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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 04 March 2011, Vol.331(6021), pp.1207-10
    Description: Memories are more easily disrupted than improved. Many agents can impair memories during encoding and consolidation. In contrast, the armamentarium of potential memory enhancers is so far rather modest. Moreover, the effect of the latter appears to be limited to enhancing new memories during encoding and the initial period of cellular consolidation, which can last from a few minutes to hours after learning. Here, we report that overexpression in the rat neocortex of the protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) enhances long-term memory, whereas a dominant negative PKMζ disrupts memory, even long after memory has been formed.
    Subject(s): Memory, Long-Term ; Neocortex -- Metabolism ; Protein Kinase C -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 0890-8567 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, October 2016, Vol.55(10), pp.S26-S26
    Description: Objectives: A large number of studies have indicated that poor sleep is a risk factor for internalizing problems. However, there is little understanding of this association in adolescence. Cognitive models view internalizing problems as a result of interaction between negative thoughts and negative mood. Insomnia is associated with negative thoughts and negative mood and affects 90 percent of adolescents with internalizing problems, yet is frequently not addressed in treatment. The objective of this presentation is to examine the associations between insomnia and the affective and cognitive mechanisms implicated in internalizing problems in adolescents and to discuss the implications of these associations to treatment. Methods: This presentation provides a comprehensive literature review, lecture, and discussion. In addition, empirical evidence will be presented to reinforce teaching. Results: The interplay between insomnia, affect, and cognitive behavioral models of internalizing disorders will be reviewed. Cognitive behavioral treatments for internalizing disorders will be discussed, taking the special challenges of youth with insomnia into consideration. Conclusions: Youth with internalizing disorders often suffer from insomnia. Because insomnia is a leading complaint of children and adolescents with depression and anxiety, which can negatively affect daytime functioning and intervention outcomes, it needs to be recognized and treated. Cognitive behavioral interventions constitute first-line treatment, given that there are no US FDA-approved medications for insomnia.
    Subject(s): Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0890-8567
    E-ISSN: 1527-5418
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, October 2018, Vol.74(10), pp.1808-1819
    Description: Objectives Maternal postpartum depression symptoms (PDS) are linked with negative personal, family, and child developmental outcomes. However, paternal PDS, let alone dyadic process, are understudied. Grounded in the Self-Determination Theory of motivation, this longitudinal study examined whether mothers' and fathers' type of prenatal motivation to have a child predicted depression symptoms 3-6 months after birth. Method The data (N = 90 heterosexual couples) were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results Dyadic analyses showed that a person's prenatal autonomous motivation to have a child significantly predicted own PDS and partner's PDS. Importantly, these finding were equivalent across genders. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of dyadic prenatal motivational processes as antecedents of PDS. KEYWORDS autonomous motivation, postpartum depression, self-determination theory DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22630
    Subject(s): Autonomous Motivation ; Postpartum Depression ; Self‐Determination Theory
    ISSN: 0021-9762
    E-ISSN: 1097-4679
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 0010-0277 
    Language: English
    In: Cognition, January 2015, Vol.134, pp.11-20
    Description: •We examine the relation between self-worth and attachment to objects in children.•Feedback on self-worth affected willingness to part with cherished objects.•Children were more willing to give to morally positive than negative recipients.•Removing the self from object increased willingness to give to negative recipients.•Self-extension onto objects predates intense enculturation. Adults tend to believe that objects can function as extensions of people’s selves. This belief has been demonstrated in that changes to people’s sense of self affect their attachment to personally valuable objects, and vice-versa. Here we tested the development of this belief. In Study 1 we found that manipulating 5-year-olds’ self-worth via positive or negative feedback on performance, affected their willingness to part with personally valuable objects, but had no effect vis-à-vis non-valuable objects. In Study 2 we found that 9-, but not 5-year-olds were more willing to give a personally...
    Subject(s): Self ; Objects ; Value ; Contagion ; Development ; Self ; Objects ; Value ; Contagion ; Development ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-0277
    E-ISSN: 18737838
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Social Psychology Review, February 2014, Vol.18(1), pp.87-102
    Description: Parenting has been extensively studied but mostly as a causal factor influencing child outcomes. The aim of the current article is to examine the child’s side of the relationship by meta-analyzing studies which used quantitative genetic methods that provide leverage in understanding causality. A meta-analysis of 32 children-as-twins studies of parenting revealed a heritability estimate of 23%, thus indicating that genetically influenced behaviors of the child affect and shape parental behavior. The shared- and nonshared-environmental estimates, which amounted to 43% and 34%, respectively, indicate not only substantial consistency in parental behavior but also differential treatment within the family. Assessment method, age, and parenting dimension were found to be significant moderators of these influences. Our findings stress the importance of accounting for genotype-environment correlations in child-development studies and call into question previous research that interpreted...
    Subject(s): Genotype-Environment Correlation ; Evocative ; Parenting ; Child Influences ; Twin Studies ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1088-8683
    E-ISSN: 1532-7957
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Child Development, 05/07/2018
    ISSN: 00093920
    E-ISSN: 00093920
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, 2011, Vol.82(4), pp.853-859
    Description: Theory predicts that males that provide little or no parental investment can increase their reproductive success by fertilizing as many females as possible. By contrast, low male mating rate is often related to a large investment in a single mating. This view is challenged, however, by the occurrence of species in which males achieve only one or a few matings, yet invest little in mate guarding or paternity assurance. An explanation of this requires knowledge of the ecological factors affecting the mating system. When there is a female-biased sex ratio and a low probability of a female mating with additional males, the benefits of paternity protection are reduced. Under these conditions males are expected to search actively for females and invest little in each mating to maximize their mating rate. We investigated the influence of the sex ratio and male mortality on the male mate search strategy of the desert spider Stegodyphus lineatus (Eresidae), by following marked males...
    Subject(s): Effective Sex Ratio ; Eresidae ; Male Mortality ; Mate Guarding ; Operational Sex Ratio ; Polygyny ; Spider ; Stegodyphus Lineatus ; Effective Sex Ratio ; Eresidae ; Male Mortality ; Mate Guarding ; Operational Sex Ratio ; Polygyny ; Spider ; Stegodyphus Lineatus ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 17 March 2015, Vol.31(10), pp.3049-58
    Description: Interfacial chemical transformations are an important way to control the physical and chemical properties of surfaces. Organic molecules that self-assemble into monolayers are a proven, effective tool for surface modification, and the ability to do controlled chemical transformations on the exposed surface of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) adds significant diversity to this capability. Given the importance of carboxylic acid groups in applications ranging from controlling surface ionization to anchoring biological molecules, we have studied alternative ways to install acid groups on a surface and have probed the factors that control their chemistry. The work reported herein describes a new way to install carboxylic acid groups on surfaces and explores the intermolecular chemistry between acid groups on adjacent monolayer-forming molecules both on flat interfaces and on nanoparticles. It addresses the interplay of molecular flexibility and chain packing in controlling processes that...
    Subject(s): Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0743-7463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, October 2016, Vol.55(10), pp.S354-S354
    Description: Objectives: It is estimated that 25 percent of children and adolescents suffer from a sleep problem at some point before entering adulthood. Research shows that over 95 percent of CAPs prescribe at least one sleep medication monthly, yet numerous studies show that CBT-I works just as well as medication, is extremely cost effective, and has longer-lasting benefits. However, unfortunately, most CAPs are not trained in CBT-I. This workshop will teach participants when and for whom CBT-I is an appropriate treatment intervention; the six primary components of CBT-I; and how to design CBT-I treatment plans for a variety of adolescent and young adult patients diagnosed with insomnia. Methods: This workshop will be based upon a comprehensive literature review and the clinical expertise of the instructors. In advance of the workshop, registered participants will be sent a variety of standardized rating scales so that they may begin to assess their own sleep in preparation for learning how to improve the sleep of their patients. Results: CBT-I consists of an easily taught series of evidence-based skills that are portable and time and cost effective. The goals of CBT-I are to alter the factors that perpetuate insomnia and include the following: 1) behavioral training in stimulus control, sleep restriction, and sleep hygiene; 2) cognitive training in managing dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors related to sleep, such as unrealistic expectations and rumination over the consequences of insomnia; and 3) physiological factors, such as hyperarousal and somatic and mental tension. Conclusions: This workshop will provide instruction on the use of CBT-I for adolescents and adults, and practitioners will be guided through a series of applied exercises to enhance their therapeutic skills.
    Subject(s): Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0890-8567
    E-ISSN: 1527-5418
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings. Biological sciences, 12 October 2016, Vol.283(1840)
    Description: Segments are formed simultaneously in the blastoderm of the fly Drosophila melanogaster through a hierarchical cascade of interacting transcription factors. Conversely, in many insects and in all non-insect arthropods most segments are formed sequentially from the posterior. We have looked at segmentation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Posterior segments are formed sequentially, through what is probably the ancestral arthropod mechanism. Formation of anterior segments bears many similarities to the Drosophila segmentation mode. These segments appear nearly simultaneously in the blastoderm, via a segmentation cascade that involves orthologues of Drosophila gap genes working through a functionally similar mechanism. We suggest that simultaneous blastoderm segmentation evolved at or close to the origin of holometabolous insects, and formed the basis for the evolution of the segmentation mode seen in Drosophila We discuss the changes in segmentation mechanisms throughout insect evolution,...
    Subject(s): Blastoderm ; Evo-Devo ; Insects ; Segmentation ; Transcription Factors ; Biological Evolution ; Body Patterning ; Blastoderm -- Embryology ; Heteroptera -- Embryology
    ISSN: 0962-8452
    E-ISSN: 1471-2954
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