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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(8)
    Subject(s): Correction
    ISSN: PLoS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: Neurology, 2015, Vol.84(23), pp.2377-2378
    Description: Fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) is a sphingosin-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator with immunomodulatory properties that traps naive and central memory T cells in lymph nodes, leading to reduced numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and is the first licensed oral drug for multiple sclerosis (MS).1,2 We report a case of a near fatal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis under the licensed dose of fingolimod in a patient with MS.
    Subject(s): Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-3878
    E-ISSN: 1526632X
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  • 3
    In: NeuroReport, 2010, Vol.21(7), pp.479-484
    Description: Saccades are very rapid eye movements in between two phases of fixation, which offer a precise measure of behaviour for the direction of the spotlight of attention. The onset of global motion is known to attract our attention reflexively. We asked whether brief global motion stimuli are able to modify the execution of saccades. When participants performed visually guided saccades towards a target presented in front of a structured background, saccade latency was 174 ms on average and correctness of saccades was 100%. If the presentation of the target occurred at the same time as the onset of a brief global motion signal, then the saccade latency increased dramatically to 243 ms with a slight decrease in correctness to 89%. However, if the motion stimulus preceded the presentation of the target, then the latency decreased to 114 ms while the correctness dropped close to chance levels (62%).
    Subject(s): Medicine;
    ISSN: 0959-4965
    E-ISSN: 1473558X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(4), p.e35300
    Description: Percutaneous carotid artery stenting (CAS) became a widely used procedure in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. However its role compared to carotid endarterectomy (CAD) remains questioned. We analysed the safety of carotid artery stenting program of a prospective CAS register program of a tertiary teaching hospital. ; Between July 2003 and December 2010, 208 patients underwent CAS procedure. Baseline, procedural and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Primary peri-interventional outcome was defined as 30-day major adverse events (MAE), including death, stroke or myocardial infarction, and mid- to long-term follow-up outcome included ipsilateral stroke, myocardial infarction or death. Secondary outcome was restenosis rate ≥50% per lesion. ; Unilateral carotid artery interventions were performed in 186 patients. In 22 patients CAS was performed bilaterally as stages procedures. The 30-day MAE rate was 1.9% consisting of two contralateral strokes and two ipsilateral stroke. Mean clinically follow-up was 22 months. Mid- to long-term MAE was 8.1% with 6.3% (n = 13) deaths, 1.9% (n = 4) myocardial infarctions and 0.9% (n = 2) ipsilateral stroke. The restenosis rate ≥50% per lesion was 4.3% at a mean follow-up of 22 months. Target lesion revascularization was performed in one patient, because of restenosis at 9 months follow-up after first CAS. ; Implementation of a carotid artery stenting program at a tertiary, teaching hospital is a safe method for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The adverse event rate during mid-to-long-term follow-up suggests an appropriate patient selection.
    Subject(s): Research Article ; Medicine ; Surgery ; Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, 2014, Vol.261(4), pp.732-737
    Description: Cerebral arterioveneous malformations (AVM) can cause neurological symptoms and carry a risk of hemorrhage. Therapeutic options to cure or reduce AVM include surgery, embolization, irradiation, and combinations thereof. Prompted by three index cases treated in our center, we studied whether AVM embolization is associated with an increased risk of subsequent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a monocenter series, we retrospectively analyzed the new development of ALS in patients who had been treated with embolization of cerebral AVM from 1986 to 2010 ( n  = 1,114). After a median follow-up of 11 years (range, 0–25 years) after first embolization, seven patients developed ALS with a median latency of 14 years (range, 12–17 years) and a median age of ALS onset of 38 years (range, 28–52 years). In all cases, the initial limb of ALS symptom onset was ipsilateral to the AVM. Five patients died within the follow-up period, with a range of 1–4 years after the onset of ALS symptoms. The seven patients belonged to a subgroup of 34 patients who had in common a rare AVM architecture characterized by significant perinidal angiogenesis. All cases were partially treated by at least three embolization sessions. As there is no known association between AVM and ALS, AVM embolization must be taken into account to have contributed to the development of ALS in the seven patients with this rare AVM architecture. Searching for underlying mechanisms, we compared frozen serum samples that were available from four of the patients who developed ALS, from eight patients with AVM of other architecture, and less than three embolizations who did not develop ALS, and of 20 controls. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the serum was lowest in AVM patients who developed ALS (245 ± 154 pmol/l) and highest in controls (409 ± 178 pmol/l). Although this difference was not statistically significant in the small sample, it suggests that low VEGF production by AVM with significant angiogenesis, possibly due to multiple embolization procedures, might have contributed to ALS development. ALS should be considered as a late complication of multiple embolizations of cerebral AVM characterized by significant perinidal angiogenesis.
    Subject(s): AVM ; ALS ; Embolization ; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Arterioveneous malformation
    ISSN: 0340-5354
    E-ISSN: 1432-1459
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Intensive Care Medicine, 2010, Vol.36(2), pp.367-368
    Subject(s): Medicine & Public Health ; Pediatrics ; Pain Medicine ; Pneumology/Respiratory System ; Emergency Medicine ; Anesthesiology ; Intensive / Critical Care Medicine ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0342-4642
    E-ISSN: 1432-1238
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  • 7
    In: Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2017, Vol.125(5), pp.1544-1548
    Description: This retrospective single-center study investigated the incidence of neurologic injury as determined by autopsy or cerebral imaging in 74 patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Seventy-three percent of patients were treated with venovenous and 27% with venoarterial ECMO. ECMO-associated intracerebral hemorrhage was diagnosed in 10.8% of patients. There were no cases of ischemic stroke. Clinical characteristics did not differ between patients with and without neurologic injury. Six-month survival was 13% (Wilson confidence interval, 2%–47%) in patients with severe intracerebral hemorrhage compared to an overall survival rate of 57% (Wilson confidence interval, 45%–67%).
    Subject(s): Cerebral Hemorrhage -- Etiology ; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation -- Adverse Effects ; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult -- Therapy;
    ISSN: 0003-2999
    E-ISSN: 15267598
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2013, Vol.113(8), pp.2025-2037
    Description: Impairment of cognitive performance during and after high-altitude climbing has been described in numerous studies and has mostly been attributed to cerebral hypoxia and resulting functional and structural cerebral alterations. To investigate the hypothesis that high-altitude climbing leads to cognitive impairment, we used of neuropsychological tests and measurements of eye movement (EM) performance during different stimulus conditions. The study was conducted in 32 mountaineers participating in an expedition to Muztagh Ata (7,546 m). Neuropsychological tests comprised figural fluency, line bisection, letter and number cancellation, and a modified pegboard task. Saccadic performance was evaluated under three stimulus conditions with varying degrees of cortical involvement: visually guided pro- and anti-saccades, and visuo-visual interaction. Typical saccade parameters (latency, mean sequence, post-saccadic stability, and error rate) were computed off-line. Measurements were taken at a baseline level of 440 m and at altitudes of 4,497, 5,533, 6,265, and again at 440 m. All subjects reached 5,533 m, and 28 reached 6,265 m. The neuropsychological test results did not reveal any cognitive impairment. Complete eye movement recordings for all stimulus conditions were obtained in 24 subjects at baseline and at least two altitudes and in 10 subjects at baseline and all altitudes. Measurements of saccade performances showed no dependence on any altitude-related parameter and were well within normal limits. Our data indicates that acclimatized climbers do not seem to suffer from significant cognitive deficits during or after climbs to altitudes above 7,500 m. We demonstrated that investigation of EMs is feasible during high-altitude expeditions.
    Subject(s): High altitude ; Hypoxia ; Saccadic eye movement ; Neuropsychological testing ; Cognitive function
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMJ : British Medical Journal, 14 November 2012, Vol.345
    Description: A 54 year old man presented after a first ever secondary generalised seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion with soft tissue intensity in the right parietal skull. Herniated brain tissue was confirmed by positron emission tomography and computed tomography with 18F-fluorethyltyrosin, which showed low, brain like, metabolic activity. Arachnoid granulations can cause focal lesions, but brain herniation is uncommon. A childhood trauma experienced by the patient (a 3 m fall at age 12) could have led to an arachnoid projection into an unrecognised fracture, resulting in a persisting subtotal osseous defect with herniated brain.
    Subject(s): Tomography ; Seizures;
    ISSN: BMJ
    E-ISSN: 1756-1833
    E-ISSN: 17561833
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Behavior Research Methods, 2017, Vol.49(6), pp.2146-2162
    Description: The study of eye movements has become popular in many fields of science. However, using the preprocessed output of an eye tracker without scrutiny can lead to low-quality or even erroneous data. For example, the sampling rate of the eye tracker influences saccadic peak velocity, while inadequate filters fail to suppress noise or introduce artifacts. Despite previously published guiding values, most filter choices still seem motivated by a trial-and-error approach, and a thorough analysis of filter effects is missing. Therefore, we developed a simple and easy-to-use saccade model that incorporates measured amplitude-velocity main sequences and produces saccades with a similar frequency content to real saccades. We also derived a velocity divergence measure to rate deviations between velocity profiles. In total, we simulated 155 saccades ranging from 0.5° to 60° and subjected them to different sampling rates, noise compositions, and various filter settings. The final goal was to compile a list with the best filter settings for each of these conditions. Replicating previous findings, we observed reduced peak velocities at lower sampling rates. However, this effect was highly non-linear over amplitudes and increasingly stronger for smaller saccades. Interpolating the data to a higher sampling rate significantly reduced this effect. We hope that our model and the velocity divergence measure will be used to provide a quickly accessible ground truth without the need for recording and manually labeling saccades. The comprehensive list of filters allows one to choose the correct filter for analyzing saccade data without resorting to trial-and-error methods.
    Subject(s): Eye tracking ; Eye movements ; Data processing ; Similarity measure ; Saccadic peak velocity
    E-ISSN: 1554-3528
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