Cancer research (Chicago, Ill.), 2009, Vol.69 (6), p.2471-2478
The cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is documented to be overexpressed in leukemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, microRNAs (miRNA), which act as negative regulators of gene expression principally through translational repression, are investigated for the mediation of high CREB protein levels. A series of miRNAs that target CREB were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that miR-34b was expressed significantly less in myeloid cell lines, previously known for high CREB protein levels. Exogenous miR-34b expression was induced, and results revealed a direct interaction with the CREB 3'-untranslated region, with the consequent reduction of the CREB protein levels in vitro. miR-34b restored expression caused cell cycle abnormalities, reduced anchorage-independent growth, and altered CREB target gene expression, suggesting its suppressor potential. Using reverse-phase protein array, CREB target proteins (BCL-2, cyclin A1, cyclin B1, cyclin D, nuclear factor-kappaB, Janus-activated kinase 1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), as well as many downstream protein kinases and cell survival signaling pathways (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase) usually elicited by CREB, were observed to have decreased. The miR-34b/miR-34c promoter was shown to be methylated in the leukemia cell lines used. This epigenetic regulation should control the observed miR-34b expression levels to maintain the CREB protein overexpressed. In addition, the inverse correlation between miR-34b and CREB expression was found in a cohort of 78 pediatric patients at diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, supporting this relationship in vivo. Our results identify a direct miR-34b target gene, provide a possible mechanism for CREB overexpression, and provide new information about myeloid transformation and therapeutic strategies.
Hematologic and hematopoietic diseases ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Leukemias. Malignant lymphomas. Malignant reticulosis. Myelofibrosis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Medical sciences ; Antineoplastic agents ; Tumors ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA, Small Interfering - genetics ; Acute Disease ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein - biosynthesis ; Gene Expression ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myeloid - genetics ; MicroRNAs - biosynthesis ; Leukemia, Myeloid - pathology ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein - genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Transfection ; Leukemia, Myeloid - metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; HL-60 Cells ; Transcription, Genetic ; MicroRNAs - genetics ; 3' Untranslated Regions ; Cell Growth Processes - genetics
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