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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    2020
    ISBN: 9780300242621  ISBN: 030024262X 
    Language: English
    Description: The latest volume in Paul Rahe's expansive history of Sparta's response to the challenges posed to its grand strategy In a continuation of his multivolume series on ancient Sparta, Paul Rahe narrates the second stage in the six-decades-long, epic struggle between Sparta and Athens that first erupted some seventeen years after their joint victory in the Persian Wars. Rahe explores how and why open warfare between these two erstwhile allies broke out a second time, after they had negotiated an extended truce. He traces the course of the war that then took place, he examines and assesses the strategy each community pursued and the tactics adopted, and he explains how and why mutual exhaustion forced on these two powers yet another truce doomed to fail. At stake for each of the two peoples caught up in this enduring strategic rivalry, as Rahe shows, was nothing less than the survival of its political regime and of the peculiar way of life to which that regime gave rise.
    ISBN: 9780300242621
    ISBN: 030024262X
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 2
    Book
    Book
    2020
    ISBN: 0300242611  ISBN: 9780300242614 
    Language: English
    Description: During the Persian Wars, Sparta and Athens worked in tandem to defeat what was, in terms of relative resources and power, the greatest empire in human history. For the decade and a half that followed, they continued their collaboration until a rift opened and an intense, strategic rivalry began. This text examines the grounds for their alliance, the reasons for its eventual collapse, and the first stage in an enduring conflict that would wreak havoc on Greece for six decades.
    ISBN: 0300242611
    ISBN: 9780300242614
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2020
    ISSN: 2190-4286 
    Language: English
    In: Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 2020-10-26, Vol.11 (1), p.1615-1622
    Description: Thin insulating films are commonly employed for the electronic decoupling of molecules as they enable a preservation of the intrinsic molecular electronic functionality. Here, the molecular properties of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) adsorbed on insulating CaF2 thin films that were grown on Si(111) surfaces are studied. Scanning tunnelling microscopy is used to compare the properties of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on a partly CaF1-covered Si(111) surface with deposition on thicker CaF2/CaF1/Si(111) films. The identification of mostly single molecules on the CaF1/Si(111) interface layer is explained by the presence of atomic-size defects within this layer. Geometry-optimisation calculations using density functional theory reveal a geometry on CaF2(111) of nearly flat-lying PTCDA molecules with two oxygen atoms displaced towards calcium surface ions. This geometry is in agreement with the experimental observations.
    Subject(s): 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) ; calcium difluoride ; decoupling ; Full Research Paper ; insulating thin film ; Nanoscience ; Nanotechnology ; scanning tunnelling microscopy
    ISSN: 2190-4286
    E-ISSN: 2190-4286
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Book
    Book
    2020
    ISBN: 9780300242621  ISBN: 030024262X 
    Language: English
    Description: The latest volume in Paul Rahe's expansive history of Sparta's response to the challenges posed to its grand strategy.
    Subject(s): Sparta (Extinct city)-History, Military
    ISBN: 9780300242621
    ISBN: 030024262X
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Viruses, 2017-06-13, Vol.9 (6), p.148
    Description: The adaptive immune response is necessary for the development of protective immunity against infectious diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a genetically heterogeneous and rapidly evolving RNA virus, is the most burdensome pathogen of swine health and wellbeing worldwide. Viral infection induces antigen-specific immunity that ultimately clears the infection. However, the resulting immune memory, induced by virulent or attenuated vaccine viruses, is inconsistently protective against diverse viral strains. The immunological mechanisms by which primary and memory protection are generated and used are not well understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding cellular and humoral components of the adaptive immune response to PRRSV infection that mediate primary and memory immune protection against viruses.
    Subject(s): adaptive immune response ; Adaptive Immunity ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing ; Antibodies, Viral - immunology ; B cell ; B-Lymphocytes - immunology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Immunity, Humoral ; Immunologic Memory ; Killer Cells, Natural - immunology ; memory ; Mice ; neutralizing antibody ; NK cell ; porcine ; Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - immunology ; Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome - virology ; Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus - immunology ; PRRSV ; Review ; Swine ; T cell ; T-Lymphocytes - immunology ; Vaccines, Attenuated - administration & dosage ; Vaccines, Attenuated - immunology ; Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage ; Viral Vaccines - immunology
    ISSN: 1999-4915
    E-ISSN: 1999-4915
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European journal of nutrition, 2014-06, Vol.53 (4), p.997-1013
    Description: Diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, may influence the development of depression. We performed a systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in healthy adults.A literature research was conducted searching various electronic databases up to May 2013. Study selection was based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included studies were reviewed, and relevant data were extracted by two independent researchers. Due to a high level of heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was conducted. Therefore, main results are presented in a descriptive way.In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and are part of this review. Dietary patterns most commonly found were traditional/healthy patterns, Western/unhealthy patterns and Mediterranean patterns. The available literature suggests a protective effect of healthy and Mediterranean patterns, as well as a potential positive association of Western patterns and depression. However, comparison of the included studies was difficult, due to differences in relevant study characteristics and methodological limitations.There are indications that dietary patterns may have influence on the onset of depression, but no firm conclusion can be drawn at this point. Further research is needed to clarify the diet–depression relationship, preferably in the form of methodological strong prospective studies using more homogeneous methods.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Adults ; Biological and medical sciences ; Chemistry ; Databases, Factual ; Depression ; Depression - epidemiology ; Depression, Mental ; Depressive symptoms ; Diet ; Dietary patterns ; Feeding Behavior ; Feeding. Feeding behavior ; Food and nutrition ; Food habits ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Humans ; Medical sciences ; Mood disorders ; Nutrition ; Observational studies ; Observational Studies as Topic ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Risk Factors ; Systematic review ; Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
    ISSN: 1436-6207
    E-ISSN: 1436-6215
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2014-05-30, Vol.5 (1), p.3931-3931
    Description: Hydrogen bonding underpins the properties of a vast array of systems spanning a wide variety of scientific fields. From the elegance of base pair interactions in DNA to the symmetry of extended supramolecular assemblies, hydrogen bonds play an essential role in directing intermolecular forces. Yet fundamental aspects of the hydrogen bond continue to be vigorously debated. Here we use dynamic force microscopy (DFM) to quantitatively map the tip-sample force field for naphthalene tetracarboxylic diimide molecules hydrogen-bonded in two-dimensional assemblies. A comparison of experimental images and force spectra with their simulated counterparts shows that intermolecular contrast arises from repulsive tip-sample interactions whose interpretation can be aided via an examination of charge density depletion across the molecular system. Interpreting DFM images of hydrogen-bonded systems therefore necessitates detailed consideration of the coupled tip-molecule system: analyses based on intermolecular charge density in the absence of the tip fail to capture the essential physical chemistry underpinning the imaging mechanism.
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Physical review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics, 2015-02, Vol.91 (8)
    ISSN: 1098-0121
    E-ISSN: 1550-235X
    Source: Single Journals
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cell reports (Cambridge), 2012-11-29, Vol.2 (5), p.1178-1186
    Description: How specific cell types can be directly converted into other distinct cell types is a matter of intense investigation with wide-ranging basic and biomedical implications. Here, we show that removal of the histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) permits ectopically expressed, neuron-type-specific transcription factors (“terminal selectors”) to convert Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells directly into specific neuron types. Terminal-selector-induced germ-cell-to-neuron conversion can be observed not only upon genome-wide loss of H3K27 methylation in PRC2(−) animals but also upon genome-wide redistribution of H3K27 methylation patterns in animals that lack the H3K36 methyltransferase MES-4. Manipulation of the H3K27 methylation status not only permits conversion of germ cells into neurons but also permits hlh-1/MyoD-dependent conversion of germ cells into muscle cells, indicating that PRC2 protects the germline from the aberrant execution of multiple distinct somatic differentiation programs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the normally multistep process of development from a germ cell via a zygote to a terminally differentiated somatic cell type can be short-cut by providing an appropriate terminal selector transcription factor and manipulating histone methylation patterns. [Display omitted] ► Selector-type transcription factors cannot convert germ cells into neurons or muscle ► Loss of H3K27me3 allows direct, selector-driven germ cell conversion to neurons or muscle ► H3K27me3 redistribution in H3K36me(−) animals also permits germ cell conversion ► Mitotic cycling is not required for induced germ cell conversion How specific cell types can be directly converted into other distinct cell types is an area of active research. Hobert and colleagues show that loss of a specific chromatin mark permits the direct, transcription-factor-induced reprogramming of germ cells into neurons and muscle. This finding shows that the multistep process of development from a germ cell to a terminally differentiated somatic cell type can be bypassed by providing the right transcription factor and histone methylation pattern.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans - genetics ; Caenorhabditis elegans - metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins - antagonists & inhibitors ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins - genetics ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins - metabolism ; Genome ; Germ Cells - cytology ; Germ Cells - metabolism ; Histones - metabolism ; Methylation ; Muscle Cells - cytology ; Neurons - cytology ; Neurons - metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins - antagonists & inhibitors ; Nuclear Proteins - genetics ; Nuclear Proteins - metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 - antagonists & inhibitors ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 - genetics ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 - metabolism ; Repressor Proteins - antagonists & inhibitors ; Repressor Proteins - genetics ; Repressor Proteins - metabolism ; RNA Interference
    ISSN: 2211-1247
    E-ISSN: 2211-1247
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Review of scientific instruments, 2021-05-01, Vol.92 (5), p.53705-053705
    Description: A double sample holder supporting both a metal sample and an insulator crystal for high-resolution scanning probe microscopy experiments is described. The metal sample serves as a substrate for tip preparation and tip functionalization to efficiently and reliably enable high-resolution studies of the adjacent insulator surface. Imaging of Ag(111)/mica, Au(111)/mica, CaF2(111), and calcite(104) surfaces is demonstrated at 5 K, including images on calcite(104) produced with a CO terminated tip, which was prepared on the adjacent metal sample.
    ISSN: 0034-6748
    E-ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: American Institute of Physics (AIP) Publications
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