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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Behavior research methods, 2017-01-27, Vol.49 (6), p.2146-2162
    Description: The study of eye movements has become popular in many fields of science. However, using the preprocessed output of an eye tracker without scrutiny can lead to low-quality or even erroneous data. For example, the sampling rate of the eye tracker influences saccadic peak velocity, while inadequate filters fail to suppress noise or introduce artifacts. Despite previously published guiding values, most filter choices still seem motivated by a trial-and-error approach, and a thorough analysis of filter effects is missing. Therefore, we developed a simple and easy-to-use saccade model that incorporates measured amplitude-velocity main sequences and produces saccades with a similar frequency content to real saccades. We also derived a velocity divergence measure to rate deviations between velocity profiles. In total, we simulated 155 saccades ranging from 0.5° to 60° and subjected them to different sampling rates, noise compositions, and various filter settings. The final goal was to compile a list with the best filter settings for each of these conditions. Replicating previous findings, we observed reduced peak velocities at lower sampling rates. However, this effect was highly non-linear over amplitudes and increasingly stronger for smaller saccades. Interpolating the data to a higher sampling rate significantly reduced this effect. We hope that our model and the velocity divergence measure will be used to provide a quickly accessible ground truth without the need for recording and manually labeling saccades. The comprehensive list of filters allows one to choose the correct filter for analyzing saccade data without resorting to trial-and-error methods.
    Subject(s): Article ; Behavioral Science and Psychology ; Cognitive Psychology ; Data processing ; Eye movements ; Eye tracking ; Psychology ; Saccadic peak velocity ; Similarity measure
    ISSN: 1554-3528
    E-ISSN: 1554-3528
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European journal of applied physiology, 2013-04-06, Vol.113 (8), p.2025-2037
    Description: Impairment of cognitive performance during and after high-altitude climbing has been described in numerous studies and has mostly been attributed to cerebral hypoxia and resulting functional and structural cerebral alterations. To investigate the hypothesis that high-altitude climbing leads to cognitive impairment, we used of neuropsychological tests and measurements of eye movement (EM) performance during different stimulus conditions. The study was conducted in 32 mountaineers participating in an expedition to Muztagh Ata (7,546 m). Neuropsychological tests comprised figural fluency, line bisection, letter and number cancellation, and a modified pegboard task. Saccadic performance was evaluated under three stimulus conditions with varying degrees of cortical involvement: visually guided pro- and anti-saccades, and visuo-visual interaction. Typical saccade parameters (latency, mean sequence, post-saccadic stability, and error rate) were computed off-line. Measurements were taken at a baseline level of 440 m and at altitudes of 4,497, 5,533, 6,265, and again at 440 m. All subjects reached 5,533 m, and 28 reached 6,265 m. The neuropsychological test results did not reveal any cognitive impairment. Complete eye movement recordings for all stimulus conditions were obtained in 24 subjects at baseline and at least two altitudes and in 10 subjects at baseline and all altitudes. Measurements of saccade performances showed no dependence on any altitude-related parameter and were well within normal limits. Our data indicates that acclimatized climbers do not seem to suffer from significant cognitive deficits during or after climbs to altitudes above 7,500 m. We demonstrated that investigation of EMs is feasible during high-altitude expeditions.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Altitude ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Cognition ; Cognitive function ; Female ; High altitude ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Hypoxia ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mountaineering - physiology ; Neuropsychological testing ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ; Original Article ; Saccades ; Saccadic eye movement ; Sports Medicine
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: BMC health services research, 2018-07-13, Vol.18 (1), p.550-550
    Description: Delirium is a well-known complication in cardiac surgery and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, in many other settings its prevalence and clinical consequences are understudied. The aims of this study were: (1) To assess delirium prevalence in a large, diverse cohort of acute care patients classified as either at risk or not at risk for delirium; (2) To compare these two groups according to defined indicators; and (3) To compare delirious with non-delirious patients regarding hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, nursing hours and cost per case. This cohort study was performed in a Swiss university hospital following implementation of a delirium management guideline. After excluding patients aged 〈 18 years or with a length of stay (LOS) 〈 1 day, 29'278 patients hospitalized in the study hospital in 2014 were included. Delirium period prevalence was calculated based on a Delirium Observation Scale (DOS) score ≥ 3 and / or Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) scores ≥4. Of 10'906 patients admitted, DOS / ICDSC scores indicated delirium in 28.4%. Delirium was most prevalent (36.2-40.5%) in cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, trauma, radiotherapy and neurology patients. It was also common in geriatrics, internal medicine, visceral surgery, reconstructive plastic surgery and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery patients (prevalence 21.6-28.6%). In the unadjusted and adjusted models, delirious patients had a significantly higher risk of inpatient mortality, stayed significantly longer in the ICU and hospital, needed significantly more nursing hours and generated significantly higher costs per case. For the seven most common ICD-10 diagnoses, each diagnostic group's delirious patients had worse outcomes compared to those with no delirium. The results indicate a high number of patients at risk for delirium, with high delirium prevalence across all patient groups. Delirious patients showed significantly worse clinical outcomes and generated higher costs. Subgroup analyses highlighted striking variations in delirium period-prevalence across patient groups. Due to the high prevalence of delirium in patients treated in care centers for radiotherapy, visceral surgery, reconstructive plastic surgery, cranio-maxillofacial surgery and oral surgery, it is recommended to expand the current focus of delirium management to these patient groups.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Cohort Studies ; Cost of diseases OR economic burden of diseases ; Critical Care - methods ; Delirium ; Delirium - diagnosis ; Delirium - economics ; Delirium - epidemiology ; Demographic aspects ; Diseases ; Female ; Health services ; Hospital Mortality ; Hospital patients ; Hospitalization ; Hospitals ; Hospitals, University ; Humans ; Intensive care ; Intensive Care Units ; Length of Stay ; Male ; Medical care, Cost of ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Neurocognitive disorders ; Patient Acuity ; Patient outcomes ; Patients ; Prevalence ; Prevention ; Research ; Risk Factors ; Switzerland ; Systematic review
    ISSN: 1472-6963
    E-ISSN: 1472-6963
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Intensive care medicine, 2009-09-18, Vol.36 (2), p.367-368
    Description: Byline: Andreas D. Kistler (1), Urs Schwarz (2), Josep Dalmau (3), Alain Rudiger (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland (2) Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (3) Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Article History: Registration Date: 28/08/2009 Accepted Date: 13/08/2009 Online Date: 18/09/2009
    Subject(s): Adult ; Anesthesiology ; Care and treatment ; Correspondence ; Critical Care Medicine ; Emergency Medicine ; Epilepsy ; Epilepsy - surgery ; Female ; Humans ; Intensive ; Intensive / Critical Care Medicine ; Laparoscopic surgery ; Laparoscopy ; Laparoscopy - methods ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Pain Medicine ; Pediatrics ; Pneumology/Respiratory System
    ISSN: 0342-4642
    E-ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurology, 2014-02-08, Vol.261 (4), p.732-737
    Description: Cerebral arterioveneous malformations (AVM) can cause neurological symptoms and carry a risk of hemorrhage. Therapeutic options to cure or reduce AVM include surgery, embolization, irradiation, and combinations thereof. Prompted by three index cases treated in our center, we studied whether AVM embolization is associated with an increased risk of subsequent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a monocenter series, we retrospectively analyzed the new development of ALS in patients who had been treated with embolization of cerebral AVM from 1986 to 2010 ( n  = 1,114). After a median follow-up of 11 years (range, 0–25 years) after first embolization, seven patients developed ALS with a median latency of 14 years (range, 12–17 years) and a median age of ALS onset of 38 years (range, 28–52 years). In all cases, the initial limb of ALS symptom onset was ipsilateral to the AVM. Five patients died within the follow-up period, with a range of 1–4 years after the onset of ALS symptoms. The seven patients belonged to a subgroup of 34 patients who had in common a rare AVM architecture characterized by significant perinidal angiogenesis. All cases were partially treated by at least three embolization sessions. As there is no known association between AVM and ALS, AVM embolization must be taken into account to have contributed to the development of ALS in the seven patients with this rare AVM architecture. Searching for underlying mechanisms, we compared frozen serum samples that were available from four of the patients who developed ALS, from eight patients with AVM of other architecture, and less than three embolizations who did not develop ALS, and of 20 controls. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the serum was lowest in AVM patients who developed ALS (245 ± 154 pmol/l) and highest in controls (409 ± 178 pmol/l). Although this difference was not statistically significant in the small sample, it suggests that low VEGF production by AVM with significant angiogenesis, possibly due to multiple embolization procedures, might have contributed to ALS development. ALS should be considered as a late complication of multiple embolizations of cerebral AVM characterized by significant perinidal angiogenesis.
    Subject(s): Adult ; ALS ; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - cerebrospinal fluid ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - etiology ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - genetics ; Arterioveneous malformation ; AVM ; Care and treatment ; Embolization ; Embolization, Therapeutic - adverse effects ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Genetic aspects ; Humans ; Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations - complications ; Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations - genetics ; Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations - therapy ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Middle Aged ; Neurology ; Neuroradiology ; Neurosciences ; Original Communication ; Prospective Studies ; Research ; Retrospective Studies ; Risk factors ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A - cerebrospinal fluid ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A - genetics
    ISSN: 0340-5354
    E-ISSN: 1432-1459
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The New England journal of medicine, 2009-11-26, Vol.361 (22), p.2195-2197
    Description: To the Editor: In the Shattuck Lecture on the hypertension paradox (Aug. 27 issue), 1 Chobanian points out that the number of people with uncontrolled hypertension is increasing. Nonadherence to treatment is a possible explanation for this finding, since estimated adherence rates are 51 to 79%, depending on the number of daily doses prescribed. 2 Nonadherence is a recognized cause of adverse outcomes, particularly among patients with cardiovascular disease. 3 In a recent editorial on osteoporosis in the Journal, 4 Khosla wrote that treatment success increasingly depends not so much on the drugs available to us but rather on our ability to engage our . . .
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use ; Cardiovascular disease ; Drug therapy ; Heart failure ; Humans ; Hypertension - drug therapy ; Mortality ; Patient Compliance
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
    Source: Single Journals
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2012-04-30, Vol.7 (4), p.e35300-e35300
    Description: Percutaneous carotid artery stenting (CAS) became a widely used procedure in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. However its role compared to carotid endarterectomy (CAD) remains questioned. We analysed the safety of carotid artery stenting program of a prospective CAS register program of a tertiary teaching hospital. Between July 2003 and December 2010, 208 patients underwent CAS procedure. Baseline, procedural and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Primary peri-interventional outcome was defined as 30-day major adverse events (MAE), including death, stroke or myocardial infarction, and mid- to long-term follow-up outcome included ipsilateral stroke, myocardial infarction or death. Secondary outcome was restenosis rate [greater than or equal to]50% per lesion. Implementation of a carotid artery stenting program at a tertiary, teaching hospital is a safe method for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The adverse event rate during mid-to-long-term follow-up suggests an appropriate patient selection.
    Subject(s): Angioplasty ; Cardiac patients ; Cardiology ; Cardiovascular disease ; Carotid arteries ; Carotid artery ; Catheters ; Cerebral infarction ; Collaboration ; Coronary vessels ; Heart ; Heart attack ; Medical imaging ; Medicine ; Meta-analysis ; Myocardial infarction ; Patients ; Restenosis ; Short term ; Stenosis ; Stent (Surgery) ; Stents ; Stroke
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of endovascular therapy, 2008-02, Vol.15 (1), p.103-109
    Description: Purpose: To investigate the impact of filter design on blood flow impairment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) among patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using filtertype emboli protection devices (EPD). Methods: Between July 2003 and March 2007, 115 filter-protected CAS procedures were performed at an academic institution in 107 consecutive patients (78 men; mean age 68 years, range 38–87). The Angioguard, FilterWire EZ, and Spider filters were used in 68 (59%), 32 (28%), and 15 (13%) of cases, respectively. Patient characteristics, procedural and angiographic data, and outcomes were prospectively entered into an electronic database and reviewed retrospectively along with all angiograms. Results: Flow impairment while the filter was in place was observed in 25 (22%) cases. The presumptive reason of flow impairment was filter obstruction in 21 (18%) instances and flow-limiting spasm at the level of the filter in 4 (4%). In all cases, flow was restored after retrieval of the filter. Flow obstruction in the ICA occurred more frequently with Angioguard (22/68; 32.3%) than with FilterWire EZ (2/32; 6.2%) or Spider (1/15; 6.7%; p=0.004). No flow occurred in 13 (19%) procedures, all of them protected with Angioguard; no patient treated with other devices experienced this event (p=0.007). Two (8.0%) strokes occurred in procedures associated with flow impairment, while 1 (1.1%) event was observed in the presence of preserved flow throughout the intervention (p=0.11). Conclusion: Flow impairment in the ICA during filter-based CAS is common and related to the type of filter used.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Angiography ; Angioplasty, Balloon ; Anticoagulants - therapeutic use ; Blood clots ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Carotid Artery, Internal ; Carotid Stenosis - surgery ; Chi-Square Distribution ; Data bases ; Data collection ; Female ; Filtration - instrumentation ; Humans ; Intracranial Embolism - prevention & control ; Male ; Medical imaging ; Membrane filters ; Middle Aged ; Patients ; Prospective Studies ; Prosthesis Design ; Retrospective Studies ; Sample size ; Standard deviation ; Stents ; Treatment Outcome ; Veins & arteries
    ISSN: 1526-6028
    E-ISSN: 1545-1550
    Source: SAGE Complete A-Z List
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 2010, Vol.24 (4), p.544-549
    Description: Objective The study's aim was to compare response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE) with bispectral index (BIS) electroencephalography (EEG) as an alternative cerebral monitoring tool in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Design Prospective, observational single-center study. Setting University hospital. Participants Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery receiving remifentanil-propofol anesthesia. Interventions Surgery was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac arrest in 15 patients, with CPB without cardiac arrest in 9 patients and without CPB in 6 patients. Measurements and Main Results RE, SE, BIS, burst suppression ratio (BSR), and frontal electromyography (f-EMG) were detected simultaneously. RE and SE compared favorably with BIS and their correlations were strong ( r2 = 0.6, r2 = 0.55, respectively). The mean bias of RE and BIS was −1.8, but limits of agreement were high (+20.5/−24.1). RE and SE tended to be lower than the BIS values in the CPB subgroups. The detection of BSR was similar with RE and SE and the BIS. A strong correlation existed between BIS and f-EMG ( r2 = 0.62) in contrast to RE ( r2 = 0.45) and SE ( r2 =0.39). BIS monitoring was significantly more disturbed than RE and SE with 9.1% ±10.9% and 0.1% ± 0.2% of the total anesthesia time, respectively. Neither implicit nor explicit memory was shown. Conclusion RE and SE are comparable with the BIS but showed significantly less interference from f-EMG and superior resistance against artifacts. Thus, spectral entropy is more suitable than the BIS during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in cardiac surgery patients.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Anesthesia & Perioperative Care ; Anesthesia, Intravenous - instrumentation ; Anesthesia, Intravenous - methods ; Anesthesia, Intravenous - standards ; BIS ; bispectral index ; Cardiac patients ; cardiac surgery ; Comparative analysis ; Consciousness Monitors - standards ; Coronary artery bypass ; Coronary Artery Bypass - instrumentation ; Coronary Artery Bypass - methods ; Coronary Artery Bypass - standards ; Critical Care ; depth of anesthesia ; electroencephalogram ; Electroencephalography - instrumentation ; Electroencephalography - methods ; Electroencephalography - standards ; Entropy ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Prospective Studies ; recall ; spectral entropy ; Surgery
    ISSN: 1053-0770
    E-ISSN: 1532-8422
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2012-08-24, Vol.7 (8)
    Subject(s): Carotid arteries ; Carotid artery ; Telephone number portability
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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