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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1054-8289  ISSN: 1550-1558 
    Language: English
    In: The Future of children, 2012-04-01, Vol.22 (1), p.65-96
    Description: Childhood disabilities entail a range of immediate and long-term economic costs that have important implications for the well-being of the child, the family, and society but that are difficult to measure. In an extensive research review, Mark Stabile and Sara Allin examine evidence about three kinds of costs—direct, out-of-pocket costs incurred as a result of the child s disability; indirect costs incurred by the family as it decides how best to cope with the disability; and long-term costs associated with the child's future economic performance. Not surprisingly, the evidence points to high direct costs for families with children with disabilities, though estimates vary considerably within these families. Out-of-pocket expenditures, particularly those for medical costs, for example, are higher among families with children with a special health care need. An important indirect cost for these families involves decisions about employment. Stabile and Allin examine several studies that, taken together, show that having a child with disabilities increases the likelihood that the mother (and less often the father) will either curtail hours of work or stop working altogether. Researchers also find that having a child with disabilities can affect a mother s own health and put substantial strains on the parents' relationship. In the longer term, disabilities also compromise a child's schooling and capacity to get and keep gainful employment as an adult, according to the studies Stabile and Allin review. Negative effects on future well-being appear to be much greater, on average, for children with mental health problems than for those with physical disabilities. Stabile and Allin calculate that the direct costs to families, indirect costs through reduced family labor supply, direct costs to disabled children as they age into the labor force, and the costs of safety net programs for children with disabilities average $ 30,500 a year per family with a disabled child. They note that the cost estimates on which they base their calculation vary widely depending on the methodology, jurisdiction, and data used. Because their calculations do not include all costs, notably medical costs covered through health insurance, they represent a lower bound. On that basis, Stabile and Allin argue that many expensive interventions to prevent and reduce childhood disability might well be justified by a cost-benefit calculation.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aid to families with dependent children programs ; Asthma ; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - economics ; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ; Care ; Care and treatment ; Census of Population ; Child ; Child Behavior Disorders - economics ; Child care ; Child, Preschool ; Childhood ; Children ; Children & youth ; Children with disabilities ; Chronic illnesses ; Cost benefit analysis ; Cost estimates ; Cost of Illness ; Costs ; Costs and Cost Analysis ; Disabilities ; Disability ; Disabled Children ; Disabled people ; Economic aspects ; Economic costs ; Economic models ; Education, Special - economics ; Employment ; Families & family life ; Financing, Personal - economics ; Health care costs ; Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data ; Health Expenditures - statistics & numerical data ; Health insurance ; Health Services Needs and Demand - economics ; Humans ; Income ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Investments ; Medical care, Cost of ; Mental health ; Models, Economic ; Mothers ; Pediatrics ; Services for ; Social aspects ; Social security ; Socioeconomic Factors ; United States ; Women, Working - statistics & numerical data ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1054-8289
    ISSN: 1550-1558
    E-ISSN: 1550-1558
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences IV
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Economic policy, 2011, Vol.3 (3), p.175-205
    Description: We exploit changes in child benefits in Canada to study the impact of family income on child and family well-being. Using variation in child benefits across province, time, and family type, we study outcomes spanning test scores, mental health, physical health, and deprivation measures. The findings suggest that child benefit programs had significant positive effects on test scores, maternal health, and mental health, among other measures. We find strong and interesting differences in the effects of benefits by child sex: benefits have stronger effects on educational outcomes and physical health for boys, and on mental health outcomes for girls.
    Subject(s): Bildungsertrag ; Child care ; Children ; Coefficients ; Economic benefits ; Familienpolitik ; Gesundheitsversorgung ; Kanada ; Kind ; Mental health ; Outcomes of education ; Standard deviation ; Steuer ; Tax benefits ; Tax payments ; Vorteil ; Wellbeing
    ISSN: 1945-774X
    ISSN: 1945-7731
    E-ISSN: 1945-774X
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Health economics, 2020-09, Vol.29 (9), p.1031-1047
    Description: This paper examines the relationship between changes in income inequality and the provision of resources in a health care system (the public‐private mix). Specifically, we investigate whether increases in income inequality, as separate from overall income levels and growth, have changed the availability of both private clinics and privately financed physicians in a context where the dominant market player is the public system. Our findings provide reasonable evidence that increases in income inequality have led to substantial increases in both. We find that moving from median level of inequality across neighborhoods to the top 1% level of inequality increases the probably of a private clinic by 40% and the probability of having physicians who have opted out of the public system by 170%.
    Subject(s): doctors ; health care financing ; inequality
    ISSN: 1057-9230
    E-ISSN: 1099-1050
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of economic literature, 2014-06-01, Vol.52 (2), p.480-518
    Description: This paper explores the changing role of government involvement in health care financing policy outside the United States. It provides a review of the economics literature in this area to elucidate the implications of recent policy changes on efficiency, costs, and quality. Our review reveals that there has been some convergence in policies adopted across countries to improve financing incentives and encourage efficient use of health services. In the case of risk pooling, all countries with competing pools experience similar difficulties with selection and are adopting more sophisticated forms of risk adjustment. In the case of hospital competition, the key drivers of success appear to be what is competed on and measurable, rather than whether the system is public or private. In the case of both the success of performance-related pay for providers and issues resulting from wait times, evidence differs within and across jurisdictions. However, the evidence does suggest that some governments have effectively reduced wait times when they have chosen explicitly to focus on achieving this goal. Many countries are exploring new ways of generating revenues for health care to enable them to cope with significant cost growth, but there is little evidence to suggest that collection mechanisms alone are effective in managing the cost or quality of care.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Claims adjustment ; Competition ; Cost efficiency ; Economic development ; Employer provided health insurance ; Gross Domestic Product--GDP ; Health care costs ; Health care expenditures ; Health care policy ; Health care waiting times ; Health insurance ; Health services ; Income taxes ; Insurance coverage ; Insurance premiums ; Insurance providers ; Laws, regulations and rules ; Medicaid ; Medical care ; Medical policy ; Purchasing ; Quality management ; Quality of service ; Social insurance ; Studies ; Success
    ISSN: 0022-0515
    E-ISSN: 2328-8175
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Health economics, policy and law, 2015-10, Vol.10 (4), p.425-430
    Description: Health care cost growth exceeded growth in GDP over the past decade for the majority of countries in the OECD (Stabile et al., 2013). In response to these increased costs policy makers concerned with balancing the quality of the public service and the sustainability of the public purse have a limited set of options to deploy including tax increases, deficit financing, cost containment and cost shifting. Within the domains of cost containment and cost shifting, policy makers must concern themselves with defining the boundaries of the publicly funded benefit and deciding how to best manage, through any regulation or taxation, those items that are not funded publicly. Given the continued challenge faced by many jurisdictions across the OECD to both control public health care costs and continually update the range of services provided by the publicly financed basket to reflect advancements in health care, a set of criteria that helps define what to include in the public basket may be more appropriate than focusing instead on what should be considered for private financing. Tinghog et al. (2010) clearly articulate many of the core issues in financing health care services, and provide a useful set of attributes for considering whether services are appropriate for private financing. They should be commended for this work. However, combining the lessons from the US Affordable Care Act on scope of care, the UK advances in technology assessment to determine cost-effectiveness as well as avoiding some of the mistakes that jurisdictions have made in letting history determine the publicly funded set of services, provides, in my view, a more promising path for an effective and sustainable publicly financed health service.
    Subject(s): Addictive behaviors ; Comments ; Cost shifting ; Deficit financing ; Delivery of Health Care - economics ; Health care expenditures ; Health care policy ; Health Care Reform - economics ; Health Expenditures ; Health Policy - economics ; Health Services Accessibility - economics ; Humans ; Insurance coverage ; Lifestyles ; Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act 2010-US ; Pharmaceuticals ; Private Sector - economics ; Public finance ; Social Responsibility ; Studies
    ISSN: 1744-1331
    E-ISSN: 1744-134X
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2015 HSS Package
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2003-12-01, Vol.93 (5), p.1813-1823
    Description: The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is one of the most robust and well documented findings in social science. Anne Case et al. (2002) look at children in order to find the origins of the gradient, since the health of children may be assumed to have relatively little impact on their own socioeconomic status. They show that the well-known cross-sectional relationship between SES and health exists in childhood and is more pronounced among older than among younger children. This study confirms the results of Case et al. using a sample of Canadian children, despite the existence of universal health insurance coverage for doctor and hospital services in Canada. It finds that the gradient steepens in cross section, and that this result is robust to controls for cohort effects. However, little evidence is found that long-term effects of health shocks on future health are different for high-SES and low-SES children, even though in the short run, low-SES children suffer greater health losses than high-SES children after the arrival of a health shock. Instead, evidence is provided which suggests that the cross-sectional relationship between health, family income (or maternal education), and age arises primarily because low-income children are more likely to be subject to health shocks.
    Subject(s): Adults ; Age Factors ; Asthma ; Birth weight ; Canada ; Child ; Child Health ; Child, Preschool ; Childbirth ; Children ; Children & youth ; Childrens health ; Chronic diseases ; Economic models ; Educational attainment ; Health ; Health insurance ; Health Status ; Health technology assessment ; Household income ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Low birth weight ; Low income groups ; Mothers ; Public health ; Shorter Papers ; Social research ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Socioeconomic status ; Studies
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 1944-7981
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of urban health, 2020-09-22, Vol.97 (6), p.776-795
    Description: We set out to explore how precarious workers, particularly those employed in the gig economy, balance financial uncertainty, health risks, and mental well-being. We surveyed and interviewed precarious workers in France during the COVID-19 crisis, in March and April 2020. We oversampled gig economy workers, in particular in driving and food delivery occupations (hereafter drivers and bikers), residing in metropolitan areas. These workers cannot rely on stable incomes and are excluded from the labor protections offered to employees, features which have been exacerbated by the crisis. We analyzed outcomes for precarious workers during the mandatory lockdown in France as an extreme case to better understand how financial precarity relates to health risks and mental well-being. Our analysis revealed that 3 weeks into the lockdown, 56% of our overall sample had stopped working and respondents had experienced a 28% income drop on average. Gig economy drivers reported a significant 20 percentage point larger income decrease than other workers in our sample. Bikers were significantly more likely to have continued working outside the home during the lockdown. Yet our quantitative analysis also revealed that stress and anxiety levels were not higher for these groups and that bikers in fact reported significantly lower stress levels during the lockdown. While this positive association between being a biker and mental health may be interpreted in different ways, our qualitative data led to a nuanced understanding of the effect of gig work on mental well-being in this population group.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Analysis ; Article ; COVID-19 - epidemiology ; Cyclists ; Economics and Finance ; Employment - psychology ; Employment - statistics & numerical data ; Epidemiology ; Female ; France - epidemiology ; Health aspects ; Health Informatics ; Humanities and Social Sciences ; Humans ; Income - statistics & numerical data ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Mental Health - statistics & numerical data ; Middle Aged ; Occupational Stress - epidemiology ; Pandemics - prevention & control ; Public Health ; Risk Factors ; SARS-CoV-2 ; Workers ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1099-3460
    E-ISSN: 1468-2869
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Canadian journal of economics, 2019-11, Vol.52 (4), p.1433-1463
    Description: Income may improve child outcomes through two mechanisms: as a direct input into health and education, or indirectly, by reducing household financial stress. We exploit policy‐induced changes in refundable tax benefit income in Canada to study these two potential mechanisms. Our findings suggest that additional income may improve outcomes through both mechanisms: some benefit income is spent on direct education inputs, while some is spent on everyday items likely to improve the general conditions children face. Additionally, some families reduce spending on risky behaviour items. Spending responses to benefit generosity appear to vary by income and by child age. Résumé Prestations pour enfants en espèces et dépenses des familles : ce que révèle la Prestation nationale pour enfants. Le revenu permet d’améliorer le développement d’un enfant grâce à deux mécanismes : en contribuant directement à l’éducation et à la santé, et en réduisant indirectement les difficultés financières au sein du foyer. Afin d’étudier ces deux mécanismes, nous nous appuyons sur les modifications politiques apportées au crédit d’impôt remboursable de type prestation fiscale pour revenu de travail au Canada. Nos résultats suggèrent que par l’entremise de ces deux mécanismes, la situation peut s’améliorer grâce à un revenu additionnel : une partie de ces prestations est dépensée directement pour l’éducation tandis qu’une autre est utilisée pour les biens quotidiens susceptibles d’améliorer les conditions de vie générales de l’enfant. De plus, certaines familles réduisent les dépenses d’articles pouvant induire des comportements à risque. Les types de dépenses liés aux prestations sociales semblent varier en fonction des revenus et de l’âge des enfants.
    Subject(s): Business & Economics ; Child benefit ; Children & youth ; Direct payments ; Economic stress ; Economics ; Expenditures ; Family income ; Generosity ; Income taxes ; Policy making ; Risk behavior ; Social Sciences ; Tax benefits ; Taxation
    ISSN: 0008-4085
    E-ISSN: 1540-5982
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2010
    ISSN: 0022-166X  ISSN: 1548-8004 
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of human resources, 2010-07-01, Vol.45 (3), p.517-548
    Description: Research has shown a strong connection between birth weight and future outcomes. We ask how health problems after birth affect outcomes using data from public health insurance records for 50,000 children born between 1979 and 1987 in the Canadian province of Manitoba. We compare children to siblings born an average of three years apart. We find that health problems in early childhood are significant predictors of young adult outcomes. Early physical health problems are linked to outcomes primarily because they predict later health. Early mental health problems have additional predictive power even conditional on future health and health at birth.
    Subject(s): Adulthood ; Asthma ; Birth size ; Birth weight ; Birth weight, Low ; Childbirth ; Childhood ; Children ; Childrens health ; Chronic diseases ; Correlation analysis ; Health and hygiene ; Health aspects ; Health outcomes ; Human resources ; Longitudinal studies ; Manitoba ; Medical conditions ; Physical trauma ; Public health ; Research ; Siblings ; Sick ; Social conditions ; Studies ; Young adults
    ISSN: 0022-166X
    ISSN: 1548-8004
    E-ISSN: 1548-8004
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences IV
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Health economics, policy and law, 2018-07, Vol.13 (3-4), p.406-432
    Description: Income and wealth inequality have risen in Canada since its low point in the 1980s. Over that same period we have also seen an increase in the amount that Canadians spend on privately financed health care, both directly and through private health insurance. This paper will explore the relationship between these two trends using both comparative data across jurisdictions and household-level data within Canada. The starting hypothesis is that the greater the level of inequality the more difficult it becomes for publicly provided insurance to satisfy the median voter. Thus, we should expect increased pressure to access privately financed alternatives as inequality increases. In the light of these implications, the paper considers the implications for the future of private insurance in Canada.
    Subject(s): Articles ; Databases ; Economic development ; Economic inequalities ; Economic models ; Elasticity of demand ; Gross Domestic Product--GDP ; Health care ; Health care expenditures ; Health care industry ; Health care policy ; Health economics ; Health insurance ; Income distribution ; Income inequality ; Inequality ; Median voter ; Political economy ; Politics ; Public health ; Quality of service ; Tax rates ; Trends ; Wealth ; Wealth distribution
    ISSN: 1744-1331
    E-ISSN: 1744-134X
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2015 HSS Package
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