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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 0002-838X 
    Language: English
    In: American family physician, 01 June 2017, Vol.95(11), pp.717-724
    Description: Urticaria commonly presents with intensely pruritic wheals, sometimes with edema of the subcutaneous or interstitial tissue. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 20%. Although often self-limited and benign, it can cause significant discomfort, continue for months to years, and uncommonly represent a serious systemic disease or life-threatening allergic reaction. Urticaria is caused by immunoglobulin E- and non-immunoglobulin E-mediated release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils. Diagnosis is made clinically; anaphylaxis must be ruled out. Chronic urticaria is idiopathic in 80% to 90% of cases. Only a limited nonspecific laboratory workup should be considered unless elements of the history or physical examination suggest specific underlying conditions. The mainstay of treatment is avoidance of triggers, if identified. The first-line pharmacotherapy is second-generation H1 antihistamines, which can be titrated to greater than standard doses. First-generation...
    Subject(s): Urticaria -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 0002-838X
    E-ISSN: 1532-0650
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1 May 2011, Vol.65(5), pp.1071-1077
    Description: Local mate competition (LMC) occurs when brothers compete with each other for mating opportunities, resulting in selection for a female-biased sex ratio within local groups. If multiple females oviposit in the same patch, their sons compete for mating opportunities with nonbrothers. Females, in the presence of other females, should thus produce relatively more sons. Sex ratio theory also predicts a more female-biased sex ratio when ovipositing females are genetically related, and sex-ratio responses to foundress size if it differentially affects fitness gains from sons versus daughters. The mating system of the parasitoid wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae meets assumptions of LMC. Females insert a single egg into each accessible egg of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host egg masses. Wasps complete development inside host eggs and emerge en masse, as sexually mature adults, resulting in intense competition among brothers. We tested the hypothesis that O. kuvanae exhibits LMC by manipulating the number of wasp foundresses on egg masses with identical numbers of eggs. As predicted by LMC theory, with increasing numbers of wasp foundresses on an egg mass, the proportions of emerging sons increased. In contrast, the presence of a sibling compared to a non-sibling female during oviposition, or the size of a female, did not affect the number or sex ratio of offspring produced. The O. kuvanae system differs from others in that larvae do not compete for local resources and thus do not distort the sex ratio in favor of sons. With no resource competition among O. kuvanae larvae, the sex ratio of emergent son and daughter wasps is due entirely to the sex allocation by ovipositing wasp foundresses on host egg masses.
    Subject(s): Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics ; Behavioral sciences -- Ethology -- Animal behavior ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Ecological processes ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Ecological processes ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies
    ISSN: 03405443
    E-ISSN: 14320762
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2011
    ISSN: 0002-838X 
    Language: English
    In: American family physician, 01 May 2011, Vol.83(9), pp.1078-84
    Description: Urticaria involves intensely pruritic, raised wheals, with or without edema of the deeper cutis. It is usually a self-limited, benign reaction, but can be chronic. Rarely, it may represent serious systemic disease or a life-threatening allergic reaction. Urticaria has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20 percent in the general population. It is caused by immunoglobulin E- and nonimmunoglobulin E-mediated mast cell and basophil release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Diagnosis is made clinically. Chronic urticaria is usually idiopathic and requires only a simple laboratory workup unless elements of the history or physical examination suggest specific underlying conditions. Treatment includes avoidance of triggers, although these can be identified in only 10 to 20 percent of patients with chronic urticaria. First-line pharmacotherapy for acute and chronic urticaria is nonsedating second-generation antihistamines (histamine H1 blockers), which can be titrated to larger...
    Subject(s): Urticaria -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 0002-838X
    E-ISSN: 1532-0650
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  • 4
    In: The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 2012, Vol.66(3), p.133-136
    Description: . Lymantria (Lymantria) lucescens (Butler) collections and observations were made at Toyota and Azumino, Honshu, Japan. Larvae are now recorded to feed on Fagaceae (Quercus, four species); Ulmaceae (Ulmus and Zelkova) and Moraceae (Morus). During the moth flight (July in Toyota), both sexes (but only 15% females) were attracted to commercial lighting and settled on lit surfaces such as storefronts. Females (wingspan av. 72 mm) carried on average 758 eggs each. Periodicity of male moths responding to either synthetic sex pheromone or to visible lights showed that flight activity peaked between 2000 and 2100 h. Three different larval parasitoids from L. lucescens were recovered. L. lucescens is discussed in light of attributes favoring its potential invasiveness.
    Subject(s): Food Plants ; Fecundity ; Population Outbreak ; Flight To Lighting ; Potential For Invasion ; Parasitoids
    ISSN: 0024-0966
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2011, Vol.65(5), pp.1071-1077
    Description: Local mate competition (LMC) occurs when brothers compete with each other for mating opportunities, resulting in selection for a female-biased sex ratio within local groups. If multiple females oviposit in the same patch, their sons compete for mating opportunities with non-brothers. Females, in the presence of other females, should thus produce relatively more sons. Sex ratio theory also predicts a more female-biased sex ratio when ovipositing females are genetically related, and sex-ratio responses to foundress size if it differentially affects fitness gains from sons versus daughters. The mating system of the parasitoid wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae meets assumptions of LMC. Females insert a single egg into each accessible egg of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host egg masses. Wasps complete development inside host eggs and emerge en masse, as sexually mature adults, resulting in intense competition among brothers. We tested the hypothesis that O. kuvanae exhibits LMC by manipulating the number of wasp foundresses on egg masses with identical numbers of eggs. As predicted by LMC theory, with increasing numbers of wasp foundresses on an egg mass, the proportions of emerging sons increased. In contrast, the presence of a sibling compared to a non-sibling female during oviposition, or the size of a female, did not affect the number or sex ratio of offspring produced. The O. kuvanae system differs from others in that larvae do not compete for local resources and thus do not distort the sex ratio in favor of sons. With no resource competition among O. kuvanae larvae, the sex ratio of emergent son and daughter wasps is due entirely to the sex allocation by ovipositing wasp foundresses on host egg masses.
    Subject(s): Local mate competition ; Ooencyrtus kuvanae ; Solitary egg parasitoid ; Sex ratio ; Local resource competition
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    E-ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 6
    In: Environmental Entomology, 2011, Vol.40(2), p.405-411
    Description: In some insect species, the presence of a mate at the time of eclosion appears to facilitate rapid mating, with positive fitness consequences for one or both mates. Field observations that males of the hymenopteran parasitoid Pimpla disparis Viereck aggregated on a gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), host pupa before the emergence of a female led us to hypothesize that these males responded to chemical cues associated with parasitized host pupae. Results of laboratory experiments with wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), host pupae suggest that female P. disparis chemically mark the host pupae they have parasitized and that males discern between such pupae and those not parasitized. As males continue to recognize parasitized host pupae throughout the development of the parasitoid, they could exploit not only the females' marker pheromone but possibly also semiochemical, visual, or vibratory cues from the developing parasitoid inside the host pupa, the decaying host, or both. Irrespective, these cues could help males locate parasitized host pupae and time the emergence of a prospective mate.
    Subject(s): 〈kwd〉pimpla disparis ; Early mate detection ; Marker pheromone
    ISSN: 0046-225X
    E-ISSN: 19382936
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1537-890x  ISSN: 1537890X 
    In: Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2012, Vol.11(6), pp.316-322
    Description: The fields of sports medicine and performing arts medicine have begun recent initiatives to collaborate more closely and to share information pertinent to the treatment of athletes and performing artists. This article provides a review of the common musculoskeletal and neurological problems encountered among performing artists who play instruments. Approaches to history, examination, diagnosis, and treatment are offered, based on literature reviews, expert opinion, and the authors’ own experiences in a musician’s clinic. Treatments focus on conservative management within a multidisciplinary framework, and indications are given for appropriate surgical referral. Providers are encouraged to build an understanding of the unique issues affecting instrumental athletes.
    Subject(s): Medicine;
    ISSN: 1537-890x
    ISSN: 1537890X
    E-ISSN: 15378918
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 0002-838X 
    Language: English
    In: American family physician, 01 December 2012, Vol.86(11), pp.1055-61
    Description: Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal inflammation, resulting in otalgia, itching, canal edema, canal erythema, and otorrhea, and often occurs following swimming or minor trauma from inappropriate cleaning. Tenderness with movement of the tragus or pinna is a classic finding. Topical antimicrobials or antibiotics such as acetic acid, aminoglycosides, polymyxin B, and quinolones are the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases. These agents come in preparations with or without topical corticosteroids; the addition of corticosteroids may help resolve symptoms more quickly. However, there is no good evidence that any one antimicrobial or antibiotic preparation is clinically superior to another. The choice of treatment is based on a number of...
    Subject(s): Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Administration & Dosage ; Hydrocortisone -- Administration & Dosage ; Neomycin -- Administration & Dosage ; Otitis Externa -- Drug Therapy ; Polymyxin B -- Administration & Dosage ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa -- Isolation & Purification ; Staphylococcus Aureus -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 0002-838X
    E-ISSN: 1532-0650
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 07 March 2013, Vol.121(10), pp.1814-8
    Description: Bone marrow (BM) provides chemoprotection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, contributing to lack of efficacy of current therapies. Integrin alpha4 (alpha4) mediates stromal adhesion of normal and malignant B-cell precursors, and according to gene expression analyses from 207 children with minimal residual disease, is highly associated with poorest outcome. We tested whether interference with alpha4-mediated stromal adhesion might be a new ALL treatment. Two models of leukemia were used, one genetic (conditional alpha4 ablation of BCR-ABL1 [p210(+)] leukemia) and one pharmacological (anti-functional alpha4 antibody treatment of primary ALL). Conditional deletion of alpha4 sensitized leukemia cell to nilotinib. Adhesion of primary pre-B ALL cells was alpha4-dependent; alpha4 blockade sensitized primary ALL cells toward chemotherapy. Chemotherapy combined with Natalizumab prolonged survival of NOD/SCID recipients of primary ALL, suggesting adjuvant alpha4 inhibition as a novel...
    Subject(s): Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized -- Pharmacology ; Fusion Proteins, Bcr-Abl -- Physiology ; Integrin Alpha4 -- Chemistry ; Neoplasm, Residual -- Drug Therapy ; Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 0006-4971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 25 August 2011, Vol.118(8), pp.2191-9
    Description: Relapse of drug-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with increased expression of survivin/BIRC5, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, suggesting a survival advantage for ALL cells. In the present study, we report that inhibition of survivin in patient-derived ALL can eradicate leukemia. Targeting survivin with shRNA in combination with chemotherapy resulted in no detectable minimal residual disease in a xenograft model of primary ALL. Similarly, pharmacologic knock-down of survivin using EZN-3042, a novel locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy eliminated drug-resistant ALL cells. These findings show the importance of survivin expression in drug resistance and demonstrate that survivin inhibition may represent a powerful approach to overcoming drug resistance and preventing relapse in patients with ALL.
    Subject(s): Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 0006-4971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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