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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ (San Francisco, CA), 2016, Vol.4, p.e1717-e1717
    Description: The Fayum Depression of Egypt has yielded fossils of hystricognathous rodents from multiple Eocene and Oligocene horizons that range in age from ∼37 to ∼30 Ma and document several phases in the early evolution of crown Hystricognathi and one of its major subclades, Phiomorpha. Here we describe two new genera and species of basal phiomorphs, Birkamys korai and Mubhammys vadumensis, based on rostra and maxillary and mandibular remains from the terminal Eocene (∼34 Ma) Fayum Locality 41 (L-41). Birkamys is the smallest known Paleogene hystricognath, has very simple molars, and, like derived Oligocene-to-Recent phiomorphs (but unlike contemporaneous and older taxa) apparently retained dP(4)∕4 late into life, with no evidence for P(4)∕4 eruption or formation. Mubhammys is very similar in dental morphology to Birkamys, and also shows no evidence for P(4)∕4 formation or eruption, but is considerably larger. Though parsimony analysis with all characters equally weighted places Birkamys and Mubhammys as sister taxa of extant Thryonomys to the exclusion of much younger relatives of that genus, all other methods (standard Bayesian inference, Bayesian "tip-dating," and parsimony analysis with scaled transitions between "fixed" and polymorphic states) place these species in more basal positions within Hystricognathi, as sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent phiomorphs. We also employ tip-dating as a means for estimating the ages of early hystricognath-bearing localities, many of which are not well-constrained by geological, geochronological, or biostratigraphic evidence. By simultaneously taking into account phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and uniform priors that appropriately encompass the range of possible ages for fossil localities, dating of tips in this Bayesian framework allows paleontologists to move beyond vague and assumption-laden "stage of evolution" arguments in biochronology to provide relatively rigorous age assessments of poorly-constrained faunas. This approach should become increasingly robust as estimates are combined from multiple independent analyses of distantly related clades, and is broadly applicable across the tree of life; as such it is deserving of paleontologists' close attention. Notably, in the example provided here, hystricognathous rodents from Libya and Namibia that are controversially considered to be of middle Eocene age are instead estimated to be of late Eocene and late Oligocene age, respectively. Finally, we reconstruct the evolution of first lower molar size among Paleogene African hystricognaths using a Bayesian approach; the results of this analysis reconstruct a rapid latest Eocene dwarfing event along the lineage leading to Birkamys.
    Subject(s): Phylogeny ; Analysis ; Rodents ; Methods ; Fossils ; Mandible ; Geology ; Teeth ; Molars ; Maxilla ; Paleontology ; Hypotheses ; Morphology ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; New genera ; Bayesian analysis ; Dating ; Age ; Paleogene ; Deciduous teeth ; Oligocene ; Bayesian phylogenetics ; Phiomorpha ; Africa
    ISSN: 2167-8359
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ (San Francisco, CA), 2016, Vol.4, p.e2639-e2639
    Description: Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt. sp. nov. has specialized, hypercarnivorous molars and an elongate cranial vault. In the tallest, piercing cusp on M -M is the paracone. gen. et sp. nov. has more generalized molars that retain the metacone and complex talonids. In the tallest, piercing cusp on M -M is the metacone. We incorporate this new material into a series of phylogenetic analyses using a character-taxon matrix that includes novel dental, cranial, and postcranial characters, and samples extensively from the global record of the group. The phylogenetic analysis includes the first application of Bayesian methods to hyaenodont relationships. is consistently placed within Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade with several generalist and hypercarnivorous forms, and is consistently recovered in Hyainailourinae as part of an Afro-Arabian radiation. The phylogenetic results suggest that hypercarnivory evolved independently three times within Hyaenodonta: in Teratodontinae, in Hyainailourinae, and in Hyaenodontinae. Teratodontines are consistently placed in a close relationship with Hyainailouridae (Hyainailourinae + Apterodontinae) to the exclusion of "proviverrines," hyaenodontines, and several North American clades, and we propose that the superfamily Hyainailouroidea be used to describe this relationship. Using the topologies recovered from each phylogenetic method, we reconstructed the biogeographic history of Hyaenodonta using parsimony optimization (PO), likelihood optimization (LO), and Bayesian Binary Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to examine support for the Afro-Arabian origin of Hyaenodonta. Across all analyses, we found that Hyaenodonta most likely originated in Europe, rather than Afro-Arabia. The clade is estimated by tip-dating analysis to have undergone a rapid radiation in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene; a radiation currently not documented by fossil evidence. During the Paleocene, lineages are reconstructed as dispersing to Asia, Afro-Arabia, and North America. The place of origin of Hyainailouroidea is likely Afro-Arabia according to the Bayesian topologies but it is ambiguous using parsimony. All topologies support the constituent clades-Hyainailourinae, Apterodontinae, and Teratodontinae-as Afro-Arabian and tip-dating estimates that each clade is established in Afro-Arabia by the middle Eocene.
    Subject(s): Monte Carlo method ; Phylogeny ; Methods ; Fossils ; Neurosciences ; Systematic biology ; Teeth ; Biogeography ; Museums ; Molars ; Paleontology ; Studies ; Hypotheses ; Morphology ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; Skull ; New species ; Bayesian analysis ; Dating ; Natural history ; Paleobiology ; Paleogene ; Bayesian systematics ; Carnivory ; Creodonta ; Africa ; Mammal evolution
    ISSN: 2167-8359
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1060-1538 
    Language: English
    In: Evolutionary anthropology, 2012-11, Vol.21 (6), p.239-253
    Description: The peculiar mammalian fauna that inhabited Afro‐Arabia during the Paleogene first came to the attention of the scientific community in the early part of the twentieth century, when Andrews1 and Schlosser2 published their landmark descriptions of fossil mammals from the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt. Their studies revealed a highly endemic assemblage of land mammals that included the first known Paleogene records of hyraxes, proboscideans, and anthropoid primates, but which lacked ancestors of many iconic mammalian lineages that are found in Africa today, such as rhinos, zebras, bovids, giraffes, and cats. Over the course of the last century, the Afro‐Arabian Paleogene has yielded fossil remains of several other endemic mammalian lineages,3 as well as a diversity of prosimian primates,4 but we are only just beginning to understand how the continent's faunal composition came to be, through ancient processes such as the movement of tectonic plates, changes in climate and sea level, and early phylogenetic splits among the major groups of placental mammals. These processes, in turn, made possible chance dispersal events that were critical in determining the competitive landscape–and, indeed, the survival–of our earliest anthropoid ancestors. Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid‐like adaptations known as adapiforms. Many of the important details of this story would not be known, and could never have been predicted, without the fossil evidence that has recently been unearthed by field paleontologists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Subject(s): Primates - classification ; Africa ; Primates - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Mammals ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Anthropology, Physical ; Fossils ; Biological Evolution ; Primates - genetics ; Animals ; Arabia ; Skull - anatomy & histology ; Principal Component Analysis ; Primates ; Tectonics (Geology) ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1060-1538
    E-ISSN: 1520-6505
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2005-10-14, Vol.310 (5746), p.300-304
    Description: Early anthropoid evolution in Afro-Arabia is poorly documented, with only a few isolated teeth known from before ~35 million years ago. Here we describe craniodental remains of the primitive anthropoid Biretia from ~37-million-year-old rocks in Egypt. Biretia is unique among early anthropoids in exhibiting evidence for nocturnality, but derived dental features shared with younger parapithecids draw this genus, and possibly 〉45-million-year-old Algeripithecus, into a morphologically and behaviorally diverse parapithecoid clade of great antiquity.
    Subject(s): Taxa ; Mandible ; Geology ; Teeth ; Primates ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; Reports ; New species ; Sediments ; Paleogene period ; Earth, ocean, space ; Vertebrate paleontology ; Earth sciences ; Paleontology ; Exact sciences and technology ; Biological Evolution ; Haplorhini - classification ; History, Ancient ; Animals ; Haplorhini - anatomy & histology ; Skull - anatomy & histology ; Dentition ; Time ; Egypt, Ancient ; Phylogeny ; Tooth ; Fossils ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ (San Francisco, CA), 2016, Vol.4, p.e2320-e2320
    Description: The "scaly-tailed squirrels" of the rodent family Anomaluridae have a long evolutionary history in Africa, and are now represented by two gliding genera (Anomalurus and Idiurus) and a rare and obscure genus (Zenkerella) that has never been observed alive by mammalogists. Zenkerella shows no anatomical adaptations for gliding, but has traditionally been grouped with the glider Idiurus on the basis of craniodental similarities, implying that either the Zenkerella lineage lost its gliding adaptations, or that Anomalurus and Idiurus evolved theirs independently. Here we present the first nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences of Zenkerella, based on recently recovered whole-body specimens from Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea), which show unambiguously that Zenkerella is the sister taxon of Anomalurus and Idiurus. These data indicate that gliding likely evolved only once within Anomaluridae, and that there were no subsequent evolutionary reversals. We combine this new molecular evidence with morphological data from living and extinct anomaluromorph rodents and estimate that the lineage leading to Zenkerella has been evolving independently in Africa since the early Eocene, approximately 49 million years ago. Recently discovered fossils further attest to the antiquity of the lineage leading to Zenkerella, which can now be recognized as a classic example of a "living fossil," about which we know remarkably little. The osteological markers of gliding are estimated to have evolved along the stem lineage of the Anomalurus-Idiurus clade by the early Oligocene, potentially indicating that this adaptation evolved in response to climatic perturbations at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (∼34 million years ago).
    Subject(s): Mitochondrial DNA ; Nucleotide sequencing ; Phylogeny ; Fossils ; DNA sequencing ; Adaptations ; Neurosciences ; Nucleotide sequence ; Taxonomy ; Systematic biology ; Biogeography ; Biodiversity ; Genera ; Paleontology ; Hypotheses ; Morphology ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; Gliding ; Patagium ; Mammals ; Equatorial Guinea ; Bioko Island ; Anomaluridae
    ISSN: 2167-8359
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC evolutionary biology, 2007-11-13, Vol.7 (1), p.224-224
    Description: The placental mammalian clade Afrotheria is now supported by diverse forms of genomic data, but interordinal relationships within, and morphological support for, the group remains elusive. As a means for addressing these outstanding problems, competing hypotheses of afrotherian interordinal relationships were tested through simultaneous parsimony analysis of a large data set (〉 4,590 parsimony informative characters) containing genomic data (〉 17 kb of nucleotide data, chromosomal associations, and retroposons) and 400 morphological characters scored across 16 extant and 35 extinct afrotherians. Parsimony analysis of extant taxa alone recovered the interordinal topology (Afrosoricida, ((Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata), (Hyracoidea, (Proboscidea, Sirenia))). Analysis following addition of extinct taxa instead supported Afroinsectivora (Afrosoricida + Macroscelidea) and Pseudoungulata (Tubulidentata + Paenungulata), as well as Tethytheria (Proboscidea + Sirenia). This latter topology is, however, sensitive to taxon deletion and different placements of the placental root, and numerous alternative interordinal arrangements within Afrotheria could not be statistically rejected. Relationships among extinct stem members of each afrotherian clade were more stable, but one alleged stem macroscelidean (Herodotius) never grouped with that clade and instead consistently joined pseudoungulates or paenungulates. When character transformations were optimized onto a less resolved afrotherian tree that reflects uncertainty about the group's interordinal phylogeny, a total of 21 morphological features were identified as possible synapomorphies of crown Afrotheria, 9 of which optimized unambiguously across all character treatments and optimization methods. Instability in afrotherian interordinal phylogeny presumably reflects rapid divergences during two pulses of cladogenesis - the first in the Late Cretaceous, at and just after the origin of crown Afrotheria, and the second in the early Cenozoic, with the origin of crown Paenungulata. Morphological evidence for divergences during these two pulses either never existed or has largely been "erased" by subsequent evolution along long ordinal branches. There may, nevertheless, be more morphological character support for crown Afrotheria than is currently assumed; the features identified here as possible afrotherian synapomorphies can be further scrutinized through future phylogenetic analyses with broader taxon sampling, as well as recovery of primitive fossil afrotherians from the Afro-Arabian landmass, where the group is likely to have first diversified.
    Subject(s): Mammals - genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Mammals - classification ; Sequence Alignment ; Animals ; Extinction, Biological ; Phylogeny ; Mammals - anatomy & histology ; Fossils ; Molecular evolution ; Usage ; Research ; Genomics ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1471-2148
    E-ISSN: 1471-2148
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS, 2012-04-17, Vol.109 (16), p.6006-6011
    Description: A long-standing problem in primate evolution is the discord between paleontological and molecular clock estimates for the time of crown primate origins: the earliest crown primate fossils are ~56 million y (Ma) old, whereas molecular estimates for the haplorhine-strepsirrhine split are often deep in the Late Cretaceous. One explanation for this phenomenon is that crown primates existed in the Cretaceous but that their fossil remains have not yet been found. Here we provide strong evidence that this discordance is better-explained by a convergent molecular rate slowdown in early primate evolution. We show that molecular rates in primates are strongly and inversely related to three life-history correlates: body size (BS), absolute endocranial volume (EV), and relative endocranial volume (REV). Critically, these traits can be reconstructed from fossils, allowing molecular rates to be predicted for extinct primates. To this end, we modeled the evolutionary history of BS, EV, and REV using data from both extinct and extant primates. We show that the primate last common ancestor had a very small BS, EV, and REV. There has been a subsequent convergent increase in BS, EV, and REV, indicating that there has also been a convergent molecular rate slowdown over primate evolution. We generated a unique timescale for primates by predicting molecular rates from the reconstructed phenotypic values for a large phylogeny of living and extinct primates. This analysis suggests that crown primates originated close to the K-Pg boundary and possibly in the Paleocene, largely reconciling the molecular and fossil timescales of primate evolution.
    Subject(s): Datasets ; Divergent evolution ; Primates ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; Phylogeny ; Modeling ; Fossils ; Phenotypic traits ; Estimation methods ; Markov Chains ; Species Specificity ; Body Size ; Primates - classification ; Biological Evolution ; Genetic Variation ; Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase - genetics ; Primates - genetics ; Animals ; Time Factors ; Skull - anatomy & histology ; Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator - genetics ; Models, Genetic ; Monte Carlo Method ; Physiological aspects ; Molecular dynamics ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Evolutionary biology ; Index Medicus ; Biological Sciences
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ (San Francisco, CA), 2015, Vol.3, p.e1036-e1036
    Description: The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862), but has long been represented only by fragmentary mandibular and maxillary remains. More recent discoveries of adapiform fossils in other parts of the world have revealed Caenopithecus to be a biogeographic enigma, as it is potentially more closely related to Eocene adapiforms from Africa, Asia, and North America than it is to any known European forms. More anatomical evidence is needed, however, to provide robust tests of such phylogenetic hypotheses. Here we describe and analyze the first postcranial remains that can be attributed to C. lemuroides-an astragalus and three calcanei held in the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel that were likely recovered from Egerkingen over a century ago. Qualitative and multivariate morphometric analyses of these elements suggest that C. lemuroides was even more loris-like than European adapines such as Adapis and Leptadapis, and was not simply an adapine with an aberrant dentition. The astragalus of Caenopithecus is similar to that of younger Afradapis from the late Eocene of Egypt, and parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses that include the new tarsal data strongly support the placement of Afradapis and Caenopithecus as sister taxa to the exclusion of all other known adapiforms, thus implying that dispersal between Europe and Africa occurred during the middle Eocene. The new tarsal evidence, combined with previously known craniodental fossils, allows us to reconstruct C. lemuroides as having been an arboreal and highly folivorous 1.5-2.5 kg primate that likely moved slowly and deliberately with little or no capacity for acrobatic leaping, presumably maintaining consistent powerful grasps on branches in both above-branch and inverted postures.
    Subject(s): Primates ; Phylogeny ; Fossils ; Mandible ; Teeth ; Biogeography ; Museums ; Monkeys & apes ; Physical anthropology ; Maxilla ; Dispersal ; Dentition ; Phylogenetics ; Data collection ; Evolution ; Bayesian analysis ; Talus ; Afradapis ; Adapidae ; Astragalus ; Calcaneus ; Strepsirrhini
    ISSN: 2167-8359
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2013-05-30, Vol.497 (7451), p.611-614
    Description: Apes and Old World monkeys are prominent components of modern African and Asian ecosystems, yet the earliest phases of their evolutionary history have remained largely undocumented. The absence of crown catarrhine fossils older than ∼20 million years (Myr) has stood in stark contrast to molecular divergence estimates of ∼25-30 Myr for the split between Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes), implying long ghost lineages for both clades. Here we describe the oldest known fossil 'ape', represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with 'nyanzapithecine' stem hominoids. Additionally, we report the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade, represented by a lower third molar. Both specimens were recovered from a precisely dated 25.2-Myr-old stratum in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the western branch of the East African Rift in Tanzania. These finds extend the fossil record of apes and Old World monkeys well into the Oligocene epoch of Africa, suggesting a possible link between diversification of crown catarrhines and changes in the African landscape brought about by previously unrecognized tectonic activity in the East African rift system.
    Subject(s): Hominidae - anatomy & histology ; History, Ancient ; Animals ; Mandible - anatomy & histology ; Cercopithecidae - classification ; Tanzania ; Cercopithecidae - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Hominidae - classification ; Fossils ; Apes ; Divergent evolution ; Old-World monkeys ; Research ; Observations ; Paleontology ; Natural history ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2014-11-27, Vol.515 (7528), p.512-517
    Description: Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Species Specificity ; Skull - anatomy & histology ; Mosaicism ; Herbivory ; Phylogeny ; Mammals ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Fossils ; Multituberculates ; Teeth ; Research ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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