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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine February 2017, Vol.51(4), p.383
    Description: Impact to boards is a frequent cause of injury in ice hockey. Improving the board design to reduce the biomechanical loading of a player at impact is one option to prevent injury.
    Subject(s): Injury
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30 January 2018, Vol.52(1), p.41
    Description: One injury mechanism in ice hockey is impact with the boards. We investigated whether more flexible hockey boards would provide less biomechanical loading on impact than did existing (reference) boards.
    Subject(s): Biomechanics ; Ice Hockey ; Injury Prevention
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Sports Sciences, 01 January 2010, Vol.28(1), pp.53-59
    Description: There is a risk of hip injury in dives to the side by soccer goalkeepers. In this study, we assessed hip loading in goalkeepers when performing such dives. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting using an in-ground force plate...
    Subject(s): Biomechanics ; Injury ; Soccer ; Hip ; Injury Prevention ; Medicine ; Recreation & Sports
    ISSN: 0264-0414
    E-ISSN: 1466-447X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, February 2017, Vol.51(4), p.383
    Description: Background Impact to boards is a frequent cause of injury in ice hockey. Improving the board design to reduce the biomechanical loading of a player at impact is one option to prevent injury. Objective Compare the impact performance of different ice hockey boards and investigate whether so-called "flexible" board designs are to be preferred over standard designs. Design Impact testing of ice hockey boards under laboratory conditions using a dynamic pendulum as well as anthropometric test devices (crash test dummies). Experimental Setting Three board elements including glazing (total length: 7 to 9 m; total height: 2.9 to 3 m) were mounted in the laboratory. A total of 8 systems were tested: two systems featured a standard design while 6 systems represented recent designs that claim to be more flexible. The test conditions were chosen based on previous studies. A pendulum (mass: 60 kg) impacted the boards at heights of 1 m (below handrail) and 1.4 m (on glazing) with velocities of 3.37 m/s and 4.76 m/s. The dummy experiments used a fully instrumented ES-2 dummy that impacted the board in a standing position (mimicking a body check position) at 4.76 m/s. Main Outcome Measurements The deformation of the boards was measured at 1 m and 1.4 m height. Additionally biomechanical relevant measures were recorded using the dummy. The performance of the board and the biomechanical loading of a player were assessed. Results Generally a "flexible" board design allows for more deformation than a standard design, but the performance varies strongly between different board models/ products. While standard boards deformed 13.4± 3.6 mm and 30.7± 13.1 mm at 1 m and 1.4 m height, respectively, "flexible" boards deformed 40.1± 13.3 mm and 56.2± 17.7 mm. Acrylic glazing enables more deformation than glass glazing (10-60% increase). The results were consistent for dummy and pendulum impacts. Conclusions Recent board designs exhibit a larger deformation performance compared to standard designs.
    Subject(s): Measurement ; Injuries ; Height ; Standards ; Ice Hockey ; Performance ; Standing ; Biomechanics ; Athletes ; Sports Medicine & Exercise Sport Science
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: Sports Medicine and Education Index
    Source: Physical Education Index
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 20 September 2010, Vol.44(11), p.822
    Description: Back protectors for snowboarders were analysed with respect to their potential to prevent spinal injury.
    Subject(s): Adolescent–Methods ; Adult–Injuries ; Aged–Prevention & Control ; Child–Prevention & Control ; Equipment Design–Prevention & Control ; Female–Prevention & Control ; Humans–Prevention & Control ; Male–Prevention & Control ; Materials Testing–Prevention & Control ; Middle Aged–Prevention & Control ; Protective Devices–Prevention & Control ; Recreation–Prevention & Control ; Skiing–Prevention & Control ; Spinal Injuries–Prevention & Control ; Young Adult–Prevention & Control;
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, September 2014, Vol.59(5), pp.1191-1197
    Description: Blunt head impact as sustained in falls or punches against the head can result in rupture of bridging veins. Computer simulations were performed to simulate three different types of falls and punches against the head. The relative brain‐skull motion was recorded. The falls resulted in impact on the backside of the head, whereas the punches struck the face. The maximum resultant translational and rotational acceleration, the ead njury riterion (), and the characteristics of the relative brain‐skull motion, as well as the coup and contre‐coup regions were determined. The maximum resultant translational acceleration was found to be between 2982 and 3541 m/s² for falls and between 814 and 942 m/s² for punches. The maximum resultant rotational acceleration reached 632–1000 rad/s² for falls and 252–620 rad/s² for punches. The for falls was found to be at least 1357 and at most 130 for punches. The major brain‐skull displacement calculated for falls and punches was 6.6 and 4.2 mm, respectively. The results of this study suggest that falls are associated with a higher risk for bridging vein ruptures than punches and that cerebral contusions at the contre‐coup side are more serious.
    Subject(s): Forensic Science ; Biomechanics ; Head Impact ; Accident Reconstruction ; Bridging Vein Rupture ; Numerical Simulations ; Falls ; Punches
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Sport Science, 01 January 2014, Vol.14, pp.S165-S170
    Description: On-slope experiments were performed to determine the reaction time of recreational skiers and snowboarders. Volunteers riding a slope were instructed to brake to a complete stop after a visual and acoustic signal. Reaction time and parameters such as the duration of the braking manoeuvre and the corresponding stopping distance were recorded. A total of 70 runs were evaluated, including 37 runs with snowboarders and 33 runs with skiers. The average time until the first observable reaction (reaction time) for all athletes was 420 ms; there was no statistically significant difference between skiers and snowboarders. Participants needed on average an additional 470 ms until they actually started braking. Snowboarders needed significantly more time to prepare for braking than skiers and it took snowboarders significantly longer to stop (p0.05). In line with these findings, snowboarders also exhibited significantly less deceleration during braking compared to skiers. This study...
    Subject(s): Skiing ; Snowboarding ; Reaction Time ; Biomechanics ; Injury ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1746-1391
    E-ISSN: 1536-7290
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2010, Vol.44(11), pp.822-826
    Description: OBJECTIVE: Back protectors for snowboarders were analysed with respect to their potential to prevent spinal injury. DESIGN: In 20 Swiss skiing resorts, athletes were interviewed on the slope. In addition, an online survey was conducted. The performance of 12 commercially available back protectors was investigated by means of mechanical testing. A currently used drop test according to standard EN1621 (motorcycle protectors), testing energy damping was supplemented by penetration tests according to standard EN1077, which reflects snowsport safety concerns. RESULTS: 6 out of 12 back protectors fulfilled the higher safety level defined in EN1621. Protectors making use of energy-absorbing layers performed particularly well. In contrast, hard shell protectors exhibited a higher potential to withstand the penetration test. The surveys confirmed that approximately 40-50% of snowboarders use a back protector. A large majority of users expect protection from severe spinal injury such as vertebral fractures or spinal cord injury. CONCLUSIONS: The currently used test standards are fulfilled by many back protectors. Users, however, expect protectors to be efficient in impact scenarios that result in spinal injury, which are more severe than impacts as addressed in the current standards. This study highlights that there is a mismatch between the capabilities of current back protectors to prevent spinal injury in snowboarding and the expectations users have of these protectors.
    Subject(s): Snowboarding ; Winter Sports ; Injuries ; Safety ; Surveys ; Standards ; Performance ; Sports Medicine ; Back ; Sports Medicine & Exercise Sport Science
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: Sports Medicine and Education Index
    Source: Physical Education Index
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2013, Vol.113(8), pp.2025-2037
    Description: Impairment of cognitive performance during and after high-altitude climbing has been described in numerous studies and has mostly been attributed to cerebral hypoxia and resulting functional and structural cerebral alterations. To investigate the hypothesis that high-altitude climbing leads to cognitive impairment, we used of neuropsychological tests and measurements of eye movement (EM) performance during different stimulus conditions. The study was conducted in 32 mountaineers participating in an expedition to Muztagh Ata (7,546 m). Neuropsychological tests comprised figural fluency, line bisection, letter and number cancellation, and a modified pegboard task. Saccadic performance was evaluated under three stimulus conditions with varying degrees of cortical involvement: visually guided pro- and anti-saccades, and visuo-visual interaction. Typical saccade parameters (latency, mean sequence, post-saccadic stability, and error rate) were computed off-line. Measurements were taken at a baseline level of 440 m and at altitudes of 4,497, 5,533, 6,265, and again at 440 m. All subjects reached 5,533 m, and 28 reached 6,265 m. The neuropsychological test results did not reveal any cognitive impairment. Complete eye movement recordings for all stimulus conditions were obtained in 24 subjects at baseline and at least two altitudes and in 10 subjects at baseline and all altitudes. Measurements of saccade performances showed no dependence on any altitude-related parameter and were well within normal limits. Our data indicates that acclimatized climbers do not seem to suffer from significant cognitive deficits during or after climbs to altitudes above 7,500 m. We demonstrated that investigation of EMs is feasible during high-altitude expeditions.
    Subject(s): High altitude ; Hypoxia ; Saccadic eye movement ; Neuropsychological testing ; Cognitive function
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Sport Science, Jan 1, 2014, Vol.14(S1), pp.S165-S170
    Description: On-slope experiments were performed to determine the reaction time of recreational skiers and snowboarders. Volunteers riding a slope were instructed to brake to a complete stop after a visual and acoustic signal. Reaction time and parameters such as the duration of the braking manoeuvre and the corresponding stopping distance were recorded. A total of 70 runs were evaluated, including 37 runs with snowboarders and 33 runs with skiers. The average time until the first observable reaction (reaction time) for all athletes was 420 ms; there was no statistically significant difference between skiers and snowboarders. Participants needed on average an additional 470 ms until they actually started braking. Snowboarders needed significantly more time to prepare for braking than skiers and it took snowboarders significantly longer to stop (p〈0.05). In line with these findings, snowboarders also exhibited significantly less deceleration during braking compared to skiers. This study quantifies the reaction times of skiers and snowboarders and provides data related to braking of skiers and snowboarders. This data is useful for the development of injury prevention measures and can be used to ensure reasonable slope design.
    Subject(s): Reaction Time ; Winter Sports ; Statistics ; Preventive Health ; Running ; Sport Science ; Performance ; Skiing ; Athletes ; Sports Medicine & Exercise Sport Science
    ISSN: 1746-1391
    E-ISSN: 1536-7290
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: Sports Medicine and Education Index
    Source: Physical Education Index
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