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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in psychology, 2021-01-01, Vol.12, p.689396-689396
    Description: Gender differences (GD) in mental health have come under renewed scrutiny during the COVID-19 pandemic. While rapidly emerging evidence indicates a deterioration of mental health in general, it remains unknown whether the pandemic will have an impact on GD in mental health. To this end, we investigate the association of the pandemic and its countermeasures affecting everyday life, labor, and households with changes in GD in aggression, anxiety, depression, and the somatic symptom burden. We analyze cross-sectional data from 10,979 individuals who live in Germany and who responded to the online survey “Life with Corona” between October 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. We estimate interaction effects from generalized linear models. The analyses reveal no pre-existing GD in aggression but exposure to COVID-19 and COVID-19 countermeasures is associated with sharper increases in aggression in men than in women. GD in anxiety decreased among participants with children in the household (with men becoming more anxious). We also observe pre-existing and increasing GD with regards to the severity of depression, with women presenting a larger increase in symptoms during the hard lockdown or with increasing stringency. In contrast to anxiety, GD in depression increased among participants who lived without children (women 〉 men), but decreased for individuals who lived with children; here, men converged to the levels of depression presented by women. Finally, GD in somatic symptoms decreased during the hard lockdown (but not with higher stringency), with men showing a sharper increase in symptoms, especially when they lived with children or alone. Taken together, the findings indicate an increase in GD in mental health as the pandemic unfolded in Germany, with rising female vulnerability to depression and increasing male aggression. The combination of these two trends further suggests a worrying mental health situation for singles and families. Our results have important policy implications for the German health system and public health policy. This public health challenge requires addressing the rising burden of pandemic-related mental health challenges and the distribution of this burden between women and men, within families and for individuals who live alone.
    Subject(s): aggression ; anxiety ; COVID-19 pandemic ; depression ; mental health ; somatization
    ISSN: 1664-1078
    E-ISSN: 1664-1078
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The World Bank research observer, 2020-09-30
    Description: AbstractIn the last decade, well over $10 billion has been spent on employment programs designed to contribute to peace and stability. Despite the outlay, whether these programs perform, and how they do so, remain open questions. This study conducts three reviews to derive the status quo of knowledge. First, it draws on academic literature on the microfoundations of instability to distill testable theories of how employment programs could affect stability at the micro level. Second, it analyses academic and grey literature that directly evaluates the impacts of employment programs on peace-related outcomes. Third, it conducts a systematic review of program-based learning from over 400 interventions. This study finds good theoretical reasons to believe that employment programs could contribute to peace. However, only very limited evidence exists on overall impacts on peace or on the pathways underlying the theories of change. At the program level, the review finds strong evidence that contributions to peace and stability are often simply assumed to have occurred. This provides a major challenge for the justification of continued spending on jobs for peace programs. Instead, systematic and rigorous learning on the impacts of jobs for peace programs needs to be scaled up urgently.
    ISSN: 0257-3032
    E-ISSN: 1564-6971
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: World Bank e-Library
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.web_resource
    facet.materialart.web_resource
    2017
    Language: English
    Description: Provider: Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek - Institution: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek - Data provided by Europeana Collections- All metadata published by Europeana are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, Europeana requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources including Europeana
    Subject(s): Domestic Violence ; Häusliche Gewalt ; Krieg ; Local governance ; Lokale governance ; Military service ; Militärdienst ; Public good provision ; Social behavior ; Soziales Verhalten ; War ; Öffentliche Güter
    Source: Europeana Collections
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Materials science forum, 2006-10-15, Vol.527-529, p.689-694
    Description: Preliminary results for the phonon dispersion curves of hexagonal 4H-SiC from experimental inelastic neutron (INS) and X-ray scattering (IXS) are reported and contrasted with those of cubic 3C-SiC and silicon. The experimental frequencies and scattering intensities are in excellent agreement with those from first-principles calculations using density-functional methods. The relative merits of the two experimental techniques and aspects of the density functional perturbation theory and the so-called frozen phonon method for the determination of the basic phonon properties are briefly outlined.
    ISSN: 0255-5476
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    E-ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Materials science forum, 2003-09-15, Vol.433-436, p.257-260
    ISSN: 0255-5476
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    E-ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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