Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation, 1997, Vol.12 (11), p.2355-2364
Thrombotic complications are common in patients with endstage renal disease and contribute substantially to the morbidity and mortality in this population. The aim of the present study was to: i) determine the prevalence and the extent of hypercoagulability in patients undergoing dialysis treatment by measuring parameters that directly reflect thrombin concentrations; ii) assess changes in coagulation status during haemodialysis (HD); iii) quantify the relative impact of heparin, dialysis and their combined effects on coagulation status and iv) detect factors that modify coagulation haemostasis in dialysis patients.
A total of 39 patients (HD: n = 29, CAPD: n = 10) was analysed for procoagulatory and fibrinolytic activity determined by measurements of partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin fragments F1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer concentrations. HD patients were investigated prior to and during dialysis. A subgroup of patients was infused heparin alone without dialysis or was dialysed without heparin administration. Furthermore, subgroup and correlation analyses were performed for the type of dialysis (HD vs CAPD), dialyzer and shunt, Kt/V, underlying disease and treatment with recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO).
Baseline levels of all parameters-procoagulatory and fibrinolytic--were substantially elevated in all patients, but to a higher degree among those on CAPD. Moreover, haemodialysis treatment increased procoagulatory markers even further, suggesting stimulated coagulation and/or insufficient anticoagulation during dialysis. However, after 3 h of dialysis thrombin concentrations, determined by quantification of prothrombin fragments, were inversely correlated with Kt/V. Selective heparin infusion diminished procoagulatory activity only slightly and incompletely, whereas HD without heparin resulted in excess thrombin accumulation. Finally, subgroup analyses revealed more pronounced thrombin formation among patients treated with polysulfon dialyzers, whereas erythropoietin dosage was positively related with lower procoagulatory activity.
A majority of patients on dialysis are in a hypercoagulable state, which is further aggravated by the haemodialysis procedure itself and may not be sufficiently controlled with current anticoagulation regimens. Intensified heparin treatment and the use of rhEPO are likely to improve coagulation haemostasis, whereas the type of dialyzer should be considered as a relevant procoagulatory factor.
Biological and medical sciences ; Medical sciences ; Blood. Blood coagulation. Reticuloendothelial system ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Age Factors ; Erythropoietin - therapeutic use ; Antithrombin III - analysis ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Peptide Hydrolases - analysis ; Recombinant Proteins ; Kidney Failure, Chronic - blood ; Partial Thromboplastin Time ; Anticoagulants - pharmacology ; Blood Coagulation ; Adult ; Aged ; Heparin - pharmacology ; Renal Dialysis
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