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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP, 2018-05-03, Vol.2 (17), p.1216-1226
    Description: La 0.6 Sr 0.4 FeO 3− δ (LSF) thin films of different thickness were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and characterized by using three electrode impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical film capacitance was analyzed in relation to oxygen partial pressure (0.25 mbar to 1 bar), DC polarization (0 m to −600 m) and temperature (500 to 650 °C). For most measurement parameters, the chemical bulk capacitance dominates the overall capacitive properties and the corresponding defect chemical state depends solely on the oxygen chemical potential inside the film, independent of atmospheric oxygen pressure and DC polarization. Thus, defect chemical properties (defect concentrations and defect formation enthalpies) could be deduced from such measurements. Comparison with LSF defect chemical bulk data from the literature showed good agreement for vacancy formation energies but suggested larger electronic defect concentrations in the films. From thickness-dependent measurements at lower oxygen chemical potentials, an additional capacitive contribution could be identified and attributed to the LSF|YSZ interface. Deviations from simple chemical capacitance models at high pressures are most probably due to defect interactions. Chemical capacitance measurements are used to study the defect chemistry of La 0.6 Sr 0.4 FeO 3− δ thin films and their polarization ( η ) and p O 2 dependence. Important point defects are oxygen vacancies ( ), electrons (e′) and holes (h&z.rad;).
    Subject(s): Chemistry
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied physics letters, 2021-02-01, Vol.118 (5), p.52902
    Description: Epitaxially grown GdScO3 was integrated in a GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor as a high-κ gate passivation layer. Microstructural investigations using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirm the epitaxial growth of GdScO3 on GaN deposited by pulsed laser deposition on the AlGaN-GaN heterostructure. The metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor was compared to unpassivated and to Al2O3 passivated high electron mobility transistors. A layer of 20 nm GdScO3 reduces the gate leakage current below the level of the Al2O3 passivated transistors and below the off-current of the high electron mobility transistor without any gate dielectric. Time-dependent measurements show a strong dependence of the drain leakage current in the off-state on light illumination, which indicates slow trapping effects in GdScO3 or at the GdScO3–GaN interface.
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: American Institute of Physics (AIP) Publications
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Oxidation of metals, 2018-10-19, Vol.91 (1-2), p.1-10
    Description: Material selection for thermal cracking processes of anthropogenic resources is challenging. H 2 S and HCl are formed, and corrosion occurs at high temperatures. Several steels were investigated in the past. In all cases, corrosion layers were characteristically structured. On top, large chromium sulfide crystals are located, followed by a Cr 2 O 3 layer, followed by a layer enriched in chlorine and nickel. In this paper, we propose a model on the course of the corrosion reactions. By considering the water–gas shift reaction as well as the influence of H 2 S, the layer formation can be explained. As an example S31400, 240 h corrosion time at 680 °C was chosen.
    Subject(s): Atmospheric corrosion ; Austenitic stainless steel ; Austenitic stainless steels ; Chemistry and Materials Science ; Chlorine ; Chromium ; Corrosion ; Corrosion and Coatings ; Corrosion mechanism ; Crystal structure ; High-temperature corrosion ; Human influences ; Hydrogen sulfide ; Inorganic Chemistry ; Materials Science ; Materials selection ; Metallic Materials ; Review ; Shift reaction ; Tribology ; Tribology, Corrosion and Coatings
    ISSN: 0030-770X
    E-ISSN: 1573-4889
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Diffusion and defect data. Solid state data. Pt. A, Defect and diffusion forum, 2020-11-16, Vol.405, p.26-32
    Description: Corrosion behavior of the alloys 1.7386 (P9), 1.4462, 1.4841, 1.4959 (Alloy 800HT) and 2.4816 (Alloy 600) was tested for 24, 72 and 240 h between 480 – 680 °C. The testing gas atmosphere contained 3.8 vol. % HCl, 200 ppm H2S and CO, CO2 and N2. It simulated conditions present in a thermal cracking process for post-consumer plastics. Samples were analyzed by metallography, SEM/EDX and XRD after corrosion experiments. Additionally, their mass loss during the test was evaluated. A multilayered structure of corrosion products grew on the samples during the corrosion experiments. The composition of the corrosion products depended not on the material, but on the testing temperature. At 680 °C chromium sulphide formed the outer layer, followed by a chromium oxide layer. Below these two layers a chlorine containing layer was observed. At 480 °C mainly nickel sulphide was detected, besides chromium oxide and iron- and chromium chloride. Especially at higher testing temperatures FeCl2 was not observed directly on the samples, but as colorless crystals at the colder parts of the testing equipment. At 680 °C the mass loss of the samples decreased with increasing nickel content. However, this effect changed entirely at lower testing temperatures. At 480 °C 1.7386 and 2.4816 showed nearly the same mass losses.
    Subject(s): Alloys ; Chlorine ; Chromium oxides ; Corrosion ; Corrosion products ; Cracking (chemical engineering) ; Ferrous alloys ; Hydrogen chloride ; Hydrogen sulfide ; Iron chlorides ; Metallography ; Nickel base alloys ; Nickel sulfide ; Polymers ; Sulfides ; Superalloys ; Test equipment
    ISSN: 1012-0386
    E-ISSN: 1662-9507
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The journal of product & brand management, 2015-09-21, Vol.24 (6), p.567-579
    Description: Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the dynamic nature of consumer–brand relationships and, in particular, the passionate dimension of brand love. It explores the relevance of the two dimensions of the identification construct (inner and social self) for the creation of passionate love for a brand. More precisely, it attends to the possible mediating character of identification between the perceived utilitarian or hedonic value and passionate brand love. These effects are analysed in consideration of the moderating effect of relationship duration taking a further-reaching perspective and contributing to the understanding of the transformation of the brand love construct within a long-term consumer–brand relationship. Design/methodology/approach – A survey on universally known brands representing both a hedonic and a utilitarian concept was conducted. The model has been tested using the partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling. Findings – The effects of the antecedents of passionate brand love in general vary with increasing relationship duration. Inner self has a stronger effect on passionate brand love than social self and becomes even more important as the relationship matures. Hedonic and utilitarian value both show substantial direct and indirect effects, but the importance of utilitarian aspects grows with time, substantiating the rational nature of brand love within a long-term consumer–brand relationship. Research limitations/implications – As we assessed the perceived duration of an intimate relationship, longitudinal analysis should provide even more profound results. Practical implications – Inasmuch as emotional attributes drive passionate feelings for a brand, the core utilitarian assets of a brand also evoke passionate love and should be highlighted, especially in long-term relationships with customers. Originality/value – This paper investigates the interdependent effects of identification and customer perceived value (hedonic and utilitarian value) as antecedents of passionate brand love. This paper adapts a dynamic perspective on consumer–brand relationships by taking into account the moderating effect of perceived relationship duration.
    Subject(s): Brand loyalty ; Brand management/equity ; Consumer behavior ; Consumers ; Hypotheses ; Journals ; Marketing ; Product management ; Studies
    ISSN: 1061-0421
    E-ISSN: 2054-1643
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory research, 2017-04-12, Vol.18 (1), p.58-58
    Description: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and highly drug resistant tumor arising from the mesothelial surfaces of the lung pleura. The standard method to confirm MPM is the tedious, time-consuming cytological examination of cancer biopsy. Biomarkers that are detectable in pleural effusion or patient serum are reasonable options to provide a faster and noninvasive diagnostic approach. As yet, the current biomarkers for MPM lack specificity and sensitivity to discriminate this neoplasm from other lung tumors. CD44, a multifunctional surface receptor has been implicated in tumor progression in different cancers including MPM. The interaction of CD44 with its ligand, hyaluronan (HA) has demonstrated an important role in modulating cell proliferation and invasiveness in MPM. In particular, the high expression levels of these molecules have shown diagnostic relevance in MPM. This review will summarize the biology and diagnostic implication of CD44 and HA as well as the interaction of both molecules in MPM that will demonstrate their potential as biomarkers. Augmentation of the current markers in MPM may lead to an earlier diagnosis and management of this disease.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Biomarker ; Biomarkers, Tumor - metabolism ; CD44 ; Evidence-Based Medicine ; Female ; Humans ; Hyaluronan ; Hyaluronan Receptors - metabolism ; Hyaluronic Acid - metabolism ; Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology ; Lung Neoplasms - metabolism ; Male ; Malignant pleural mesothelioma ; Mesothelioma - epidemiology ; Mesothelioma - metabolism ; Mesothelioma, Malignant ; Middle Aged ; Pleural Neoplasms - epidemiology ; Pleural Neoplasms - metabolism ; Prevalence ; Reproducibility of Results ; Review ; Sensitivity and Specificity
    ISSN: 1465-993X
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    E-ISSN: 1465-993X
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Metals (Basel ), 2021-11-12, Vol.11 (11), p.1817
    Description: In several industrial processes, metallic materials suffer from chlorine- and sulfur-induced high-temperature corrosion. In previous studies, several steels have been tested at laboratory scale in a simulated gas atmosphere of a pyrolysis process of anthropogenic resources. In this paper, we propose a model on the course of corrosion in a H2S and HCl-containing atmosphere for N10276, which contains, besides iron, chromium, and nickel, also molybdenum as main alloying element. Bearing in mind the impact of the main alloying elements, as well as thermodynamic considerations and kinetic effects, the corrosion behavior of N10276 in a H2S and HCl-containing atmosphere at 480 °C and 680 °C can be explained. In addition, the corrosion behavior of N10276 is compared with earlier tested Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and differences in the corrosion behavior are stated within this paper.
    Subject(s): H2S ; HCl ; high-temperature corrosion ; N10276
    ISSN: 2075-4701
    E-ISSN: 2075-4701
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: System dynamics review, 2017-04, Vol.33 (2), p.112-137
    Description: While large causal models provide detailed insights to the analysts who develop them, general users are often challenged by their complexity. Commonly, these models overwhelm the cognitive capacities of human beings. The inaccessibility of large causal models is particularly regrettable when they deliver valuable expertise and information that should be shared with other researchers and practitioners. To address this issue, we propose a set of tools—so‐called variety filters—to reduce model complexity and promote the accurate interpretation of their results. These filters encompass interpretive model partitioning, structural model partitioning and algorithmic detection of archetypal structures (ADAS). We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed variety filters using the World3–2003 Model—a simulation model of remarkable complexity. The filters drastically attenuate the complexity while enhancing the comprehension of the model. Based on our findings, we derive implications for the use of complex models and their interpretation. Copyright © 2018 System Dynamics Society
    Subject(s): College teachers ; Computer simulation ; Computer-generated environments ; Usage
    ISSN: 0883-7066
    E-ISSN: 1099-1727
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: System dynamics review, 2015-01, Vol.31 (1-2), p.66-85
    Description: Traditionally, model analysis follows qualitative, heuristic, and trial‐and‐error‐driven approaches for testing dynamic hypotheses. Only recently have other methods like loop dominance analysis or control theory been proposed for this purpose. We advocate complementing established qualitative heuristics with a quantitative method for model analysis. To that end, we propose two algorithms to detect Wolstenholme's four generic problem archetypes within models. We tested these algorithms using the Maintenance and World Dynamics models. The approach presented in this paper is a first important step towards the identification of system archetypes in system dynamics and contributes to improving model analysis and diagnosis. Furthermore, our approach goes beyond diagnosis to eliciting solution archetypes, which foster the design and implementation of effective policies. Copyright © 2015 System Dynamics Society
    Subject(s): Algorithms
    ISSN: 0883-7066
    E-ISSN: 1099-1727
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Advanced optical materials, 2015-01, Vol.3 (1), p.129-136
    Description: The lack of a dipolar second‐order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon due to the centrosymmetry of its diamond lattice usually inhibits efficient second‐order nonlinear optical processes in the silicon bulk. Recently, the deposition of stressed silicon nitride layers and the corresponding inhomogeneous strain in silicon lead to the demonstration of second harmonic generation and electro‐optic modulation in strained silicon waveguides. However, the respective impact of the stress/strain gradient and the involved interfaces is not clear. Here, the influence of the stress and the stressing silicon nitride layer using second harmonic generation measurements in transmission is investigated. The results show that the enhancement of the second‐order nonlinearity arises from a constructive superposition of stress‐induced and interface‐related effects. Particularly, the stress gradient in silicon breaks the symmetry of the crystal lattice, while positive fixed charges at the silicon/silicon nitride interface are responsible for a pronounced electric‐field‐induced‐second harmonic (EFISH) contribution. These results demonstrate the impact of external factors for the creation of an effective χ(2) in materials and open new perspectives for the use of second‐order nonlinear optical processes in silicon photonics. An inhomogeneous strain introduced in silicon strip waveguides by stressed SiNx and SiO2 coatings leads to a breaking of the centrosymmetry of the silicon lattice. This creates a dipolar bulk χ(2) causing a rising second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency with increasing stress gradient. In addition electric‐field‐induced SHG contributions at the SiNx‐coated waveguides are identified due to the fixed positive charges within the nitride.
    Subject(s): inhomogeneous strain ; second harmonic generation ; silicon ; symmetry breaking, optical nonlinearity
    ISSN: 2195-1071
    E-ISSN: 2195-1071
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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