ; Droughts ; Soil moisture ; Rain and rainfall
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2010-06-25, Vol.24 (5), p.887-898
    Description: Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p 〈 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p 〈 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p 〈 0.05, and r = 0.306, p 〈 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate.
    Subject(s): Dendroclimatology ; Soil moisture ; Droughts ; Rain and rainfall ; Humidity ; Dendrometer ; Drought ; Dry inner Alpine valley ; Pinus sylvestris ; Xylem cell analysis ; Radial growth
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2018-03-27, Vol.9, p.392-392
    Description: Carbon (C) availability plays an essential role in tree growth and wood formation. We evaluated the hypothesis that a decrease in C availability (i) triggers mobilization of C reserves in the coarse roots of Picea abies to maintain growth and (ii) causes modification of wood structure notably under drought. The 6-year-old saplings were subjected to two levels of soil moisture (watered versus drought conditions) and root C status was manipulated by physically blocking phloem transport in the stem at three girdling dates (GDs). Stem girdling was done before the onset of bud break [day of the year (doy) 77], during vigorous aboveground shoot and radial stem growth (GD doy 138), and after cessation of shoot growth (GD doy 190). The effect of blockage of C transport on root growth, root phenology, and wood anatomical traits [cell lumen diameter (CLD) and cell wall thickness (CWT)] in earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) was determined. To evaluate changes in belowground C status caused by girdling, non-structural carbohydrates (soluble sugars and starch) in coarse roots were determined at the time of girdling and after the growing season. Although fine root mass significantly decreased in response to blockage of phloem C transport, the phenology of root elongation growth was not affected. Surprisingly, radial root growth and CLD of EW tracheids in coarse roots were strikingly increased in drought-stressed trees, when girdling occurred before bud break or during aboveground stem growth. In watered trees, the growth response to girdling was less distinct, but the CWT of EW significantly increased. Starch reserves in the roots of girdled trees significantly decreased in both soil moisture treatments and at all GDs. We conclude that (i) radial growth and wood development in coarse roots of P. abies saplings are not only dependent on current photosynthates, and (ii) blockage of phloem transport induces physiological changes that outweigh drought effects imposed on root cambial activity and cell differentiation.
    Subject(s): Droughts ; Soil moisture ; Plant Science ; drought ; girdling ; Norway spruce ; carbon allocation ; root growth ; wood anatomy
    ISSN: 1664-462X
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2014-08, Vol.28 (4), p.1161-1171
    Description: Variability in xylem and phloem phenology among years and species is caused by contrasting temperatures prevailing at the start of the growing season and species-specific sensitivity to drought. The focus of this study was to determine temporal dynamics of xylem and phloem formation in co-occurring deciduous and evergreen coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). By repeated micro-sampling of the stem, timing of key phenological dates of xylem and phloem formation was compared among mature Pinus sylvestris, Larix decidua and Picea abies during two consecutive years. Xylem formation in P. sylvestris started in mid and late April 2011 and 2012, respectively, and in both years about 2 week later in P. abies and L. decidua. Phloem formation preceded xylem formation on average by 3 week in P. sylvestris, and c. 5 week in P. abies and L. decidua. Based on modeled cell number increase, tracheid production peaked between early through late May 2011 and late May through mid-June 2012. Phloem formation culminated between late April and mid-May in 2011 and in late May 2012. Production of xylem and phloem cells continued for about 4 and 5–6 months, respectively. High variability in xylem increment among years and species is related to exogenous control by climatic factors and species-specific sensitivity to drought, respectively. On the other hand, production of phloem cells was quite homogenous and showed asymptotic decrease with respect to xylem cells indicating endogenous control. Results indicate that onset and culmination of xylem and phloem formation are controlled by early spring temperature, whereby strikingly advanced production of phloem compared to xylem cells suggests lower temperature requirement for initiation of the former.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Plant Anatomy/Development ; Forestry ; Agriculture ; Plant Physiology ; Intra-annual radial growth ; Xylogenesis ; Cambium ; Drought ; Phloem formation ; Plant Sciences ; Droughts ; Analysis ; Alpine ecosystems ; Original Paper
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International journal of biometeorology, 2015-04, Vol.59 (4), p.417-426
    Description: We monitored dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW) and needle water potential (Ψ) during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m above sea level, Tyrol, Austria), where Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Larix decidua form mixed stands. ΔW was extracted from stem circumference variations, which were continuously recorded by electronic band dendrometers (six trees per species) and correlations with environmental variables were performed. Results revealed that (i) ΔW reached highest and lowest values in P. abies and L. decidua, respectively, while mean minimum water potential (Ψ ea) amounted to −3.0 MPa in L. decidua and −1.8 MPa in P. abies and P. sylvestris. (ii) ΔW and Ψ ea were significantly correlated in P. abies (r = 0.630; P = 0.038) and L. decidua (r = 0.646; P = 0.032). (iii) In all species, ΔW reached highest values in late summer and was most closely related to temperature (P 〈 0.001). Results indicate that all species were undergoing water limitations as measured by increasing ΔW throughout the growing season, whereby P. abies most strongly drew upon water reserves in the living tissues of the bark. Quite similar ΔW developed in drought-sensitive L. decidua and drought-tolerant P. sylvestris indicate that various water storage locations are depleted in species showing different strategies of water status regulation, i.e. anisohydric vs. isohydric behavior, respectively, and/or water uptake efficiency differs among these species. Close coupling of ΔW to temperature suggests that climate warming affects plant water status through its effect on atmospheric demand for moisture.
    Subject(s): Environment, general ; Animal Physiology ; Environmental Health ; Dendrometer ; Stem radius variation ; Stem water deficit ; Conifers ; Environment ; Biophysics and Biological Physics ; Plant Physiology ; Drought ; Meteorology ; Species Specificity ; Water - metabolism ; Environmental Exposure - analysis ; Tracheophyta - metabolism ; Tracheophyta - growth & development ; Austria ; Plant Stems - metabolism ; Droughts ; Soil - chemistry ; Seasons ; Plant Stems - growth & development ; Tracheophyta - classification ; Water ; Animal behavior ; Index Medicus ; Original Research Paper
    ISSN: 0020-7128
    E-ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European journal of forest research, 2014-05, Vol.133 (3), p.467-479
    Description: Dendroclimatological studies in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m a.s.l.) revealed different growth response of co-occurring coniferous species to climate, which is assumed to be caused by a temporal shift in wood formation among species. The main focus of this study therefore was to monitor intra-annual dynamics of radial increment growth of mature deciduous and evergreen coniferous species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix decidua and Picea abies) during two consecutive years with contrasting climatic conditions. Radial stem growth was continuously followed by band dendrometers and modelled using Gompertz functions to determine time of maximum growth. Histological analyses of tree ring formation allowed determination of temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development. Daily fluctuations in stem radius and radial stem increments were extracted from dendrometer traces, and correlations with environmental variables were performed. While a shift in temporal dynamics of radial growth onset and cessation was detected among co-occurring species, intra-annual radial growth peaked synchronously in late May 2011 and early June 2012. Moist atmospheric conditions, i.e. high relative air humidity, low vapour pressure deficit and low air temperature during the main growing period, favoured radial stem increment of all species. Soil water content and soil temperature were not significantly related to radial growth. Although a temporal shift in onset and cessation of wood formation was detected among species, synchronous culmination of radial growth indicates homogenous exogenous and/or endogenous control. The close coupling of radial growth to atmospheric conditions points to the importance of stem water status for intra-annual growth of drought-prone conifers.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Dendrometer ; Forestry ; Conifers ; Intra-annual radial growth ; Climate–growth relationship ; Drought ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Ecology ; Cambial activity ; Coniferous forests ; Droughts ; Growth ; Soil moisture ; Analysis
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
    Source: Springer Online Journals Complete
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 2019-06-14, Vol.10 (6), p.508
    Description: This review summarizes the present knowledge about effects of climate change on conifers within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. After examining the treeline environment and the tree growth with respect to elevation, possible effects of climate change on carbon gain and water relations derived from space-for-time studies and manipulative experiments are outlined. Finally, long-term observational records are discussed, working towards conclusions on tree growth in a future, warmer environment. Increases in CO2 levels along with climate warming interact in complex ways on trees at the treeline. Because treeline trees are not carbon limited, climate warming (rather than the rising atmospheric CO2 level) causes alterations in the ecological functioning of the treeline ecotone in the Central Austrian Alps. Although the water uptake from soils is improved by further climate warming due to an increased permeability of root membranes and aquaporin-mediated changes in root conductivity, tree survival at the treeline also depends on competitiveness for belowground resources. The currently observed seedling re-establishment at the treeline in the Central European Alps is an invasion into potential habitats due to decreasing grazing pressure rather than an upward-migration due to climate warming, suggesting that the treeline in the Central Austrian Alps behaves in a conservative way. Nevertheless, to understand the altitude of the treeline, one must also consider seedling establishment. As there is a lack of knowledge on this particular topic within the treeline ecotone in the Central Austrian Alps, we conclude further research has to focus on the importance of this life stage for evaluating treeline shifts and limits in a changing environment.
    Subject(s): treeline ; Central Austrian Alps ; ecosystem manipulation ; space-for-time substitution ; long-term trends ; climate change
    ISSN: 1999-4907
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2016-11, Vol.22 (11), p.3804-3813
    Description: The interaction between xylem phenology and climate assesses forest growth and productivity and carbon storage across biomes under changing environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of wood formation are maintained unaltered despite the temperature changes across cold ecosystems. Wood microcores were collected weekly or biweekly throughout the growing season for periods varying between 1 and 13 years during 1998–2014 and cut in transverse sections for assessing the onset and ending of the phases of xylem differentiation. The data set represented 1321 trees belonging to 10 conifer species from 39 sites in the Northern Hemisphere and covering an interval of mean annual temperature exceeding 14 K. The phenological events and mean annual temperature of the sites were related linearly, with spring and autumnal events being separated by constant intervals across the range of temperature analysed. At increasing temperature, first enlarging, wall‐thickening and mature tracheids appeared earlier, and last enlarging and wall‐thickening tracheids occurred later. Overall, the period of wood formation lengthened linearly with the mean annual temperature, from 83.7 days at −2 °C to 178.1 days at 12 °C, at a rate of 6.5 days °C−1. April–May temperatures produced the best models predicting the dates of wood formation. Our findings demonstrated the uniformity of the process of wood formation and the importance of the environmental conditions occurring at the time of growth resumption. Under warming scenarios, the period of wood formation might lengthen synchronously in the cold biomes of the Northern Hemisphere.
    Subject(s): cell production ; cell differentiation ; secondary wall formation ; cambium ; conifers ; meristem ; growth ; climate change ; Trees ; Cold Temperature ; Plant Development ; Xylem ; Ecosystem ; Coniferophyta ; Seasons ; Biomes ; Environmental aspects ; Global temperature changes ; Cell differentiation ; Ecosystems ; Analysis ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Vegetal Biology
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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