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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European journal of psychotraumatology, 2014-12-01, Vol.5 (1), p.25338-Article 25338
    Description: In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).
    Subject(s): trauma ; stress ; post-traumatic stress disorder ; Resilience ; Studies ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Theory ; Mental health ; Journals ; Science ; Epigenetics ; Full text ; Clinical psychology ; Trauma ; PTSD ; Stressors
    ISSN: 2000-8198
    ISSN: 2000-8066
    E-ISSN: 2000-8066
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2020-05-12, Vol.11 (1), p.2360-2360
    Description: Despite well-known peripheral immune activation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are no studies of brain immunologic regulation in individuals with PTSD. [ C]PBR28 Positron Emission Tomography brain imaging of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a microglial biomarker, was conducted in 23 individuals with PTSD and 26 healthy individuals-with or without trauma exposure. Prefrontal-limbic TSPO availability in the PTSD group was negatively associated with PTSD symptom severity and was significantly lower than in controls. Higher C-reactive protein levels were also associated with lower prefrontal-limbic TSPO availability and PTSD severity. An independent postmortem study found no differential gene expression in 22 PTSD vs. 22 controls, but showed lower relative expression of TSPO and microglia-associated genes TNFRSF14 and TSPOAP1 in a female PTSD subgroup. These findings suggest that peripheral immune activation in PTSD is associated with deficient brain microglial activation, challenging prevailing hypotheses positing neuroimmune activation as central to stress-related pathophysiology.
    Subject(s): Brain - diagnostic imaging ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - pathology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Receptors, GABA - immunology ; Healthy Volunteers ; Case-Control Studies ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - immunology ; Young Adult ; Microglia - immunology ; Microglia - pathology ; Adult ; Female ; Pyridines - administration & dosage ; Positron-Emission Tomography - methods ; Radiopharmaceuticals - administration & dosage ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 14 - metabolism ; Receptors, GABA - metabolism ; Sex Factors ; Brain - pathology ; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing - metabolism ; Brain - immunology ; Acetamides - administration & dosage ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnostic imaging
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-10-05, Vol.338 (6103), p.79-82
    Description: Human responses to stress and trauma vary widely. Some people develop trauma-related psychological disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression; others develop mild to moderate psychological symptoms that resolve rapidly; still others report no new psychological symptoms in response to traumatic stress. Individual variability in how animals and humans respond to stress and trauma depends on numerous genetic, developmental, cognitive, psychological, and neurobiological risk and protective factors.
    Subject(s): Psychological stress ; Training ; Emotional expression ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; PERSPECTIVE ; Genetic variation ; Neurobiology ; Medical genetics ; Material resilience ; Behavioral neuroscience ; Depressive disorders ; Depressive Disorder - genetics ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - therapy ; Animals ; Humans ; Depressive Disorder - prevention & control ; Depressive Disorder - therapy ; Resilience, Psychological ; Depressive Disorder - etiology ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - genetics ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - complications ; Research ; Stress (Psychology) ; Health aspects ; Psychic trauma ; Resilience (Personality trait) ; Depressive Disorders ; Prevention ; PTSD ; Emotional Regulation ; Treatment ; Etiology ; Social Support Networks ; Coping Behavior ; Resilience
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: PTSDpubs
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chronic stress (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 2017-08, Vol.1, p.247054701772406
    Description: Background The hippocampus and amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While numerous structural neuroimaging studies examined these two structures in PTSD, these analyses have largely been limited to volumetric measures. Recent advances in vertex-based neuroimaging methods have made it possible to identify specific locations of subtle morphometric changes within a structure of interest. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between PTSD symptomatology, as measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the DSM-IV, and structural shape of the hippocampus and amygdala using vertex-wise shape analyses in a group of combat-exposed U.S. Veterans (N = 69). Results Following correction for multiple comparisons and controlling for age and cranial volume, we found that participants with more severe PTSD symptoms showed an indentation in the anterior half of the right hippocampus and an indentation in the dorsal region of the right amygdala (corresponding to the centromedial amygdala). Post hoc analysis using stepwise regression suggest that among PTSD symptom clusters, arousal symptoms explain most of the variance in the hippocampal abnormality, whereas reexperiencing symptoms explain most of the variance in the amygdala abnormality. Conclusion The results provide evidence of localized abnormalities in the anterior hippocampus and centromedial amygdala in combat-exposed U.S. Veterans suffering from PTSD symptoms. This novel finding provides a more fine-grained analysis of structural abnormalities in PTSD and may be informative for understanding the neurobiology of the disorder.
    Subject(s): Neurosciences ; Medical imaging ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Depressive Disorders ; Drug Abuse ; Amygdala ; Veterans ; Americans ; Brain Imaging ; Reexperiencing ; Males ; PTSD (DSM-IV) ; Emotional Numbing ; Anxiety Disorders ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Arousal ; Alcohol Abuse ; Adults ; Females ; Avoidance ; Hippocampus ; Combat Exposure ; PTSD ; structural MRI ; Vertex-wise Analysis ; Shape Analysis ; Hippocampal Shape ; Morphometry ; Anterior Hippocampus
    ISSN: 2470-5470
    E-ISSN: 2470-5470
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Psychological bulletin, 2015-01, Vol.141 (1), p.105-140
    Description: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779 with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect-size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for 9 cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d = −.62), speed of information processing (d = −.59), attention/working memory (d = −.50), and verbal memory (d =−.46). Effect-size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature.
    Subject(s): Memory Disorders - physiopathology ; Cognition Disorders - physiopathology ; Memory Disorders - etiology ; Cognition Disorders - etiology ; Humans ; Adult ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - physiopathology ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - complications ; Usage ; Brain research ; Analysis ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Short-term memory ; Research ; Meta-analysis ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Cognition & reasoning ; Memory ; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ; Information processing ; Neuropsychology ; PTSD ; Cognitive Processes ; Comorbidity ; Attention ; Neurobiology ; Meta Analysis ; Cognitive Impairment ; Stressors ; memory ; neuropsychology ; meta-analysis ; attention ; concentration ; cognitive abilities ; posttraumatic stress disorder
    ISSN: 0033-2909
    E-ISSN: 1939-1455
    Source: APA PsycARTICLES
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: PTSDpubs
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chronic stress (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 2017-12, Vol.1, p.247054701774453
    Description: Background Two decades of human neuroimaging research have associated volume reductions in the hippocampus with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the distribution of volume loss across hippocampal subfields. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made it possible to accurately delineate 10 gray matter hippocampal subfields. Here, we apply a volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields to data from a group of combat-exposed Veterans. Method Veterans (total, n = 68, posttraumatic stress disorder, n = 36; combat control, n = 32) completed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Based on previously validated methods, hippocampal subfield volume measurements were conducted using FreeSurfer 6.0. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale assessed posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity; Beck Depression Inventory assessed depressive symptom severity. Controlling for age and intracranial volume, partial correlation analysis examined the relationship between hippocampal subfields and symptom severity. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using false discovery rate. Gender, intelligence, combat severity, comorbid anxiety, alcohol/substance use disorder, and medication status were investigated as potential confounds. Results In the whole sample, total hippocampal volume negatively correlated with Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and Beck Depression Inventory scores. Of the 10 hippocampal subfields, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity negatively correlated with the hippocampus–amygdala transition area (HATA). Beck Depression Inventory scores negatively correlated with dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 4 (CA4), HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA1. Follow-up analysis limited to the posttraumatic stress disorder group showed a negative correlation between Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity and each of HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA4. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence relating posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms to abnormalities in the HATA, an anterior hippocampal region highly connected to prefrontal-amygdala circuitry. Notably, dentate gyrus abnormalities were associated with depression severity but not posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Future confirmatory studies should determine the extent to which dentate gyrus volume can differentiate between posttraumatic stress disorder- and depression-related pathophysiology.
    Subject(s): Volumetric analysis ; Medical imaging ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Veterans ; Depressive Disorders ; Amygdala ; Comorbidity ; Neuroanatomy ; Americans ; Brain Imaging ; Adults ; PTSD (DSM-IV) ; Combat Exposure ; Hippocampus ; cornu ammonis ; dentate gyrus ; magnetic resonance imaging ; hippocampus ; hippocampal subfield ; hippocampal volume ; long axis ; amygdala-transition-area ; depression ; Veteran ; posttraumatic stress disorder ; neuroimaging
    ISSN: 2470-5470
    E-ISSN: 2470-5470
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Chronic stress (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 2017-08, Vol.1, p.247054701772471
    Description: Background Chronic stress and related physiological responses are known to have deleterious effects on neural integrity. Combat exposure is a notoriously pathogenic stressor, and with over 2 million U.S. troops deployed to active combat zones since 2001, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of its potential neural impact. Previous evidence suggests structural alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and more recent studies have explored cortical thinning specifically. This preliminary study investigates the impact of combat exposure on cortical thickness, controlling for history of early life stress and age. Methods Twenty-one combat-exposed Veterans with PTSD and 20 non-PTSD combat-exposed controls (mean age 32.7) completed the Combat Exposure Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and structural magnetic resonance imaging in a Siemens 3T TIM trio system. General linear model was used to examine the effect of combat exposure on cortical thickness, controlling for early life trauma exposure and age using cluster-wise correction (p 〈 0.05). Results This preliminary study found a negative correlation between combat exposure severity (CES) and cortical thickness in the left superior temporal and left rostral middle frontal regions, as well as an interaction between PTSD diagnosis status and CES, in the superior temporal/insular region showing a stronger negative correlation between CES and cortical thickness in the non-PTSD group. Conclusions Though caution should be taken with interpretation given the preliminary nature of the findings, the results indicate combat exposure may affect cortical structure beyond possible alterations due to early life stress exposure or PTSD psychopathology. Though replication in larger samples is required, these results provide useful information regarding possible neural biomarkers and treatment targets for combat-related psychopathology as well as highlighting the pathogenic effects of combat.
    Subject(s): Veterans ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Psychopathology ; PTSD ; Afghan War ; Neuroanatomy ; Americans ; Brain Imaging ; Adults ; Iraq War ; Males ; Combat Exposure ; Child Abuse ; childhood trauma ; structural neuroimaging ; veteran ; cortical thickness ; combat ; early life stress
    ISSN: 2470-5470
    E-ISSN: 2470-5470
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Annual review of clinical psychology, 2005, Vol.1 (1), p.255-291
    Description: This review discusses neurobiological and psychosocial factors associated with stress-induced depression and compares these factors with those believed to characterize stress resilience. Neurobiological factors that are discussed and contrasted include serotonin, the 5-HT1A receptor, polymorphisms of the 5-HT transporter gene, norepinephrine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, neuropeptide Y, polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenergic gene, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and CRH receptors. These factors are described in the context of brain regions believed to be involved in stress, depression, and resilience to stress. Psychosocial factors associated with depression and/or stress resilience include positive emotions and optimism, humor, cognitive flexibility, cognitive explanatory style and reappraisal, acceptance, religion/spirituality, altruism, social support, role models, coping style, exercise, capacity to recover from negative events, and stress inoculation. The review concludes with potential psychological, social, spiritual, and neurobiological approaches to enhancing stress resilience, decreasing the likelihood of developing stress-induced depression/anxiety, and treating stress-induced psychopathology.
    Subject(s): Spirituality ; Humans ; Social Support ; Personality ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - physiopathology ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Emotions ; Brain - metabolism ; Depressive Disorder - physiopathology ; Depressive Disorder - psychology ; Neuropsychology ; Adaptation, Psychological ; Stress, Psychological - physiopathology ; Depressive Disorders ; PTSD ; Personality Traits ; Literature Review ; Survivors ; Neurobiology ; Social Support Networks ; Coping Behavior ; Animal Models ; Stressors ; Resilience
    ISSN: 1548-5943
    E-ISSN: 1548-5951
    Source: PTSDpubs
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecology and society, 2015-12-01, Vol.20 (4), p.10
    Description: Although most resilience science has focused on individual-level psychosocial factors that promote individual resilience, theorists and researchers have begun to examine neurobiological and systems-level factors implicated in resilience. In this commentary we argue that the development of effective interventions to enhance resilience necessitates understanding that resilience in the individual is dependent on multiple layers of society. Further, we suggest that there is a bidirectional relationship between systems-level resilience (i.e., resilience of romantic partners, family members, neighborhoods, and larger social contexts) and individual resilience. We suggest directions for future research and interventions, with the goal of stimulating research efforts that address these questions among trauma-exposed individuals.
    Subject(s): Community structure ; Social psychology ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Communities ; Veterans ; Mental health ; Material resilience ; Wellbeing ; Research ; Human ecology ; Online communities ; social support ; neurobiology ; systems resilience ; individual resilience
    ISSN: 1708-3087
    E-ISSN: 1708-3087
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Psychology of addictive behaviors, 2018-03, Vol.32 (2), p.224-229
    Description: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are among the most prevalent disorders in U.S. military veterans and often co-occur. To date, most studies have focused on treatment-seeking samples, although many veterans with AUD/PTSD do not seek treatment. We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and quality of life in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans (using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study) with AUD alone, PTSD alone, and comorbid AUD/PTSD to understand the incremental burden of having both disorders relative to either one. Among those with probable AUD, 20.3% met criteria for probable PTSD. Among those, with probable PTSD, 16.8% met criteria for probable AUD. Compared to veterans with AUD only, veterans with AUD/PTSD were more likely to screen positive for major depression (36.8% vs. 2.3%), generalized anxiety disorder (43.5% vs. 2.9%), suicidal ideation (39.1% vs. 7.0%); to have attempted suicide (46.0% vs. 4.1%); and to be receiving mental health treatment (44.8% vs. 7.5%). They also scored lower on cognitive (d = 0.50), mental (d = 0.51) and physical (d = 0.21) functioning, and quality of life (Cohen d = 0.46). Veterans with comorbid AUD/PTSD were more than three times as likely as veterans with PTSD only to have attempted suicide in their lifetimes (odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.8-5.3; 46.0% vs. 22.8%); they did not differ on other measures. Results underscore the burden of co-occurring AUD and PTSD in U.S. veterans, and the importance of engaging these veterans in treatment.
    Subject(s): Prevalence ; Comorbidity ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology ; Veterans - psychology ; Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology ; Male ; Suicidal Ideation ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology ; Alcoholism - epidemiology ; Anxiety Disorders - psychology ; Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder, Major - psychology ; Suicide, Attempted - psychology ; Health Surveys ; Suicide - psychology ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Quality of Life - psychology ; Alcoholism - psychology ; Depressive Disorders ; Veterans ; Young Adults ; Health Care Utilization ; Americans ; Males ; PTSD (DSM-IV) ; Epidemiology ; Suicidality ; Quality of Life ; Alcohol Abuse ; Adults ; Generalized Anxiety Disorder ; Females ; Combat Exposure
    ISSN: 0893-164X
    E-ISSN: 1939-1501
    Source: PTSDpubs
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