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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2013-05-30, Vol.497 (7451), p.611-614
    Description: Apes and Old World monkeys are prominent components of modern African and Asian ecosystems, yet the earliest phases of their evolutionary history have remained largely undocumented. The absence of crown catarrhine fossils older than ∼20 million years (Myr) has stood in stark contrast to molecular divergence estimates of ∼25-30 Myr for the split between Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes), implying long ghost lineages for both clades. Here we describe the oldest known fossil 'ape', represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with 'nyanzapithecine' stem hominoids. Additionally, we report the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade, represented by a lower third molar. Both specimens were recovered from a precisely dated 25.2-Myr-old stratum in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the western branch of the East African Rift in Tanzania. These finds extend the fossil record of apes and Old World monkeys well into the Oligocene epoch of Africa, suggesting a possible link between diversification of crown catarrhines and changes in the African landscape brought about by previously unrecognized tectonic activity in the East African rift system.
    Subject(s): Hominidae - anatomy & histology ; History, Ancient ; Animals ; Mandible - anatomy & histology ; Cercopithecidae - classification ; Tanzania ; Cercopithecidae - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Hominidae - classification ; Fossils ; Apes ; Divergent evolution ; Old-World monkeys ; Research ; Observations ; Paleontology ; Natural history ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of nematology, 2020, Vol.52 (i_current), p.1-8
    Description: Banana ( spp. L.) is an important staple food and cash crop for about 30% of the population in Tanzania; however, the burrowing plant-parasitic nematode causes black head disease and toppling in banana plants, which results in yield losses. We collected and identified 80 specimens of from four agro-ecological zones in Tanzania using morphological characters. We then used universal and specific primers to amplify the small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of ribosomal DNA regions of these specimens. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced and analyzed using Bayesian inference. We identified two major clades, one that comprised all sequences derived from this study and another that included and spp. sequences obtained from GenBank, indicating the separation of this species from congeneric sequences. Our findings provide a useful, simple and rapid method for identifying burrowing nematodes. This outcome could contribute to the development of permanent, integrated pest management strategies for the control of in banana and other crops in order to reduce associated yield losses in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this is the first study of nematodes to use combined morphological and molecular methods for the identification of in Tanzania. Banana ( spp. L.) is an important staple food and cash crop for about 30% of the population in Tanzania; however, the burrowing plant-parasitic nematode causes black head disease and toppling in banana plants, which results in yield losses. We collected and identified 80 specimens of from four agro-ecological zones in Tanzania using morphological characters. We then used universal and specific primers to amplify the small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of ribosomal DNA regions of these specimens. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced and analyzed using Bayesian inference. We identified two major clades, one that comprised all sequences derived from this study and another that included and spp. sequences obtained from GenBank, indicating the separation of this species from congeneric sequences. Our findings provide a useful, simple and rapid method for identifying burrowing nematodes. This outcome could contribute to the development of permanent, integrated pest management strategies for the control of in banana and other crops in order to reduce associated yield losses in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this is the first study of nematodes to use combined morphological and molecular methods for the identification of in Tanzania.
    Subject(s): Musa spp ; Pest management ; Burrowing nematodes ; Genetic variation ; Taxonomy ; Plant-parasitic nematodes ; Arts & Humanities ; Banana
    ISSN: 0022-300X
    E-ISSN: 2640-396X
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Implementation science : IS, 2014-08-23, Vol.9 (1), p.112-112
    Description: The lack of high quality timely data for evidence-informed decision making at the district level presents a challenge to improving maternal and newborn survival in low income settings. To address this problem, the EQUIP project (Expanded Quality Management using Information Power) implemented a continuous household and health facility survey for continuous feedback of data in two districts each in Tanzania and Uganda as part of a quality improvement innovation for mothers and newborns. Within EQUIP, continuous survey data were used for quality improvement (intervention districts) and for effect evaluation (intervention and comparison districts). Over 30 months of intervention (November 2011 to April 2014), EQUIP conducted continuous cross-sectional household and health facility surveys using 24 independent probability samples of household clusters to represent each district each month, and repeat censuses of all government health facilities. Using repeat samples in this way allowed data to be aggregated at six four-monthly intervals to track progress over time for evaluation, and for continuous feedback to quality improvement teams in intervention districts.In both countries, one continuous survey team of eight people was employed to complete approximately 7,200 household and 200 facility interviews in year one. Data were collected using personal digital assistants. After every four months, routine tabulations of indicators were produced and synthesized to report cards for use by the quality improvement teams. The first 12 months were implemented as planned. Completion of household interviews was 96% in Tanzania and 91% in Uganda. Indicators across the continuum of care were tabulated every four months, results discussed by quality improvement teams, and report cards generated to support their work. The EQUIP continuous surveys were feasible to implement as a method to continuously generate and report on demand and supply side indicators for maternal and newborn health; they have potential to be expanded to include other health topics. Documenting the design and implementation of a continuous data collection and feedback mechanism for prospective description, quality improvement, and evaluation in a low-income setting potentially represents a new paradigm that places equal weight on data systems for course correction, as well as evaluation.
    Subject(s): Pregnancy ; Tanzania - epidemiology ; Maternal Welfare - statistics & numerical data ; Health Surveys ; Quality Improvement ; Humans ; Infant Welfare - statistics & numerical data ; Uganda - epidemiology ; Female ; Interviews as Topic ; Health Care Surveys ; Infant, Newborn ; Infants (Newborn) ; Surveys ; Evaluation ; Usage ; Households ; Innovations ; Personal digital assistants ; Quality management ; Index Medicus ; Maternal and newborn health ; Uganda ; Quality improvement ; Methodology ; Tanzania ; Continuous survey ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sexually transmitted infections, 2016-06, Vol.92 (Suppl 1), p.A63-A64
    ISSN: 1368-4973
    E-ISSN: 1472-3263
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 2014-07-01, Vol.66 (3), p.324-331
    Description: Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), with or without emtricitabine (FTC), as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for reducing the risk of HIV acquisition. Adherence to the study product was insufficient to demonstrate the effectiveness of FTC/TDF in 2 PrEP clinical trials conducted among women (FEM-PrEP and the Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic study), but further analyses of adherence in these studies may inform PrEP demonstration projects and future HIV prevention clinical trials. We randomly selected a subcohort of 150 participants randomized to FTC/TDF in 3 FEM-PrEP sites (Bondo, Kenya; Bloemfontein, South Africa; and Pretoria, South Africa) to examine adherence levels over time and to assess factors associated with adherence, based on plasma tenofovir and intracellular tenofovir diphosphate drug concentrations in specimens collected at 4-week visit intervals. We observed drug concentrations consistent with good adherence in 28.5% of all visit intervals when drug was available to use, but only 12% of participants achieved good adherence throughout their study participation. In multivariate analysis, the Bloemfontein site [odds ratio (OR): 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 4.48] and liking the pill color (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.18 to 7.27) were positively associated with good adherence, whereas using oral contraceptive pills at enrollment was negatively associated with good adherence (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.74). Most participants did not regularly adhere to the study product throughout their trial participation, although a small minority did. Few factors associated with good adherence to the study product were identified in FEM-PrEP.
    Subject(s): Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data ; HIV Infections - prevention & control ; Multivariate Analysis ; Humans ; Male ; Adenine - blood ; Anti-HIV Agents - administration & dosage ; Tenofovir ; Young Adult ; Deoxycytidine - therapeutic use ; Adenine - therapeutic use ; Adult ; Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use ; Female ; Organophosphonates - blood ; Emtricitabine ; Adenine - analogs & derivatives ; Organophosphonates - therapeutic use ; Administration, Oral ; Deoxycytidine - administration & dosage ; Risk Factors ; Logistic Models ; Adenine - administration & dosage ; Organophosphonates - administration & dosage ; Adolescent ; Deoxycytidine - analogs & derivatives ; Index Medicus ; AIDS/HIV ; FEM-PrEP ; pre-exposure prophylaxis ; adherence ; Africa ; Epidemiology and Prevention ; women
    ISSN: 1525-4135
    E-ISSN: 1944-7884
    Source: Freely Accessible Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 2016-09-01, Vol.5 (5), p.365-370
    Description: Objective: Preterm delivery is the second most leading cause of under-five deaths in the world and has been associated with poor neonatal outcomes especially in developing countries where management of severe and extreme preterm new-born is a challenge. This study aimed to determine maternal and obstetric factors associated with preterm delivery among women who delivered at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Methods: This was unmatched case-control study conducted at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre between April and May, 2014. A total of 1143 women were recorded to have delivered during the study period. Of these, 162 had preterm delivery which comprised the case group while controls were selected from women who had term birth (n = 209) making a final sample size of 371 women. All participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to determine factors associated with preterm delivery. Additional data were extracted from maternal clinic cards and hospital records. Data analysis was performed using statistical package for social science version 20.0. Odds ratios with 95% CI for factors associated with preterm delivery were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression models. A P-value of 〈0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of preterm birth was 14.2%. Numerous factors were associated with preterm delivery including living alone (AOR 5.26, 95% CI: 1.11–25.14), no formal education (AOR 1.2, 95% CI: 3.55–4.06), heavy physical works during pregnancy (AOR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.44–6.81), being a peasant (AOR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.16–4.33), business women (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.44–5.74), and history of still birth (OR 4.93; 95% CI: 1.59–15.35). Furthermore, history of miscarriage (OR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.02–3.31), preeclampsia (OR 6.83, 95% CI: 2.92–15.96), placenta previa (OR 7.54, 95% CI: 1.65–34.51), abruption placenta (OR 4.04, 95% CI: 1.08–15.17), Caesarean section delivery (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.06–2.43), inadequate ANC visits 〈4 (OR 3.25, 95% CI: 2.04–5.19), multiple pregnancy (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.15–6.61), low birth weight (OR 34.27, 95% CI: 15.93–73.7) and UTIs during pregnancy (OR 1.678, 95% CI: 1.064–2.649) were also independently associated with preterm delivery. Conclusion: The risk factors for preterm delivery identified in this study are consistent with previous studies. Clinicians and other health care providers should routinely assess women at high risk of preterm delivery during prenatal care to prevent the occurrence of preterm delivery and associated adverse perinatal outcomes.
    Subject(s): Preterm delivery ; Risk factors ; Tanzania
    ISSN: 2305-0500
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Heliyon, 2016-12, Vol.2 (12), p.e00207-e00207
    Description: The usage of fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) is increasing due to increased incidences of HIV/Hepatitis B and HIV/TB co-infections. This is likely to increase the financial crisis due to limited resources for funding procurement of ready-made products from the pharmaceuticals manufacturing leading countries. Therefore, production of local oral tablets containing Lamivudine and TDF FDC is inevitable. Lamivudine 300 mg/TDF 300 mg tablets were developed and optimized by D-optimal mixture design and produced by direct compression technique. Twenty trial formulations with independent variables, including PVP-CL 1–12.00%, PVP-K30 1–10.00%, starch-1500 2.5–12.5% and Avicel-PH102 2–19.25% were prepared by direct compression technique. The formulations were assessed on assay, dissolution, friability, weight variation and disintegration time. It was found that assay ranged from 98.13–101.95% for Lamivudine, 98.25–102.84 for TDF, both were within the in-house assay specification of 95 to 105%. Dissolution at single point was above 80% for Lamivudine 93.96–100.55% and 95.85–103.15% for TDF, disintegration time was between 1.92–66.33 min and friability 0.06–12.56%. Out of twenty formulation trials, eight formulations had all parameters in proven acceptable range. On optimization, one formulation with independent variables, PVP-CL 5.67%, PVP-K30 1.00%, Starch-1500 5.76% was selected. The optimized formulation was comparable to the reference product on the market with similarity factor (f2) and difference factor (f1) within the acceptable range for both Lamivudine and TDF.
    Subject(s): Chemistry ; Pharmaceutical chemistry
    ISSN: 2405-8440
    E-ISSN: 2405-8440
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Implementation science : IS, 2014-04-02, Vol.9 (1), p.41-41
    Description: Maternal and newborn mortality remain unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa. Tanzania and Uganda are committed to reduce maternal and newborn mortality, but progress has been limited and many essential interventions are unavailable in primary and referral facilities. Quality management has the potential to overcome low implementation levels by assisting teams of health workers and others finding local solutions to problems in delivering quality care and the underutilization of health services by the community. Existing evidence of the effect of quality management on health worker performance in these contexts has important limitations, and the feasibility of expanding quality management to the community level is unknown. We aim to assess quality management at the district, facility, and community levels, supported by information from high-quality, continuous surveys, and report effects of the quality management intervention on the utilization and quality of services in Tanzania and Uganda. In Uganda and Tanzania, the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) intervention is implemented in one intervention district and evaluated using a plausibility design with one non-randomly selected comparison district. The quality management approach is based on the collaborative model for improvement, in which groups of quality improvement teams test new implementation strategies (change ideas) and periodically meet to share results and identify the best strategies. The teams use locally-generated community and health facility data to monitor improvements. In addition, data from continuous health facility and household surveys are used to guide prioritization and decision making by quality improvement teams as well as for evaluation of the intervention. These data include input, process, output, coverage, implementation practice, and client satisfaction indicators in both intervention and comparison districts. Thus, intervention districts receive quality management and continuous surveys, and comparison districts-only continuous surveys. EQUIP is a district-scale, proof-of-concept study that evaluates a quality management approach for maternal and newborn health including communities, health facilities, and district health managers, supported by high-quality data from independent continuous household and health facility surveys. The study will generate robust evidence about the effectiveness of quality management and will inform future nationwide implementation approaches for health system strengthening in low-resource settings. PACTR201311000681314.
    Subject(s): Tanzania - epidemiology ; Maternal Welfare - statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Infant Welfare - statistics & numerical data ; Maternal Health Services - statistics & numerical data ; Quality Improvement - standards ; Uganda - epidemiology ; Child Health Services - statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Health Care Surveys ; Infant, Newborn ; Infants (Newborn) ; Health ; Mortality ; Tanzania ; Medical care ; Uganda ; Employee performance ; Quality management ; Index Medicus ; Quality improvement ; Study Protocol ; Maternal and child health ; Community empowerment ; Health system strengthening ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 2014-12-15, Vol.67 (5), p.555-563
    Description: BACKGROUND:FEM-PrEP was unable to demonstrate the effectiveness of oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention because of low adherence. We hypothesized that one reason for the poor adherence was low perceived HIV risk. METHODS:At enrollment and at quarterly follow-up visits, we assessed participantsʼ perceived HIV risk for the subsequent 4 weeks. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with some (small, moderate, or high) perceived HIV risk. We also used logistic regression with robust variance estimation to assess the association between risk perceptions (none versus some) reported at enrollment and at weeks 12, 24, and 36 and good adherence based on drug concentrations of plasma tenofovir and intracellular tenofovir diphosphate in specimens collected 4 weeks later (at weeks 4, 16, 28, and 40) among 150 randomly selected participants assigned FTC/TDF. RESULTS:Multiple factors were statistically associated with having some perceived risk, including having sex without a condom, having multiple partners, and not knowing if a partner has HIV. We observed a significant association between having some risk perception and good adherence (odds ratio2.0; 95% confidence interval1.1 to 3.5; P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS:Data suggest that participants are likely knowledgeable about factors that increase their HIV risk. Perceived risk seemed to have influenced some participantsʼ decisions to adhere to the study pill within the context of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Future research can explore the role of risk perception in the uptake of and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis, now that FTC/TDF has been shown efficacious.
    Subject(s): Emtricitabine ; HIV Infections - prevention & control ; Anti-Retroviral Agents - therapeutic use ; Adenine - analogs & derivatives ; Blood Chemical Analysis ; Organophosphonates - therapeutic use ; Humans ; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice ; Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control ; Tenofovir ; Young Adult ; Deoxycytidine - therapeutic use ; Medication Adherence ; Adenine - therapeutic use ; Risk-Taking ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Female ; HIV Infections - transmission ; Deoxycytidine - analogs & derivatives ; Chemoprevention - methods ; Index Medicus ; AIDS/HIV
    ISSN: 1525-4135
    E-ISSN: 1944-7884
    Source: Freely Accessible Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases, 2020-12-12
    Description: Systemic inflammation independently predicts future cardiovascular events and is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). We examined the association between inflammatory markers, HIV status, and traditional CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Kenyan adults with and without HIV seeking care at Kisumu County Hospital. Using a multiplex immunoassay, we measured interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations. We compared inflammatory marker concentrations by HIV status using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate associations between inflammatory biomarkers and HIV status, adjusting for CVD risk factors. We enrolled 286 PLHIV and 277 HIV-negative participants. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy for PLHIV was 8 years (interquartile range, 4-10) and 96% were virally suppressed. PLHIV had a 51% higher mean IL-6 concentration (P 〈 .001), 39% higher mean IL-1β (P = .005), 40% higher mean TNF-α (P 〈 .001), and 27% higher mean hsCRP (P = .008) compared with HIV-negative participants, independent of CVD risk factors. Male sex, older age, and obesity were associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory markers. Restricting to PLHIV, viral load of ≥1000 copies/mL was associated with higher TNF-α levels (P = .013). We found higher levels of systemic inflammatory biomarkers among PLHIV who were virally suppressed, and this was independent of traditional CVD risk factors. Further longitudinal analyses to determine whether these inflammatory markers predict future CVD events, and are possible therapeutic targets among PLHIV, are warranted.
    Subject(s): Index Medicus
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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