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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Psychophysiology, 2007-01, Vol.44 (1), p.120-127
    Description: Vagal tone has been proposed both as an index of emotion regulation and cognitive ability. To assess the relation between vagal tone and emotion regulation and cognitive ability, the present research prospectively measured vagal tone (measured either as high‐frequency spectral power or respiratory sinus arrhythmia) in healthy participants exposed to high stress. The participants were active duty military personnel (men) enrolled in high intensity military training: Survival School (Experiments 1 and 3) and Combat Diver Qualification Course (Experiment 2). We consistently observed a significant relationship between low vagal tone and superior performance. The data suggest that vagal suppression is associated with enhanced performance under conditions of high stress and that this enhanced performance may be related to emotion regulation and cognitive functioning.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Data Interpretation, Statistical ; Heart - physiology ; Heart rate variability ; High stress ; Humans ; Male ; Military Personnel ; Military stress ; performance ; Prospective Studies ; Psychomotor Performance - physiology ; Respiratory sinus arrhythmia ; Stress, Psychological - physiopathology ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Vagal tone ; Vagus Nerve - physiology
    ISSN: 0048-5772
    E-ISSN: 1540-5958
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of drug education, 1999-06, Vol.29 (2), p.115-138
    Description: Normative misperception refers to the tendency of college students to misperceive campus drinking norms to be more liberal than they actually are. Initial investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of normative education on reduction of alcohol use in primary and secondary education settings. This study examined the utility of a group program designed to challenge seventy-one male college students' misperceptions of college drinking norms. Participants were enrolled into either a normative education group or a control group representing traditional alcohol education efforts. Participants in the normative education groups demonstrated more accurate perceptions of campus drinking norms and a significant reduction in consequences of alcohol use while those in the control group did not. Changes in normative perceptions were among the strongest contributors to a function discriminating between those who decreased their drinking and those who did not. Results suggest that normative education may be an effective approach to modifying drinking behaviors.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Alcohol Drinking - prevention & control ; Alcohol Drinking - psychology ; Alcoholism ; Analysis of Variance ; Attitude to Health ; Biological and medical sciences ; Chi-Square Distribution ; Discriminant Analysis ; Health Education ; Humans ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Mental health ; Prevention ; Prevention. Health policy. Planification ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Social psychiatry. Ethnopsychiatry ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Universities
    ISSN: 0047-2379
    E-ISSN: 1541-4159
    Source: SAGE Complete A-Z List
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2006, Vol.60 (7), p.722-729
    Description: Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cognition ; dissociation ; Dissociative Disorders - etiology ; Female ; Form Perception ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Human ; Humans ; Learning. Memory ; Male ; Medical colleges ; Memory ; Memory Disorders - etiology ; Memory, Short-Term ; military performance ; Military personnel ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Pattern Recognition, Visual ; pre-frontal cortex ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Short-term memory ; Soldiers ; Space Perception ; Stress, Psychological - complications ; survival school ; Training ; trauma exposure
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Diabetes (New York, N.Y.), 2000-05-01, Vol.49 (5), p.A64
    Subject(s): Care and treatment ; Complications ; Depression (Mood disorder) ; Depression, Mental ; Diabetics ; Medical care ; Medical care utilization ; Psychological aspects ; Type 2 diabetes ; Utilization
    ISSN: 0012-1797
    E-ISSN: 1939-327X
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
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  • 5
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    1997
    ISBN: 0591731746  ISBN: 9780591731743 
    Language: English
    Description: Normative Misperceptions refers to the tendency of college students to misperceive campus drinking norms to be more liberal than they actually are. Normative education is a technique designed to encourage more responsible use of alcohol by college students through correcting these misperceptions. Some initial investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of normative education in delaying onset of alcohol and other drug use in primary education settings. This study examined the utility of employing a group program designed to challenge college students' misperceptions of college drinking norms. 71 male undergraduates were enrolled into either a normative education group or a control group representative of traditional alcohol education efforts. Participants in both groups completed baseline measures on perceptions of the average student's drinking behavior, their own drinking behavior, attitudes toward alcohol use, and approval of different categories of drinkers. Subjects in both groups returned one week and one month later, completing these measures again at both follow up periods. As hypothesized, subjects in the normative education groups demonstrated more accurate perceptions of campus drinking norms at both follow up periods relative to baseline perceptions. These subjects also demonstrated a trend toward fewer binges and a significant reduction of consequences due to alcohol use relative to baseline while those in the control group did not. Discriminant analyses revealed the variables "change in perception of the average student's number of drinks per week", "change in approval of moderate drinkers" and "change in approval of heavy drinkers" to be the strongest contributors to the function discriminating between those who decreased their drinking and those who did not. Results indicate the potential this technique has for alcohol education programming. Theoretical explanations, methodological considerations, and implications for future research are discussed.
    Subject(s): Psychotherapy
    ISBN: 0591731746
    ISBN: 9780591731743
    Source: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Subject(s): Psychobiology ; Psychotherapy
    Source: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)), 2007-02, Vol.4 (2), p.66-73
    Description: Research studies of the female response to intense stress are under-represented in the scientific literature; indeed, publications in female humans and animals number half those in male subjects. In addition, women have only recently entered more dangerous professions that were historically limited to men. The US Navy's survival course, therefore, offers a unique opportunity to examine, in a controlled manner, individual differences in the human female response to acute and realistic military stress. The current study assessed the nature and prevalence of dissociative symptoms and other aspects of adaptive function in healthy female subjects experiencing acute, intense stress during US Navy survival training. Cognitive dissociation and previous exposure to traumatic events were assessed at baseline in 32 female service members prior to Navy survival training. At the conclusion of training, retrospectively rated levels of dissociation during peak training stress and current health symptoms were assessed. Female subjects reported previous trauma (35%) and at least one symptom of dissociation at baseline prior to training (47%). Eighty-eight percent of subjects reported experiencing multiple symptoms of dissociation during peak training stress. Post-stress dissociation scores and stress-induced increases in dissociation, as well as prior cumulative exposure to potentially traumatic events, were significant predictors of post-stress health symptoms. In this study, increases in dissociative symptoms during intense training stress, post-stress dissociation symptom levels, and prior cumulative exposure to stressful, potentially traumatic events predicted post-stress health symptoms in women. Prior studies in men have demonstrated correlations between neurobiological responses to stress and stress-associated levels of dissociation. Thus future studies in larger samples of women are needed to investigate the relationship between prior stress exposure, alterations in neurobiological responses to stress and potentially related alterations in neuropsychological and physical reactions to stress.
    E-ISSN: 1555-5194
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)), 2006-02, Vol.3 (2), p.24-28
    ISSN: 1550-5952
    E-ISSN: 1555-5194
    Source: PubMed Central
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