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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European journal of applied physiology, 2013-04-06, Vol.113 (8), p.2025-2037
    Description: Impairment of cognitive performance during and after high-altitude climbing has been described in numerous studies and has mostly been attributed to cerebral hypoxia and resulting functional and structural cerebral alterations. To investigate the hypothesis that high-altitude climbing leads to cognitive impairment, we used of neuropsychological tests and measurements of eye movement (EM) performance during different stimulus conditions. The study was conducted in 32 mountaineers participating in an expedition to Muztagh Ata (7,546 m). Neuropsychological tests comprised figural fluency, line bisection, letter and number cancellation, and a modified pegboard task. Saccadic performance was evaluated under three stimulus conditions with varying degrees of cortical involvement: visually guided pro- and anti-saccades, and visuo-visual interaction. Typical saccade parameters (latency, mean sequence, post-saccadic stability, and error rate) were computed off-line. Measurements were taken at a baseline level of 440 m and at altitudes of 4,497, 5,533, 6,265, and again at 440 m. All subjects reached 5,533 m, and 28 reached 6,265 m. The neuropsychological test results did not reveal any cognitive impairment. Complete eye movement recordings for all stimulus conditions were obtained in 24 subjects at baseline and at least two altitudes and in 10 subjects at baseline and all altitudes. Measurements of saccade performances showed no dependence on any altitude-related parameter and were well within normal limits. Our data indicates that acclimatized climbers do not seem to suffer from significant cognitive deficits during or after climbs to altitudes above 7,500 m. We demonstrated that investigation of EMs is feasible during high-altitude expeditions.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Altitude ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Cognition ; Cognitive function ; Female ; High altitude ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Hypoxia ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mountaineering - physiology ; Neuropsychological testing ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ; Original Article ; Saccades ; Saccadic eye movement ; Sports Medicine
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: British journal of sports medicine, 2018-01, Vol.52 (1), p.41-46
    Description: BackgroundOne injury mechanism in ice hockey is impact with the boards. We investigated whether more flexible hockey boards would provide less biomechanical loading on impact than did existing (reference) boards.MethodsWe conducted impact tests with a dynamic pendulum (mass 60 kg) and with crash test dummies (ES-2 dummy, 4.76 m/s impact speed). Outcomes were biomechanical loading experienced by a player in terms of head acceleration, impact force to the shoulder, spine, abdomen and pelvis as well as compression of the thorax.ResultsThe more flexible board designs featured substantial displacement at impact. Some so-called flexible boards were displaced four times more than the reference board. The new boards possessed less stiffness and up to 90 kg less effective mass, reducing the portion of the board mass a player experienced on impact, compared with boards with a conventional design. Flexible boards resulted in a similar or reduced loading for all body regions, apart from the shoulder. The displacement of a board system did not correlate directly with the biomechanical loading.ConclusionsFlexible board systems can reduce the loading of a player on impact. However, we found no correlation between the displacement and the biomechanical loading; accordingly, displacement alone was insufficient to characterise the overall loading of a player and thus the risk of injury associated with board impact. Ideally, the performance of boards is assessed on the basis of parameters that show a good correlation to injury risk.
    Subject(s): 1506 ; 2314 ; Acceleration ; Athletic Injuries - prevention & control ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; biomechanics ; Head ; Health aspects ; Hockey ; Hockey - injuries ; Hockey players ; Humans ; ice hockey ; injury prevention ; Manikins ; Original ; Research ; Risk factors ; Shoulder ; Sports and Recreational Facilities ; Sports injuries
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of forensic sciences, 2014-09, Vol.59 (5), p.1191-1197
    Description: Blunt head impact as sustained in falls or punches against the head can result in rupture of bridging veins. Computer simulations were performed to simulate three different types of falls and punches against the head. The relative brain‐skull motion was recorded. The falls resulted in impact on the backside of the head, whereas the punches struck the face. The maximum resultant translational and rotational acceleration, the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), and the characteristics of the relative brain‐skull motion, as well as the coup and contre‐coup regions were determined. The maximum resultant translational acceleration was found to be between 2982 and 3541 m/s² for falls and between 814 and 942 m/s² for punches. The maximum resultant rotational acceleration reached 632–1000 rad/s² for falls and 252–620 rad/s² for punches. The HIC for falls was found to be at least 1357 and at most 130 for punches. The major brain‐skull displacement calculated for falls and punches was 6.6 and 4.2 mm, respectively. The results of this study suggest that falls are associated with a higher risk for bridging vein ruptures than punches and that cerebral contusions at the contre‐coup side are more serious.
    Subject(s): Accident reconstruction ; Accidental Falls ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; biomechanics ; Brain damage ; bridging vein rupture ; Computer Simulation ; Computer-generated environments ; falls ; Finite Element Analysis ; forensic science ; Forensic Sciences ; head impact ; Head Injuries, Closed ; Humans ; Investigations ; numerical simulations ; punches ; Simulation ; Violence
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Wiley-Blackwell Full Collection 2009
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: British journal of sports medicine, 2017-02, Vol.51 (4), p.383-383
    Description: BackgroundImpact to boards is a frequent cause of injury in ice hockey. Improving the board design to reduce the biomechanical loading of a player at impact is one option to prevent injury.ObjectiveCompare the impact performance of different ice hockey boards and investigate whether so-called “flexible” board designs are to be preferred over standard designs.DesignImpact testing of ice hockey boards under laboratory conditions using a dynamic pendulum as well as anthropometric test devices (crash test dummies).Experimental SettingThree board elements including glazing (total length: 7 to 9 m; total height: 2.9 to 3 m) were mounted in the laboratory. A total of 8 systems were tested: two systems featured a standard design while 6 systems represented recent designs that claim to be more flexible. The test conditions were chosen based on previous studies. A pendulum (mass: 60 kg) impacted the boards at heights of 1 m (below handrail) and 1.4 m (on glazing) with velocities of 3.37 m/s and 4.76 m/s. The dummy experiments used a fully instrumented ES-2 dummy that impacted the board in a standing position (mimicking a body check position) at 4.76 m/s.Main Outcome MeasurementsThe deformation of the boards was measured at 1 m and 1.4 m height. Additionally biomechanical relevant measures were recorded using the dummy. The performance of the board and the biomechanical loading of a player were assessed.ResultsGenerally a “flexible” board design allows for more deformation than a standard design, but the performance varies strongly between different board models/ products. While standard boards deformed 13.4±3.6 mm and 30.7±13.1 mm at 1 m and 1.4 m height, respectively, “flexible” boards deformed 40.1±13.3 mm and 56.2±17.7 mm. Acrylic glazing enables more deformation than glass glazing (10–60% increase). The results were consistent for dummy and pendulum impacts.ConclusionsRecent board designs exhibit a larger deformation performance compared to standard designs.
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation, 2016, Vol.8 (1), p.23-23
    Description: ACL ruptures in Alpine ski racers are frequently observed. This study analysed the association between physical fitness, race performance and the knee injury history. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the influence of physical fitness and performance on the knee injury outcome. As part of this study an injury data base (covering 2004-2013) was established that recorded information about the athletes, their fitness status as determined by a standardised fitness test (Swiss Ski Power Test, SSPT) as well as medical information related to injuries. The performance of athletes who sustained knee injury was compared to athletes who suffered no injury or a different injury. Twenty-seven (19f, 8 m) of 70 athletes sustained a knee injury. ACL ruptures accounted for 71 % of these knee injuries. While more females sustained a knee injury, the difference between males and females was not statistically significant. It was shown that athletes with a better FIS (Fédération Internationale de Ski) rank were more prone to knee injury. However, none of the parameters related to physical fitness was linked to a history of knee injury. A general fitness test as SSPT is not associated with a history of knee injury in Alpine skiing. More specific physical fitness test procedures should be investigated to determine relevant fitness factors.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Anterior cruciate ligament ; Downhill skiing ; Health aspects ; Injuries ; Physical fitness ; Skiers
    ISSN: 2052-1847
    E-ISSN: 2052-1847
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: British journal of sports medicine, 2010-09, Vol.44 (11), p.822-826
    Description: Objective Back protectors for snowboarders were analysed with respect to their potential to prevent spinal injury. Design In 20 Swiss skiing resorts, athletes were interviewed on the slope. In addition, an online survey was conducted. The performance of 12 commercially available back protectors was investigated by means of mechanical testing. A currently used drop test according to standard EN1621 (motorcycle protectors), testing energy damping was supplemented by penetration tests according to standard EN1077, which reflects snowsport safety concerns. Results 6 out of 12 back protectors fulfilled the higher safety level defined in EN1621. Protectors making use of energy-absorbing layers performed particularly well. In contrast, hard shell protectors exhibited a higher potential to withstand the penetration test. The surveys confirmed that approximately 40–50% of snowboarders use a back protector. A large majority of users expect protection from severe spinal injury such as vertebral fractures or spinal cord injury. Conclusions The currently used test standards are fulfilled by many back protectors. Users, however, expect protectors to be efficient in impact scenarios that result in spinal injury, which are more severe than impacts as addressed in the current standards. This study highlights that there is a mismatch between the capabilities of current back protectors to prevent spinal injury in snowboarding and the expectations users have of these protectors.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Child ; Equipment Design ; Female ; Humans ; Injuries ; Male ; Materials Testing - methods ; Middle Aged ; Prevention ; Protective clothing ; Protective Devices ; Recreation ; Research ; Risk factors ; Skiing - injuries ; Snowboards and snowboarding ; Spinal cord injuries ; Spinal Injuries - prevention & control ; Usage ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: BMJ Journals - NESLi2
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sports engineering, 2013-03-14, Vol.16 (4), p.197-210
    Description: The wrist is the most frequently injured body region among snowboarders. Studies have shown that the risk of sustaining a wrist injury can be reduced by wearing wrist protection. Currently, there are a wide variety of wrist protection products for snowboarding on the market that offer a range of protective features. However, there are no minimum performance standards for snowboarding wrist protectors worldwide. The International Society for Skiing Safety convened a task force to develop a White Paper to evaluate the importance and necessity of a minimum performance for all wrist protectors used in snowboarding. The White Paper outlines the need for a general framework for a harmonized international standard and reviews the existing evidence. Therefore, this White Paper may serve as a common base for future discussions. The broader goal of developing and implementing such a standard is to reduce the incidence and the severity of wrist injuries in snowboarding without increasing the risk of adverse events, such as upper arm or shoulder injury. The European standard for inline skating wrist protectors (EN 14120) can serve as a starting point for efforts related to a standard for snowboard wrist protectors, but certain modifications to the standard would be required. It is hypothesized that implementation of a snowboarding wrist protector standard would result in fewer and less severe wrist injuries in the sport and could translate into more riding days for healthy snowboarders and significant health-care costs savings.
    Subject(s): Biomedical Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering ; Engineering ; Engineering Design ; general ; Injury ; Materials Science ; Materials Science, general ; Original Article ; PPE ; Protector ; Rehabilitation Medicine ; Snowboarding ; Snowboards and snowboarding ; Sports Medicine ; Standard ; Task forces ; Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ; White Paper ; Wrist
    ISSN: 1369-7072
    E-ISSN: 1460-2687
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of sports sciences, 2010-01-01, Vol.28 (1), p.53-59
    Description: There is a risk of hip injury in dives to the side by soccer goalkeepers. In this study, we assessed hip loading in goalkeepers when performing such dives. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting using an in-ground force plate as well as on a grass surface when the athletes were equipped with force sensors. The forces acting on the hip were measured and high-speed video analysis was performed, allowing the investigation of the dive characteristics and techniques. The peak force values recorded in the laboratory setting ranged from 3 to 8 kN, which corresponded to 4.2-8.6 times body weight. The vertical impact velocities reached 3.25 m · s −1 . In the field experiments, a hip loading of 87-183 N · cm −2 was determined. We found that goalkeepers who perform a rolling motion reduce their hip loading. The data provided by this study add to the biomechanics database and contribute to the establishment of injury criteria. Such information is necessary to develop and implement strategies to help prevent hip injuries.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Athletes ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomechanics ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; hip ; Hip - physiology ; Hip Injuries - prevention & control ; Hip Joint - physiology ; Humans ; injury ; injury prevention ; Male ; Motion ; Movement ; Posture ; Risk Factors ; soccer ; Soccer - physiology ; Stress, Mechanical ; Vertebrates: body movement. Posture. Locomotion. Flight. Swimming. Physical exercise. Rest. Sports ; Weight-Bearing ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0264-0414
    E-ISSN: 1466-447X
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sports biomechanics, 2012-03-01, Vol.11 (1), p.57-72
    Description: Wrist injuries are frequently observed after falls in snowboarding. In this study, laboratory experiments mimicking forward and backward falls were analysed. In six different falling scenarios, participants self-initiated falls from a static initial position. Eighteen volunteers conducted a total of 741 trials. Measurements were taken for basic parameters describing the kinematics as well as the biomechanical loading during impact, such as impact force, impact acceleration, and velocity. The effective mass affecting the wrist in a fall also was determined. The elbow angle at impact showed a more extended arm in backward falls compared to forward falls, whereas the wrist angle at impact remained similar in forward and backward falls. The study results suggest a new performance standard for wrist guards, indicating the following parameters to characterize an impact: an effective mass acting on one wrist of 3-5 kg, an impact angle of 75° of the forearm relative to the ground, and an impact velocity of 3 m/s.
    Subject(s): Accidental Falls ; Adult ; Athletic Injuries - etiology ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomechanics ; Female ; guard ; Humans ; impact ; injury ; Male ; Skiing ; wrist ; Wrist Injuries - etiology ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1476-3141
    E-ISSN: 1752-6116
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, 2009-08, Vol.18 (3), p.427-437
    Description: In this study a numerical model of a skier was developed to investigate the effect of different rehabilitation strategies after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. A computer model using a combined finite-element and multibody approach was established. The model includes a detailed representation of the knee structures, as well as all major leg muscles. Using this model, different strategies after ACL rupture were analyzed. The benefit of muscle training to compensate for a loss of the ACL was shown. The results indicate that an increase of 10% of the physiological cross-sectional area has a positive effect without subjecting other knee structures to critical loads. Simulating the use of a hamstring graft indicated increasing knee loads. A patellar-tendon graft resulted in an increase of the stress on the lateral collateral ligament. Muscle training of both extensors and flexors is beneficial in medical rehabilitation of ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries ; Computer Simulation ; Humans ; Knee ; Knee Injuries - rehabilitation ; Knee Joint ; Male ; Muscle, Skeletal ; Patellar Ligament - injuries ; Rupture - rehabilitation ; Skiing - physiology ; Software
    ISSN: 1056-6716
    E-ISSN: 1543-3072
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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