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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuro-oncology, 2016-02-13, Vol.127 (3), p.463-472
    Description: The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Algorithms ; Analysis ; ATR-FTIR ; Biomarkers, Tumor - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Cell Differentiation ; Diagnosis ; Diagnostics ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Glioma ; Gliomas ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Laboratory Investigation ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Metastasis ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Neoplasm Grading ; Neurology ; Oncology ; Prognosis ; Rapid ; Serum ; Spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Support Vector Machine ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0167-594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied sciences, 2020-02-05, Vol.10 (3), p.1048
    Description: This meeting report gives an overview of the DAFx 2019 conference held in September 2019 at Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK. The conference had the same theme as this special issue: digital audio effects. In total, 51 papers were presented at DAFx 2019 either in oral or in poster sessions. The conference had 157 delegates, almost half from industry and the rest from universities around the world. As the number of submissions and participants remains sufficiently high, it is planned that the DAFx conference series will be continued every autumn.
    Subject(s): acoustics ; artificial intelligence ; audio signal processing ; Committees ; Deep learning ; Grammy awards ; International conferences ; Machine learning ; Music ; Presentations ; real-time algorithms ; Signal processing ; Sound ; Teleconferencing ; Wavelet transforms
    ISSN: 2076-3417
    E-ISSN: 2076-3417
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied sciences, 2016-04-20, Vol.6 (4), p.116
    Description: Equalisation is one of the most commonly-used tools in sound production, allowing users to control the gains of different frequency components in an audio signal. In this paper we present a model for mapping a set of equalisation parameters to a reduced dimensionality space. The purpose of this approach is to allow a user to interact with the system in an intuitive way through both the reduction of the number of parameters and the elimination of technical knowledge required to creatively equalise the input audio. The proposed model represents 13 equaliser parameters on a two-dimensional plane, which is trained with data extracted from a semantic equalisation plug-in, using the timbral adjectives warm and bright. We also include a parameter weighting stage in order to scale the input parameters to spectral features of the audio signal, making the system adaptive. To maximise the efficacy of the model, we evaluate a variety of dimensionality reduction and regression techniques, assessing the performance of both parameter reconstruction and structural preservation in low-dimensional space. After selecting an appropriate model based on the evaluation criteria, we conclude by subjectively evaluating the system using listening tests.
    Subject(s): adaptive audio effects ; dimensionality reduction ; equalisation ; intelligent music production ; semantics
    ISSN: 2076-3417
    E-ISSN: 2076-3417
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuro-oncology (Charlottesville, Va.), 2015-11, Vol.17 (suppl 8), p.viii19.4-viii19
    Subject(s): Abstracts
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Analyst (London), 2016-12-19, Vol.142 (1), p.98-19
    Description: Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound. To do this, we first evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three classifiers (SVM, KNN and LDA), when trained with both sub-band spectral features and principal components taken directly from Raman spectra. We demonstrate that the feature extraction approach provides an increase in classification accuracy of 26.25% for SVM and 25% for KNN. We then discuss the molecular assignment of the most salient sub-bands in the dataset. The most salient sub-band features are mapped to parameters of a frequency modulation (FM) synthesizer in order to generate audio clips from each tissue sample. Based on the properties of the sub-band features, the synthesizer was able to maintain similar sound timbres within the disease classes and provide different timbres between disease classes. This was reinforced via listening tests, in which participants were able to discriminate between classes with mean classification accuracy of 71.1%. Providing intuitive feedback via sound frees the surgeons' visual attention to remain on the patient, allowing for greater control over diagnostic and surgical tools during surgery, and thus promoting clinical translation of spectroscopic diagnostics. Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue.
    Subject(s): Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain Neoplasms - pathology ; Classification ; Control theory ; Diagnostic software ; Feedback ; Glioblastoma - diagnosis ; Glioblastoma - pathology ; Humans ; Neoplasm Metastasis ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Sound ; Spectra ; Spectroscopy ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman ; Statistics as Topic ; Time Factors ; Tumors
    ISSN: 0003-2654
    E-ISSN: 1364-5528
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    ISBN: 9783642319792  ISBN: 3642319793 
    ISSN: 0302-9743 
    Language: English
    In: Speech, Sound and Music Processing: Embracing Research in India, p.104-119
    Description: A model is presented for the analysis and synthesis of low frequency human-like pitch deviation, as a replacement for existing modulation techniques in singing voice synthesis systems. Fundamental frequency (f0) measurements are taken from vocalists producing a selected range of utterances without vibrato and trends in the data are observed. A probabilistic function that provides natural sounding low frequency f0 modulation to synthesized singing voices is presented and the perceptual relevance is evaluated with subjective listening tests.
    Subject(s): Drift ; Fundamental Frequency ; Humanisation ; Singing Voice Synthesis
    ISBN: 9783642319792
    ISBN: 3642319793
    ISSN: 0302-9743
    E-ISSN: 1611-3349
    Source: Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science eBooks
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2018-04, p.361-365
    Description: Accurate estimation of note onset timing is important for music ensemble performance analysis and synthesis. In this study, we present a method for the detection of onsets from polyphonic mixtures, using score information. First, a MIDI score is aligned to the audio signal using dynamic time warping, and pitches of performed notes are refined using a multi-pitch estimation technique. Notes in a signal are then isolated using a spectral masking method, based on the average harmonic structure learned from each source. Onset timing is finally estimated by maximizing the time derivative of the energy curve of the note within an observation window. We show that this method significantly improves the onset timing estimation accuracy, measured by both the align rate and onset time deviation, and outperforms a state-of-art reference method.
    Subject(s): Estimation ; Harmonic analysis ; Hidden Markov models ; Instruments ; Microtiming ; multi-pitch estimation ; Music ; onset detection ; score alignment ; Task analysis ; Timing
    E-ISSN: 2379-190X
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: 2017 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA), 2017-10, p.339-343
    Description: Zero latency convolution typically uses the Direct Form approach, requiring a large amount of computational resources for every additional sample in the impulse response. A number of methods have been developed to reduce the computational cost of very large signal convolution. However these all introduce latency into the system. In some scenarios this is not acceptable and must be removed. Modern computer systems hold multiple processor architectures, with their own strengths and weaknesses for the purpose of convolution. This paper shows how correctly combining these processors can lead to a powerful system which can be deployed for real-time, zero-latency large signal convolution.
    Subject(s): Computer architecture ; Convolution ; Direct Form ; GPU ; Graphics processing units ; High definition video ; Partitioning algorithms ; Processor ; Real-time systems ; Throughput
    E-ISSN: 1947-1629
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2018-06-19, Vol.71 (24), p.2756-2769
    Description: The functional SYNTAX score (FSS) has been shown to improve the discrimination for major adverse cardiac events compared with the anatomic SYNTAX score (SS) while reducing interobserver variability. However, evidence supporting the noninvasive FSS in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) is scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of and validate the noninvasive FSS derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) in patients with 3-vessel CAD. The CTA-SS was calculated in patients with 3-vessel CAD included in the SYNTAX II (SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery II) study. The noninvasive FSS was determined by including only ischemia-producing lesions (FFRCT ≤0.80). SS derived from different imaging modalities were compared using the Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok method, and the agreement on the SS tertiles was investigated with Cohen’s Kappa. The risk reclassification was compared between the noninvasive and invasive physiological assessment, and the diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT was assessed by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve using instantaneous wave-free ratio as a reference. The CTA-SS was feasible in 86% of patients (66 of 77), whereas the noninvasive FSS was feasible in 80% (53 of 66). The anatomic SS was overestimated by CTA compared with conventional angiography (27.6 ± 6.4 vs. 25.3 ± 6.9; p 〈 0.0001) whereas the calculation of the FSS yielded similar results between the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities (21.6 ± 7.8 vs. 21.2 ± 8.8; p = 0.589). The noninvasive FSS reclassified 30% of patients from the high- and intermediate-SS tertiles to the low-risk tertile, whereas invasive FSS reclassified 23% of patients from the high- and intermediate-SS tertiles to the low-risk tertile. The agreement on the classic SS tertiles based on Kappa statistics was slight for the anatomic SS (Kappa = 0.19) and fair for the FSS (Kappa = 0.32). The diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT to detect functional significant stenosis based on an instantaneous wave-free ratio ≤0.89 revealed an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.90) with a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 89% to 98%), specificity of 61% (95% CI: 48% to 73%), positive predictive value of 81% (95% CI: 76% to 86%), and negative predictive value of 87% (95% CI: 74% to 94%). Calculation of the noninvasive FSS is feasible and yielded similar results to those obtained with invasive pressure-wire assessment. The agreement on the SYNTAX score tertile classification improved with the inclusion of the functional component from slight to fair agreement. FFRCT has good accuracy in detecting functionally significant lesions in patients with 3-vessel CAD. (A Trial to Evaluate a New Strategy in the Functional Assessment of 3-Vessel Disease Using SYNTAX II Score in Patients Treated With PCI; NCT02015832) [Display omitted]
    Subject(s): Aged ; Angina pectoris ; Angiography ; Beta blockers ; Cardiology ; Cardiovascular disease ; Care and treatment ; Computation ; Computed tomography ; Computed Tomography Angiography ; Coronary artery ; coronary artery bypass graft ; Coronary artery disease ; Coronary Artery Disease - diagnostic imaging ; Coronary Artery Disease - physiopathology ; coronary computed tomography angiography ; Coronary heart disease ; coronary physiology ; Coronary vessels ; Decision making ; Diagnostic systems ; drug-eluting stents ; Feasibility Studies ; Female ; Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial ; functional SYNTAX score ; Heart ; Heart diseases ; Heart rate ; Humans ; Ischemia ; Laboratories ; Lesions ; Male ; Mathematical analysis ; Medical imaging ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; multivessel disease ; Patients ; percutaneous coronary intervention ; Physiology ; Reclassification ; Risk assessment ; Stenosis ; Stents ; Surgery ; Syntax ; SYNTAX score ; Work stations
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of immunology (1950), 2020-12-01, Vol.205 (11), p.3154-3166
    Description: The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS; progenitors, monocytes, macrophages, and classical dendritic cells) are controlled by signals from the M-CSF receptor (CSF1R). Cells of the MPS lineage have been identified using numerous surface markers and transgenic reporters, but none is both universal and lineage restricted. In this article, we report the development and characterization of a CSF1R reporter mouse. A FusionRed (FRed) cassette was inserted in-frame with the C terminus of CSF1R, separated by a T2A-cleavable linker. The insertion had no effect of CSF1R expression or function. CSF1R-FRed was expressed in monocytes and macrophages and absent from granulocytes and lymphocytes. In bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was absent in lineage-negative hematopoietic stem cells, arguing against a direct role for CSF1R in myeloid lineage commitment. It was highly expressed in marrow monocytes and common myeloid progenitors but significantly lower in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In sections of bone marrow, CSF1R-FRed was also detected in osteoclasts, CD169 resident macrophages, and, consistent with previous mRNA analysis, in megakaryocytes. In lymphoid tissues, CSF1R-FRed highlighted diverse MPS populations, including classical dendritic cells. Whole mount imaging of nonlymphoid tissues in mice with combined CSF1R-FRed/ -EGFP confirmed the restriction of CSF1R expression to MPS cells. The two markers highlight the remarkable abundance and regular distribution of tissue MPS cells, including novel macrophage populations within tendon and skeletal muscle and underlying the mesothelial/serosal/capsular surfaces of every major organ. The CSF1R-FRed mouse provides a novel reporter with exquisite specificity for cells of the MPS.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Animals ; Biomarkers - metabolism ; Cell Differentiation - physiology ; Dendritic Cells - metabolism ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells - metabolism ; Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor - metabolism ; Macrophages - metabolism ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Monocytes - metabolism ; Mononuclear Phagocyte System - metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism ; Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor - metabolism ; Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor - metabolism ; RNA, Messenger - metabolism ; Tendons - metabolism
    ISSN: 1550-6606
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SWEPUB Freely available online
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