Microbial ecology, 2018-10, Vol.76 (3), p.751-761
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt.) M.W. Miller, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Boutroux) Yarrow), sour rot bacteria (Acetobacter aceti (Pasteur) Beijerinck and Gluconobacter oxydans (Henneberg) De Ley), and a fungal pathogen (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) all endemic of the vineyard were sampled by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and ethyl acetate were the most common volatiles released from all microbe-inoculated grapes. In addition, acetic acid was released at a substantial amount following bacteria inoculation and in a three-way inoculation with yeasts and the fungus. 2-phenylethanol, a compound reported to attract tortricid moths when used in combination with acetic acid, was found at a relatively low level in all microbial combinations as well as in the control grape. While grapes inoculated with a consortium of yeasts stimulated oviposition in comparison with uninoculated berries, the phytopathogenic fungus deterred egg-laying. Nonetheless, the highest preference to lay eggs was measured when the yeasts were co-inoculated with the fungus. The lowest preference was obtained when grapes were inoculated with sour rot bacteria and their binary co-inoculation with yeasts and the fungus. Interestingly, oviposition on berries simultaneously inoculated with all the three microbial groups was unaffected. Lures loaded with either acetic acid or 2-phenylethanol were not attractive when placed in traps as single component in vineyards, but a binary blend attracted both sexes of grapevine moth in significant numbers. Further addition of the three most common volatiles released by infected berries (ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and ethyl acetate) did not significantly increase moth catch with this binary blend. The ecological implications of the grape-microorganism and grapevine moth interaction as well as the possibility to develop a pest monitoring system based on microbial volatiles are discussed.
Life Sciences ; 2-phenylethanol ; Microbial Ecology ; Dual sex attractant ; Nature Conservation ; Microbiology ; Geoecology/Natural Processes ; Pest monitoring ; Water Quality/Water Pollution ; Ecology ; Acetic acid ; Lobesia botrana ; Wineries ; Wine industry ; Microorganisms ; Grapes ; Analysis ; Esters ; Mass spectrometry ; Food supply ; Organic acids ; Index Medicus ; Plant Microbe Interactions ; Mikrobiologi
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