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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2019-09-26, Vol.573 (7775), p.526-531
    Description: Metastasis-the disseminated growth of tumours in distant organs-underlies cancer mortality. Breast-to-brain metastasis (B2BM) is a common and disruptive form of cancer and is prevalent in the aggressive basal-like subtype, but is also found at varying frequencies in all cancer subtypes. Previous studies revealed parameters of breast cancer metastasis to the brain, but its preference for this site remains an enigma. Here we show that B2BM cells co-opt a neuronal signalling pathway that was recently implicated in invasive tumour growth, involving activation by glutamate ligands of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which is key in model systems for metastatic colonization of the brain and is associated with poor prognosis. Whereas NMDAR activation is autocrine in some primary tumour types, human and mouse B2BM cells express receptors but secrete insufficient glutamate to induce signalling, which is instead achieved by the formation of pseudo-tripartite synapses between cancer cells and glutamatergic neurons, presenting a rationale for brain metastasis.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Brain cancer ; Brain Neoplasms - physiopathology ; Brain Neoplasms - secondary ; Brain Neoplasms - ultrastructure ; Breast Neoplasms - pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Development and progression ; Female ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Metastasis ; Methyl aspartate ; Mice ; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning ; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Neoplasm Metastasis ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate - metabolism ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate - physiology ; Science & Technology ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; Synapses - physiology ; Synapses - ultrastructure ; Synaptic Transmission
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016-07, Vol.110 (7), p.377-380
    Subject(s): Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use ; Antibiotics ; Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) ; Clinical Science ; Delivery of Health Care ; Drug Resistance, Microbial - drug effects ; Environment ; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy ; Health ; Humans ; Klinisk vetenskap ; Livestock ; One Health
    ISSN: 0035-9203
    ISSN: 1878-3503
    E-ISSN: 1878-3503
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Educational researcher, 2014-05-01, Vol.43 (4), p.171-185
    Description: This article introduces novel sensitivity-analysis procedures for investigating and reducing the bias that mischievous responders (i.e., youths who provide extreme, and potentially untruthful, responses to multiple questions) often introduce in adolescent disparity estimates based on data from self-administered questionnaires (SAQs). Mischievous responders affect a wide range of disparity estimates, including those between adoptees and nonadoptees, sexual minorities and nonminorities, and individuals with and without disabilities. Thus, the procedures introduced here have broad relevance to research and can be widely, and easily, implemented. The sensitivity-analysis procedures are illustrated with SAQ data from youths in Grades 9–12 (N = 11,829) to examine between-group disparities based on sexual identity, gender identity, and physical disability. Sensitivity analyses revealed that each disparity estimated with these data was extremely sensitive to the presence of potentially mischievous responders. Patterns were similar across multiple approaches to dealing with mischievous responders, across various outcomes, and across different between-group comparisons. Mischievous responders are ubiquitous in adolescent research using SAQs and can, even in small numbers, lead to inaccurate conclusions that substantively affect research, policy, and public discourse regarding a variety of disparities. This article calls attention to this widespread problem and provides practical suggestions for assessing it, even when data are already collected.
    Subject(s): Adolescents ; Analytical estimating ; Children & youth ; Comparative analysis ; Disabilities ; Discourse analysis ; Disorders ; Educational research ; Estimation bias ; Gender identity ; Market research ; Physical disabilities ; Questionnaires ; Research methods ; Responses ; Secondary education ; Self concept ; Sensitivity analysis ; Transgenderism ; Transponders
    ISSN: 0013-189X
    E-ISSN: 1935-102X
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences IV
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 1742-5689 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Royal Society interface, 2017-05, Vol.14 (130), p.20160994-20160994
    Description: Transfers of large-scale neural activity into, within and between corticothalamic neural populations and brain hemispheres are analysed using time-integrated transfer functions and state parameters obtained from neural field theory for a variety of arousal states. It is shown that the great majority of activity results from feedbacks within the corticothalamic system, including significant transfer between hemispheres, but only a small minority arises via net input from the external world, with the brain thus in a near-critical, highly introspective state. Notably, the total excitatory and inhibitory influences on cortical neurons are balanced to within a few per cent across arousal states. Strong negative intrahemispheric feedforward exists to the cortex, and even larger interhemispheric positive feedforward, but these are modified by feedback loops to yield near-critical positive overall gain. The results underline the utility of transfer functions for the analysis of brain activity.
    Subject(s): 1004 ; 181 ; Animals ; Arousal ; balance ; Brain ; Brain - cytology ; Brain - physiology ; brain dynamics ; Cerebral cortex ; Cerebral hemispheres ; criticality ; Feedback loops ; Field theory ; Life Sciences–Physics interface ; Models, Biological ; Nerve Net - physiology ; neural field theory ; Thalamus ; Transfer functions ; Wakefulness - physiology
    ISSN: 1742-5689
    E-ISSN: 1742-5662
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2021
    ISSN: 0340-1200 
    Language: English
    In: Biological cybernetics, 2021-05-03, Vol.115 (3), p.237-243
    Description: The power-law exponents of observed size and lifetime distributions of near-critical neural avalanches are calculated from neural field theory using diagrammatic methods. This brings neural avalanches within the ambit of neural field theory, which has also previously explained near-critical 1/f spectra and many other observed features of neural activity. This strengthens the case for near-criticality of the brain and opens the way for these other phenomena to be interrelated with avalanches and their dynamics.
    Subject(s): Avalanches ; Bioinformatics ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Brain ; Brain research ; Complex Systems ; Computer Appl. in Life Sciences ; Cybernetics ; Exponents ; Field theory ; Models, Neurological ; Neurobiology ; Neurons ; Neurosciences ; Original Article ; Propagation
    ISSN: 0340-1200
    E-ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2020-04-02, Vol.15 (4), p.e0230510-e0230510
    Description: The temporal and spectral characteristics of tonic-clonic seizures are investigated using a neural field model of the corticothalamic system in the presence of a temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Increasing connection strength drives the system into ∼ 10 Hz seizure oscillations once a threshold is passed and a subcritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. In this study, the spectral and temporal characteristics of tonic-clonic seizures are explored as functions of the relevant properties of physiological connection strengths, such as maximum strength, time above threshold, and the ramp rate at which the strength increases or decreases. Analysis shows that the seizure onset time decreases with the maximum connection strength and time above threshold, but increases with the ramp rate. Seizure duration and offset time increase with maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and rate of change. Spectral analysis reveals that the power of nonlinear harmonics and the duration of the oscillations increase as the maximum connection strength and the time above threshold increase. A secondary limit cycle at ∼ 18 Hz, termed a saddle-cycle, is also seen during seizure onset and becomes more prominent and robust with increasing ramp rate. If the time above the threshold is too small, the system does not reach the 10 Hz limit cycle, and only exhibits 18 Hz saddle-cycle oscillations. It is also seen that the time to reach the saturated large amplitude limit-cycle seizure oscillation from both the instability threshold and from the end of the saddle-cycle oscillations is inversely proportional to the square root of the ramp rate.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Biology and Life Sciences ; Cerebral cortex ; Computer and Information Sciences ; Cortex (temporal) ; Hopf bifurcation ; Medicine and Health Sciences ; Oscillations ; Physical Sciences ; Physics ; Physiological aspects ; Physiological effects ; Physiology ; Research and Analysis Methods ; Seizures ; Seizures (Medicine) ; Spectra ; Spectral analysis ; Spectrum analysis ; Strength ; Thalamus
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Social forces, 2012-09-01, Vol.91 (1), p.55-63
    Description: As part of a special issue marking the 90th anniversary of Social Forces, articles published in the journal during the past five decades that have been especially significant statements on important topics are highlighted. In this article, Suzanne M. Bianchi, Liana C. Sayer, Melissa A. Milkie and John P. Robinson reflect on their article "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor" Social Forces 79:191-228. Adapted from the source document.
    Subject(s): 90TH ANNIVERSARY REFLECTIONS ; Bianchi, Suzanne M. Is anyone doing the housework? trends in the gender division of household labor ; Child care ; Children ; Division of labour ; Fathers ; Gender inequality ; General studies ; Home economics ; Housekeeping ; Housework ; Men ; Mothers ; Parents ; Sex ; Sex role ; Sex Roles ; Sexual Division of Labor ; Social aspects ; Social forces ; Sociology ; Sociology of the family. Age groups ; United States ; Workforce ; Working women
    ISSN: 0037-7732
    E-ISSN: 1534-7605
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2014, Vol.9 (5), p.e96084
    Description: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Animals ; Aquaculture ; Aquatic birds ; Biology and Life Sciences ; Cattle ; Chickens ; Digital mapping ; Ducks ; Earth Sciences ; Ecology ; Ecology and Environmental Sciences ; Economic analysis ; Emission standards ; Environmental impact ; Environmental management ; Epidemiology ; Equator ; Farming ; Food security ; Food Supply ; Geography ; Geospatial data ; Goats ; Greenhouse effect ; Greenhouse gases ; Influenza ; International marketing ; Land use ; Land use management ; Livestock ; Low income groups ; Maps ; Mathematical models ; Model accuracy ; Models, Theoretical ; Pathogens ; Population growth ; Poultry ; Public health ; Sheep ; Spatial resolution ; Swine ; Waste management ; Waterfowl ; Zoology
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Development (Cambridge), 2015-09-15, Vol.142 (18), p.3178-3187
    Description: A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (〈10) of presynaptic inputs, whereas a small set of hub-like neurons have large numbers of synaptic connections (〉40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology.
    Subject(s): 102 ; Cerebral cortex ; Cerebral Cortex - cytology ; Cerebral Cortex - growth & development ; Dendritic Spines - ultrastructure ; Human ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; In Vitro Techniques - methods ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Nerve Net - cytology ; Nerve Net - growth & development ; Networks ; Neural development ; Neuronal Plasticity - physiology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Pluripotent Stem Cells - physiology ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Stem cells ; Stem Cells and Regeneration ; Video Recording
    ISSN: 0950-1991
    E-ISSN: 1477-9129
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Company of Biologists
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2010
    ISSN: 0009-9163 
    Language: English
    In: Clinical genetics, 2010-06, Vol.77 (6), p.525-534
    Description: Robinson PN, Mundlos S. The Human Phenotype Ontology.A standardized, controlled vocabulary allows phenotypic information to be described in an unambiguous fashion in medical publications and databases. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is being developed in an effort to provide such a vocabulary. The use of an ontology to capture phenotypic information allows the use of computational algorithms that exploit semantic similarity between related phenotypic abnormalities to define phenotypic similarity metrics, which can be used to perform database searches for clinical diagnostics or as a basis for incorporating the human phenome into large-scale computational analysis of gene expression patterns and other cellular phenomena associated with human disease. The HPO is freely available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org.
    Subject(s): Algorithms ; Analysis ; Biological and medical sciences ; biomedical ontologies ; Computational Biology - methods ; Database searching ; Databases ; Databases, Genetic ; differential diagnosis ; diseasome ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene Expression ; General aspects. Genetic counseling ; Genetic aspects ; Genetics ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Genotype & phenotype ; Human Phenotype Ontology ; Humans ; Indexing in process ; Internet/Web search services ; Medical genetics ; Medical sciences ; Molecular and cellular biology ; Molecular genetics ; Online searching ; Phenomizer ; Phenotype ; Standardization ; Vocabulary, Controlled
    ISSN: 0009-9163
    E-ISSN: 1399-0004
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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