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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Memory (Hove), 2019-05-28, Vol.27 (5), p.592-602
    Description: This study investigated whether individuals can predict their future prospective memory (PM) performance in a lab-based task and in a naturalistic task. Metacognitive awareness was assessed by asking participants to give judgments-of-learning (JOLs) on an item-level for the prospective (that something has to be done) and retrospective (what to do) PM component. In addition, to explore whether giving predictions influences PM performance, we compared a control group (without predictions) to a prediction group. Results revealed that giving predictions did not change PM performance. Moreover, participants were underconfident in their PM performance in the lab-based task, while they were overconfident in the naturalistic task. In addition, item-level JOLs indicated that they were inaccurate in predicting what items they will recall or not, but only for the prospective component of the PM task. As for the retrospective component, they were equally accurate in both task settings. This study suggests a dissociation of metacognitive awareness for PM according to both task setting and processing component.
    Subject(s): Prospective memory ; metacognition ; judgment-of-learning ; Mental Recall ; Humans ; Metacognition ; Memory, Episodic ; Male ; Research ; Forecasting ; Young Adult ; Self Concept ; Time Factors ; Adult ; Environment ; Female ; Index Medicus ; Psychology ; Cognitive science
    ISSN: 0965-8211
    E-ISSN: 1464-0686
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, 2020-09, Vol.149 (9), p.1788-1799
    Description: Is metacognition a general resource shared across domains? Previous research has documented consistent biases in judgments across tasks. In contrast, there is debate regarding the domain generality or the domain specificity of the ability to discriminate between correct and incorrect answers (metacognitive sensitivity) because most previous work has documented nonsignificant correlations across domains. However, such null findings may be due to low statistical power and differences in task structure or performance, thereby masking a latent domain generality in metacognition. We examined across-domain correlations in confidence level and sensitivity in a large sample (N = 181). Participants performed 4 2-alternative forced-choice tasks (episodic memory, semantic memory, executive function, and visual perception) with trial-by-trial confidence judgments. We found significant correlations in average confidence level across tasks. By applying a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate cross-task covariance, we found five out 6 cross-task correlations in metacognitive efficiency (meta-d′/d′) were significant, even for pairs of tasks in which first-order performance was not correlated. This suggests that at least some components of metacognitive efficiency in retrospective confidence are domain general.
    Subject(s): Bayesian analysis ; Bias ; Metacognition ; Resource allocation ; Judgment ; Index Medicus ; domain-general processes ; metamemory ; monitoring ; metacognition ; confidence judgments
    ISSN: 0096-3445
    E-ISSN: 1939-2222
    Source: APA PsycARTICLES
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Memory (Hove), 2017-05-28, Vol.25 (5), p.607-618
    Description: Our objective was to explore metamemory in short-term memory across the lifespan. Five age groups participated in this study: 3 groups of children (4-13 years old), and younger and older adults. We used a three-phase task: prediction-span-postdiction. For prediction and postdiction phases, participants reported with a Yes/No response if they could recall in order a series of images. For the span task, they had to actually recall such series. From 4 years old, children have some ability to monitor their short-term memory and are able to adjust their prediction after experiencing the task. However, accuracy still improves significantly until adolescence. Although the older adults had a lower span, they were as accurate as young adults in their evaluation, suggesting that metamemory is unimpaired for short-term memory tasks in older adults. Highlights: *We investigate metamemory for short-term memory tasks across the lifespan. *We find younger children cannot accurately predict their span length. *Older adults are accurate in predicting their span length. *People's metamemory accuracy was related to their short-term memory span.
    Subject(s): Metamemory ; short-term memory ; overconfidence ; lifespan ; Age Factors ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Child, Preschool ; Male ; Memory, Short-Term - physiology ; Metacognition - physiology ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Young Adult ; Adolescent ; Aged, 80 and over ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Child ; Index Medicus ; Psychology ; Humanities and Social Sciences
    ISSN: 0965-8211
    E-ISSN: 1464-0686
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cognitive neuroscience, 2015-10-02, Vol.6 (4), p.221-222
    Description: Metacognition concerns our monitoring and control of mental operations (knowing what you know). Much thinking about metacognition is liable to fall foul of the classic homunculus problem: Nobody can specify who or what does the "metacognition." We describe how the Active Inference and Epistemic Value (AIEV) model offers an operationalization of epistemic behaviors which can explain two example metacognitive phenomena: Control and monitoring of word learning, and the search for unretrieved information in the feeling of knowing. Curiosity drives a search forward, but it is held in check by considering the utility of what is retrieved from memory.
    Subject(s): Choice Behavior - physiology ; Humans ; Decision Making - physiology ; Index Medicus ; Humanities and Social Sciences ; Cognitive science
    ISSN: 1758-8928
    E-ISSN: 1758-8936
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Experimental aging research, 2019-10-20, Vol.45 (5), p.436-459
    Description: Introduction: This study investigated whether young and older adults can predict their future performance on an event-based prospective memory (PM) task. Methods: Metacognitive awareness was assessed by asking participants to give judgments-of-learning (JOLs) on an item-level for the prospective (remembering that something has to be done) and retrospective (remembering what to do) PM component. In addition, to explore possible age differences in the ability to adapt predictions to the difficulty of the task, encoding time and the relatedness between the prospective and the retrospective PM component were varied. Results: Results revealed that both age groups were sensitive to our task manipulations and adapted their predictions appropriately. Moreover, item-level JOLs indicated that for the retrospective component, young and older adults were equally accurate and slightly overconfident. For the prospective component, predictions were fairly accurate in young adults, while older adults were overconfident. Thus, results suggest that general overconfidence is increased in older adults and concerns both components of PM. Discussion: Findings regarding the conceptual differences between the prospective and retrospective components of a PM task, as well as the link between aging and metamemory in PM are discussed.
    Subject(s): Mental Recall ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Metacognition ; Memory, Episodic ; Aging - psychology ; Male ; Learning ; Young Adult ; Self Concept ; Aged, 80 and over ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Judgment ; Index Medicus ; Psychology ; Humanities and Social Sciences ; Cognitive science
    ISSN: 0361-073X
    E-ISSN: 1096-4657
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 2016-06, Vol.24 (6), p.911-918
    Description: Learning disabilities (LDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases. Array-CGH and high-throughput sequencing have dramatically expanded the number of genes implicated in isolated intellectual disabilities and LDs, highlighting the implication of neuron-specific post-mitotic transcription factors and synaptic proteins as candidate genes. We report a unique family diagnosed with autosomal dominant learning disability and a 6p21 microdeletion segregating in three patients. The 870 kb microdeletion encompassed the brain-expressed gene LRFN2, which encodes for a synaptic cell adhesion molecule. Neuropsychological assessment identified selective working memory deficits, with borderline intellectual functioning. Further investigations identified a defect in executive function, and auditory-verbal processes. These data were consistent with brain MRI and FDG-PET functional brain imaging, which, when compared with controls, revealed abnormal brain volume and hypometabolism of gray matter structures implicated in working memory. We performed electron microscopy immunogold labeling demonstrating the localization of LRFN2 at synapses of cerebellar and hippocampal rat neurons, often associated with the NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Altogether, the combined approaches imply a role for LRFN2 in LD, specifically for working memory processes and executive function. In conclusion, the identification of familial cases of clinically homogeneous endophenotypes of LD might help in both the management of patients and genetic counseling for families.
    Subject(s): Brain - diagnostic imaging ; Memory Disorders - genetics ; Humans ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate - metabolism ; Male ; Memory Disorders - diagnosis ; Positron-Emission Tomography ; Memory Disorders - complications ; Synapses - metabolism ; Gene Deletion ; Adult ; Female ; Membrane Proteins - metabolism ; Radiopharmaceuticals ; Child ; Learning Disorders - complications ; Learning Disorders - diagnosis ; Membrane Proteins - genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; Rats ; Synapses - ultrastructure ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Animals ; Pedigree ; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 ; Heterozygote ; Learning Disorders - genetics ; Memory, Short-Term ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Human health and pathology
    ISSN: 1018-4813
    E-ISSN: 1476-5438
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Brain and cognition, 2004, Vol.56 (1), p.89-99
    Description: To examine whether aging affects metacognitive control, elderly and young adults carried out a readiness-recall task, in which subjects monitor their own learning procedure, allowing strategy manipulation (study time and rehearsal) to be measured. Age differences were observed in metamemory control performance. Younger adults were found to be better at adjusting study time and rehearsal to the task. Moreover, to determine whether age-related differences in strategy manipulation may mediate age-related differences in memory performance, performance on the readiness-recall task was compared to performance on an experimenter-paced task. Results indicated that younger adults recalled significantly more words in the readiness-recall task than in the experimenter test. This was not the case for older adults. Furthermore, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that age-related differences in strategy manipulation mediate some age-related differences in memory performance. Our aim was also to determine whether metacognitive control is related to executive functions. Thus, all participants were administered standard neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functioning. Significant partial correlation appeared between metamemory control and executive functioning. Finally, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that age-related decline in metamemory control may be largely the result of executive limitations associated with aging.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Adult. Elderly ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Developmental psychology ; Awareness ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Practice (Psychology) ; Attention ; Problem Solving ; Aging - psychology ; Male ; Cognition ; Statistics as Topic ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Aged, 80 and over ; Adult ; Female ; Aged ; Memory, Short-Term ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0278-2626
    E-ISSN: 1090-2147
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Human brain mapping, 2012-06, Vol.33 (6), p.1268-1278
    Description: Although memory dysfunction is not a prominent feature of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv‐FTD), there is evidence of specific deficits of episodic memory in these patients. They also have problems monitoring their memory performance. The objective of the present study was to explore the ability to consciously retrieve own encoding of the context of events (autonoetic consciousness) and the ability to monitor memory performance using feeling‐of‐knowing (FOK) in bv‐FTD. Analyses of the patients' cerebral metabolism (FDG‐PET) allowed an examination of whether impaired episodic memory in bv‐FTD is associated with the frontal dysfunction characteristic of the pathology or a dysfunction of memory‐specific regions pertaining to Papez's circuit. Data were obtained from eight bv‐FTD patients and 26 healthy controls. Autonoetic consciousness was evaluated by Remember responses during the recognition memory phase of the FOK experiment. As a group, bv‐FTD patients demonstrated a decline in autonoetic consciousness and FOK accuracy at the chance level. While memory monitoring was impaired in most (seven) patients, four bv‐FTD participants had individual impairment of autonoetic consciousness. They specifically showed reduced metabolism in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (near the superior frontal sulcus), parietal regions, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings were tentatively interpreted by considering the role of the metabolically impaired brain regions in self‐referential processes, suggesting that the bv‐FTD patients' problem consciously retrieving episodic memories may stem at least partly from deficient access to and maintenance/use of information about the self. Frontal and posterior cingulate metabolic impairment in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia with impaired autonoetic consciousness Hum Brain Mapp, 2011. © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
    Subject(s): episodic memory ; FDG-PET ; FOK ; cingulate cortex ; frontotemporal dementia ; autonoetic consciousness ; monitoring ; FDG‐PET ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Vertebrates: nervous system and sense organs ; Radiodiagnosis. Nmr imagery. Nmr spectrometry ; Investigative techniques, diagnostic techniques (general aspects) ; Central nervous system ; Biological and medical sciences ; Nervous system ; Biochemistry and metabolism ; Medical sciences ; Frontotemporal Dementia - physiopathology ; Frontotemporal Dementia - diagnostic imaging ; Frontal Lobe - metabolism ; Frontal Lobe - physiopathology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Gyrus Cinguli - diagnostic imaging ; Male ; Awareness - physiology ; Frontotemporal Dementia - psychology ; Consciousness - physiology ; Gyrus Cinguli - metabolism ; Frontotemporal Dementia - metabolism ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Attention - physiology ; Frontal Lobe - diagnostic imaging ; Radionuclide Imaging ; Aged, 80 and over ; Brain Mapping ; Gyrus Cinguli - physiopathology ; Choice Behavior - physiology ; Female ; Aged ; Memory - physiology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1065-9471
    E-ISSN: 1097-0193
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience of consciousness, 2020, Vol.2020 (1), p.niaa001-niaa001
    Description: Previous research has converged on the idea that metacognitive evaluations of memory dissociate between semantic and episodic memory tasks, even if the type of metacognitive judgement is held constant. This often observed difference has been the basis of much theoretical reasoning about the types of cues available when making metacognitive judgements of memory and how metacognition is altered in memory pathologies. Here, we sought to revisit the difference between episodic and semantic feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgements in the light of recent research which has supported a domain general account of metacognition. One hundred participants performed classical episodic and semantic memory tasks with FOK judgements and confidence judgements. Using the meta-d' framework, we applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate metacognitive sensitivity and cross-task covariance. Results revealed a significant correlation in metacognitive efficiency (meta-d'/d') between the episodic memory task and the semantic memory task for confidence judgements; however, no evidence was found for a cross-task correlation for FOK judgements. This supports the view that FOK judgements are based on different cues in semantic and episodic memory, whereas confidence judgements are domain general.
    ISSN: 2057-2107
    E-ISSN: 2057-2107
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Epilepsy research and treatment, 2016-12-01, Vol.2016, p.6746938-11
    Description: Previous research has pointed to a deficit in associative recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Associative recognition tasks require discrimination between various combinations of words which have and have not been seen previously (such as old-old or old-new pairs). People with TLE tend to respond to rearranged old-old pairs as if they are “intact” old-old pairs, which has been interpreted as a failure to use a recollection strategy to overcome the familiarity of two recombined words into a new pairing. We examined this specific deficit in the context of metacognition, using postdecision confidence judgements at test. We expected that TLE patients would show inappropriate levels of confidence for associative recognition. Although TLE patients reported lower confidence levels in their responses overall, they were sensitive to the difficulty of varying pair types in their judgements and gave significantly higher confidence ratings for their correct answers. We conclude that a strategic deficit is not at play in the associative recognition of people with TLE, insofar as they are able to monitor the status of their memory system. This adds to a growing body of research suggesting that recollection is impaired in TLE, but not metacognition.
    Subject(s): Complications and side effects ; Care and treatment ; Temporal lobe epilepsy ; Diagnosis ; Research ; Memory, Disorders of ; Risk factors ; Psychology ; Cognitive science ; Humanities and Social Sciences
    ISSN: 2090-1348
    E-ISSN: 2090-1356
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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