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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, 2007-10-01, Vol.115 (10), p.1482-1489
    Description: Background: Ambient levels of pesticides ("pesticide drift") are detectable at residences near agricultural field sites. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications during key periods of gestation could be associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Methods: We identified 465 children with ASD born during 1996-1998 using the California Department of Developmental Services electronic files, and matched them by maternal date of last menstrual period to 6,975 live-born, normal-birth-weight, term infants as controls. We determined proximity to pesticide applications using California Department of Pesticide Regulation records refined using Department of Water Resources land use polygons. A staged analytic design applying a priori criteria to the results of conditional logistic regressions was employed to exclude associations likely due to multiple testing error. Results: Of 249 unique hypotheses, four that described organochlorine pesticide applications-specifically those of dicofol and endosulfan-occurring during the period immediately before and concurrent with central nervous system embryogenesis (clinical weeks 1 through 8) met a priori criteria and were unlikely to be a result of multiple testing. Multivariate a posteriori models comparing children of mothers living within 500 m of field sites with the highest nonzero quartile of organochlorine poundage to those with mothers not living near field sites suggested an odds ratio for ASD of 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.4-15.3). ASD risk increased with the poundage of organochlorine applied and decreased with distance from field sites. Conclusions: The association between residential proximity to organochlorine pesticide applications during gestation and ASD among children should be further studied.
    Subject(s): Chemical hazards ; Autistic disorder ; A posteriori knowledge ; Pervasive child development disorders ; Pesticides ; Central nervous system ; Environmental health ; Analytic synthetic distinction ; Agriculture ; Children ; Children's Health ; Residence Characteristics ; Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - toxicity ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology ; California - epidemiology ; Humans ; Autistic Disorder - epidemiology ; Case-Control Studies ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Environmental Exposure - adverse effects ; Pregnancy ; Pesticides - toxicity ; Rural Population ; Adult ; Female ; Odds Ratio ; Child ; Cohort Studies ; Databases, Factual ; Autism ; Evaluation ; Prenatal influences ; Development ; Infants ; Research ; Health aspects ; organochlorines ; autism spectrum disorders ; health surveillance ; pesticides ; methods
    ISSN: 0091-6765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
    Source: U.S. Government Documents
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: South African journal of science, 2016-09-27, Vol.112 (Number 9/10), p.16-5
    Subject(s): Observations ; Bone regeneration ; Humanities, Multidisciplinary ; Biology ; sedimentology ; taphonomy ; mineral staining ; Rising Star Cave
    ISSN: 0038-2353
    ISSN: 1996-7489
    E-ISSN: 1996-7489
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of paleontology, 2007-01-01, Vol.81 (1), p.201-208
    Description: Two new insect-related ichnogenera are reported in fossil dinosaur bones from Upper Cretaceous continental strata in Madagascar and Utah. Cubiculum ornatus n. igen. and isp. is described from numerous fossil bones in the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of northwestern Madagascar, and consists of hollow, ovoid chambers with concave flanks excavated into both spongy and compact bone. Traces similar in morphology to Cubiculum ornatus have been reported elsewhere in North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa in bones ranging in age from Jurassic to Pleistocene, and have been interpreted as pupal chambers constructed by carrion beetle larvae. Osteocallis mandibulus n. igen. and isp. is described in dinosaur bones from continental deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of Madagascar and the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. O. mandibulus consists of shallow, meandering surface trails, composed of numerous arcuate grooves, bored into compact (cortical) bone surfaces, and is tentatively interpreted as a feeding trace. Based on similar patterns of bioglyph preserved in both Cubiculum ornatus and Osteocallis mandibulus, the tracemaker is interpreted to be the same or similar for both borings. Given the recurrent association with animal remains, the tracemaker is furthermore presumed to be a necrophagous or osteophagous insect that used bone as a substrate for both reproduction (C. ornatus) and feeding (O. mandibulus).
    Subject(s): Senonian ; Mesozoic ; Chordata ; United States ; Insecta ; Madagascar ; taxonomy ; Utah ; Maevarano Formation ; borings ; dinosaurs ; northwestern Madagascar ; feeding ; Kaiparowits Formation ; Upper Cretaceous ; invertebrate ; lithostratigraphy ; Garfield County Utah ; Tetrapoda ; morphology ; ichnofossils ; Africa ; Cubiculum ornatus ; Cretaceous ; Paleontology ; paleoenvironment ; Vertebrata ; Mandibulata ; Arthropoda ; bones ; new taxa ; terrestrial environment ; Indian Ocean Islands ; Osteocallis mandibulus ; Reptilia ; Invertebrata ; reproduction ; Social insects ; Trace fossils ; Carrion insects ; Beetles ; Geology ; Dinosaur fossils ; Bones ; Mammals ; Fossils ; Tunnels ; Dinosaurs ; Physiological aspects ; Research ; Borers (Insects)
    ISSN: 0022-3360
    E-ISSN: 1937-2337
    Source: BioOne.1
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2013-05-30, Vol.497 (7451), p.611-614
    Description: Apes and Old World monkeys are prominent components of modern African and Asian ecosystems, yet the earliest phases of their evolutionary history have remained largely undocumented. The absence of crown catarrhine fossils older than ∼20 million years (Myr) has stood in stark contrast to molecular divergence estimates of ∼25-30 Myr for the split between Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes), implying long ghost lineages for both clades. Here we describe the oldest known fossil 'ape', represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with 'nyanzapithecine' stem hominoids. Additionally, we report the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade, represented by a lower third molar. Both specimens were recovered from a precisely dated 25.2-Myr-old stratum in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the western branch of the East African Rift in Tanzania. These finds extend the fossil record of apes and Old World monkeys well into the Oligocene epoch of Africa, suggesting a possible link between diversification of crown catarrhines and changes in the African landscape brought about by previously unrecognized tectonic activity in the East African rift system.
    Subject(s): Hominidae - anatomy & histology ; History, Ancient ; Animals ; Mandible - anatomy & histology ; Cercopithecidae - classification ; Tanzania ; Cercopithecidae - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Hominidae - classification ; Fossils ; Apes ; Divergent evolution ; Old-World monkeys ; Research ; Observations ; Paleontology ; Natural history ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of geology, 2008-09, Vol.116 (5), p.462-479
    Description: An extraordinary continental shell bed is reported from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation in southern Utah. This shell bed, referred to as the Kaiparowits Blues Ceratopsian shell bed, is highly unusual among fluvial-estuarine shell beds for its great thickness, surface area and shell density and its geometry. It covers , ranges from 85 to 280 cm thick, and consists of a series of 10–50-cm-thick low-angle, dipping beds. The shells are generally undamaged and articulated ( ), commonly with valves still closed, and strongly oriented normal to the dip orientation of the shell layers. The shell bed is interpreted as a lateral accretion bar set that developed in a point bar or midchannel bar setting. Nearly 45% of shells are encrusted by the brackish-water bryozoan sp., indicating that deposition transpired within the upper-fluvial to mixed-fluvial–marine part of an estuarine channel system. At least five unionoid (Unionoidea) shell morphotypes are present, representative of both parautochthonous (intrachannel) and allochthonous (adjacent quiet-water pond/marsh) taxa. Taphonomic and sedimentologic investigations suggest that rapid winnowing and amalgamation of live and recently dead shells from nearby high-density mussel shoals and a smaller population of calmer-water morphotypes from surrounding floodbasin environments occurred during the waning stages of an unusually high intensity storm event, possibly a tropical storm or hurricane. A combination of extreme hydrologic events, such as catastrophic flooding, cyclonic winds, and storm surge, may have contributed to the development of the shell bed. At least 1.4 million individual unionoids are preserved in this deposit, making it one of the most voluminous and highest density fresh/brackish-water shell beds reported in the fossil or historical records.
    Subject(s): Sandstones ; Mussels ; Geological facies ; Fresh water ; Mollusks ; Paleoecology ; Density ; Taphonomy ; Fossils ; Fluvial deposition ; Sedimentology ; Research ; Sedimentary basins ; Structure
    ISSN: 0022-1376
    E-ISSN: 1537-5269
    Source: University of Chicago Press Journals (Full run)
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Statistics in medicine, 2016-12-20, Vol.35 (29), p.5417-5429
    Description: Background Although ongoing, multi‐topic surveys form the basis of public health surveillance in many countries, their utility for specific subject matter areas can be limited by high proportions of missing data. For example, the National Health and Examination Survey is the main resource for surveillance of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in US children, but key predictor variables are missing for as many as 35% of respondents. Methods Using a Bayesian framework, we formulate a t‐distributed Heckman selection model applicable to the case of multiple missing‐not‐at‐random variables in the context of a complex survey design. We demonstrate the utility of the results by calculating prevalence estimates for lead levels exceeding 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 µg/dL among children 1 to 5 years of age for a variety of time points and geographies by applying the coefficients to data from the American Community Survey from the US Census. Results We present a protocol for estimating posterior distributions of parameters using Gibbs and grid sampling steps. Stark disparities in the prevalence of EBLL by race/ethnicity, age of housing, and poverty are readily quantified, and three‐ to five‐fold differences in predicted prevalence across geographies within the US are presented. Conclusions We are able to conduct multivariate analyses of EBLLs that incorporate the crucial variable age of housing, analyses that have not been previously available using these data. This represents an expansion of the utility of National Health and Examination Survey that is likely to be relevant to many similar ongoing, multi‐topic health surveillance efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Subject(s): survey data ; lead poisoning ; selection models ; missing‐not‐at‐random ; Multivariate Analysis ; Data Interpretation, Statistical ; Lead - blood ; Nutrition Surveys ; Humans ; Bayes Theorem ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Child ; Lead Poisoning - epidemiology ; Surveys ; Poisoning ; Poverty ; Surveillance ; Medical statistics ; Public health ; Children & youth ; Health surveillance ; Lead poisoning ; Lead content
    ISSN: 0277-6715
    E-ISSN: 1097-0258
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2017-05-09, Vol.6
    Description: New discoveries and dating of fossil remains from the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, have strong implications for our understanding of Pleistocene human evolution in Africa. Direct dating of fossils from the Dinaledi Chamber (Berger et al., 2015) shows that they were deposited between about 236 ka and 335 ka (Dirks et al., 2017), placing in the later Middle Pleistocene. Hawks and colleagues (Hawks et al., 2017) report the discovery of a second chamber within the Rising Star system (Dirks et al., 2015) that contains remains. Previously, only large-brained modern humans or their close relatives had been demonstrated to exist at this late time in Africa, but the fossil evidence for any hominins in subequatorial Africa was very sparse. It is now evident that a diversity of hominin lineages existed in this region, with some divergent lineages contributing DNA to living humans and at least representing a survivor from the earliest stages of diversification within . The existence of a diverse array of hominins in subequatorial comports with our present knowledge of diversity across other savanna-adapted species, as well as with palaeoclimate and paleoenvironmental data. casts the fossil and archaeological records into a new light, as we cannot exclude that this lineage was responsible for the production of Acheulean or Middle Stone Age tool industries.
    Subject(s): Biological Evolution ; Animals ; Radiometric Dating ; Humans ; South Africa ; Hominidae - genetics ; Hominidae - classification ; Fossils ; Hominids ; Natural history ; Hypotheses ; Geology ; Morphology ; New records ; Phylogenetics ; Biogeography ; Evolution ; Dating ; Age ; Deoxyribonucleic acid--DNA ; Index Medicus ; paleoanthropology ; Dinaledi Chamber ; Lesedi Chamber ; hominin ; human evolution ; Genomics and Evolutionary Biology ; Short Report ; None ; Homo naledi
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2017-03-30, Vol.7 (1), p.44942-44942
    Description: A new species of tyrannosaurid from the upper Two Medicine Formation of Montana supports the presence of a Laramidian anagenetic (ancestor-descendant) lineage of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. In concert with other anagenetic lineages of dinosaurs from the same time and place, this suggests that anagenesis could have been a widespread mechanism generating species diversity amongst dinosaurs, and perhaps beyond. We studied the excellent fossil record of the tyrannosaurid to test that hypothesis. Phylogenetic analysis places this new taxon as the sister species to Daspletosaurus torosus. However, given their close phylogenetic relationship, geographic proximity, and temporal succession, where D. torosus (~76.7-75.2 Ma) precedes the younger new species (~75.1-74.4 Ma), we argue that the two forms most likely represent a single anagenetic lineage. Daspletosaurus was an important apex predator in the late Campanian dinosaur faunas of Laramidia; its absence from later units indicates it was extinct before Tyrannosaurus rex dispersed into Laramidia from Asia. In addition to its evolutionary implications, the texture of the facial bones of the new taxon, and other derived tyrannosauroids, indicates a scaly integument with high tactile sensitivity. Most significantly, the lower jaw shows evidence for neurovasculature that is also seen in birds.
    Subject(s): Jaw ; Species diversity ; Succession ; Mandible ; Sibling species ; Phylogenetics ; New species ; Phylogeny ; Integument ; Fossils ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2016-06-27, Vol.6 (1), p.28696-28696
    Description: A six-lobed membrane spanning cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) containing multiple cellulose synthase (CESA) glycosyltransferases mediates cellulose microfibril formation. The number of CESAs in the CSC has been debated for decades in light of changing estimates of the diameter of the smallest microfibril formed from the β-1,4 glucan chains synthesized by one CSC. We obtained more direct evidence through generating improved transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and image averages of the rosette-type CSC, revealing the frequent triangularity and average cross-sectional area in the plasma membrane of its individual lobes. Trimeric oligomers of two alternative CESA computational models corresponded well with individual lobe geometry. A six-fold assembly of the trimeric computational oligomer had the lowest potential energy per monomer and was consistent with rosette CSC morphology. Negative stain TEM and image averaging showed the triangularity of a recombinant CESA cytosolic domain, consistent with previous modeling of its trimeric nature from small angle scattering (SAXS) data. Six trimeric SAXS models nearly filled the space below an average FF-TEM image of the rosette CSC. In summary, the multifaceted data support a rosette CSC with 18 CESAs that mediates the synthesis of a fundamental microfibril composed of 18 glucan chains.
    Subject(s): Cellulose - biosynthesis ; Cellulose - chemistry ; Plant Proteins - chemistry ; Glucosyltransferases - chemistry ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Domains ; Protein Folding ; Index Medicus ; computational models ; electron microscopy ; cell wall ; BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2017-05-09, Vol.6
    Description: New ages for flowstone, sediments and fossil bones from the Dinaledi Chamber are presented. We combined optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments with U-Th and palaeomagnetic analyses of flowstones to establish that all sediments containing fossils can be allocated to a single stratigraphic entity (sub-unit 3b), interpreted to be deposited between 236 ka and 414 ka. This result has been confirmed independently by dating three teeth with combined U-series and electron spin resonance (US-ESR) dating. Two dating scenarios for the fossils were tested by varying the assumed levels of Rn loss in the encasing sediments: a maximum age scenario provides an average age for the two least altered fossil teeth of 253 +82/-70 ka, whilst a minimum age scenario yields an average age of 200 +70/-61 ka. We consider the maximum age scenario to more closely reflect conditions in the cave, and therefore, the true age of the fossils. By combining the US-ESR maximum age estimate obtained from the teeth, with the U-Th age for the oldest flowstone overlying fossils, we have constrained the depositional age of to a period between 236 ka and 335 ka. These age results demonstrate that a morphologically primitive hominin, survived into the later parts of the Pleistocene in Africa, and indicate a much younger age for the fossils than have previously been hypothesized based on their morphology.
    Subject(s): Bone and Bones ; Geologic Sediments ; Paleontology - methods ; Animals ; Radiometric Dating ; South Africa ; Geology - methods ; Fossils ; Hominidae ; Geology ; Laboratories ; Electron spin resonance ; Graphite ; Teeth ; Earth science ; Sediments ; Dating ; Age ; Index Medicus ; paleoanthropology ; Dinaledi Chamber ; hominin ; Genomics and Evolutionary Biology ; dating ; None ; Homo naledi ; Pleistocene
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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