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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: American journal of epidemiology, 2014, Vol.179 (5), p.602-612
    Description: Gender-based violence (GBV) is widespread globally and has myriad adverse health effects but is vastly underreported. Few studies address the extent of reporting bias in existing estimates. We provide bounds for underestimation of reporting of GBV to formal and informal sources conditional on having experienced GBV and characterize differences between women who report and those who do not. We analyzed Demographic and Health Survey data from 284,281 women in 24 countries collected between 2004 and 2011. We performed descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regressions examining characteristics associated with reporting to formal sources. Forty percent of women experiencing GBV previously disclosed to someone; however, only 7% reported to a formal source (regional variation, 2% in India and East Asia to 14% in Latin America and the Caribbean). Formerly married and never married status, urban residence, and increasing age were characteristics associated with increased likelihood of formal reporting. Our results imply that estimates of GBV prevalence based on health systems data or on police reports may underestimate the total prevalence of GBV, ranging from 11- to 128-fold, depending on the region and type of reporting. In addition, women who report GBV differ from those who do not, with implications for program targeting and design of interventions.
    Subject(s): Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Public health. Hygiene ; General aspects ; Miscellaneous ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Biological and medical sciences ; Adult ; Medical sciences ; Victimology ; Epidemiology ; Domestic Violence - statistics & numerical data ; Prevalence ; Bias ; Developing Countries - statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Logistic Models ; Male ; Young Adult ; Adolescent ; Female ; Sex Offenses - statistics & numerical data ; Usage ; Multivariate analysis ; Violence ; Health aspects ; Index Medicus ; Practice of Epidemiology ; global prevalence ; gender-based violence ; reporting
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 1476-6256
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Development policy review, 2012-09, Vol.30 (5), p.543-571
    Description: Widows in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) are perceived to face discrimination in asset inheritance, leading to poverty for themselves and their children. However, large‐sample empirical research supporting this claim is scarce. This article explores asset inheritance among widows using two data sources: (i) nationally representative demographic and health survey (DHS) data from 15 SSA countries, and (ii) a 13‐year longitudinal panel from the Kagera region in north‐west Tanzania. Results indicate that, across the 15 DHS countries, less than half of widows report inheriting any assets; the proportion reporting inheriting the majority of assets is lower. Findings from Kagera indicate that the value of inheritance is significant in determining changes in long‐term household welfare.
    Subject(s): sub‐Saharan Africa ; poverty ; households ; Widows ; asset inheritance
    ISSN: 0950-6764
    E-ISSN: 1467-7679
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health (1971), 2011, Vol.101 (6), p.1060-1067
    Description: We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397-433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape.
    Subject(s): Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Public health. Hygiene ; General aspects ; Miscellaneous ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Biological and medical sciences ; Adult ; Medical sciences ; Victimology ; Age Distribution ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Risk Factors ; Spouse Abuse - statistics & numerical data ; Rape - statistics & numerical data ; Young Adult ; Democratic Republic of the Congo - epidemiology ; Health Surveys ; Time Factors ; Adolescent ; Female ; Women ; Sexual abuse ; Research ; Demographic aspects ; Health aspects ; Risk factors ; Index Medicus ; Abridged Index Medicus ; 81 ; 13 ; 26 ; Research and Practice ; 86 ; 65
    ISSN: 0090-0036
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2011-01-01, Vol.47 (1), p.1-30
    Description: This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.
    Subject(s): Public Assistance - economics ; Wills - economics ; Women's Rights - education ; History, 21st Century ; Public Policy - economics ; Social Welfare - economics ; Women - education ; Wills - ethnology ; Wills - psychology ; Public Policy - legislation & jurisprudence ; Women's Rights - history ; Wills - history ; Women - psychology ; Social Welfare - ethnology ; Women's Health - ethnology ; Government - history ; Public Policy - history ; Women's Rights - legislation & jurisprudence ; Women - history ; History, 20th Century ; Social Welfare - psychology ; Social Welfare - history ; Public Assistance - legislation & jurisprudence ; Women's Health - history ; Public Assistance - history ; Wills - legislation & jurisprudence ; Tanzania - ethnology ; Women's Rights - economics ; Social Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence ; Right of property ; Demographic aspects ; Analysis ; Working women ; Sparsely populated areas ; Economic aspects ; Gender equality ; Influence ; Civil rights ; Social aspects ; Inheritance and succession ; History of medicine
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Applied economics, 2016-07-01, Vol.8 (3), p.284-303
    Description: Using a randomized experiment in Ecuador, this study provides evidence on whether cash, vouchers, and food transfers targeted to women and intended to reduce poverty and food insecurity also affected intimate partner violence. Results indicate that transfers reduce controlling behaviors and physical and/or sexual violence by 6 to 7 percentage points. Impacts do not vary by transfer modality, which provides evidence that transfers not only have the potential to decrease violence in the short-term, but also that cash is just as effective as in-kind transfers.
    ISSN: 1945-7782
    E-ISSN: 1945-7790
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Health economics, 2020-06, Vol.29 (6), p.700-715
    Description: Summary There is growing evidence on positive human capital impacts of large, poverty‐focused cash transfer programs. However, evidence is inconclusive on whether cash transfer programs affect maternal health outcomes, and if so, through which pathways. We use a regression discontinuity design with an implicit threshold to evaluate the impact of Comunidades Solidarias Rurales in El Salvador on four maternal health service utilization outcomes: (a) prenatal care; (b) skilled attendance at birth; (c) birth in health facilities; and (d) postnatal care. We find robust impacts on outcomes at the time of birth but not on prenatal and postnatal care. In addition to income effects, supply‐side health service improvements and gains in women's agency may have played a role in realizing these gains. With growing inequalities in maternal health outcomes globally, results contribute to an understanding of how financial incentives can address health systems and financial barriers that prevent poor women from seeking and receiving care at critical periods for both maternal and infant health.
    Subject(s): regression discontinuity design ; maternal health ; conditional cash transfers ; El Salvador ; implicit partition ; Index Medicus ; s
    ISSN: 1057-9230
    E-ISSN: 1099-1050
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2011-10-01, Vol.47 (10), p.1482-1509
    Description: We investigate gender differences in agricultural productivity in Nigeria and Uganda. Results indicate persistent lower productivity on female-owned plots and among female-headed households, accounting for a range of socio-economic variables, agricultural inputs and crop choices using multivariate tobit models. Results are robust to inclusion of household-level unobservables and alternative specifications that account for decisions to plant crops. However, productivity differences depend on aggregation of gender indicator, crop-specific samples, agro-ecological zone and biophysical characteristics. More nuanced gender data collection and analysis are encouraged to identify interventions that will increase productivity and program effectiveness for male and female farmers.
    Subject(s): Forecasts and trends ; Agricultural productivity
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55, p.128-146
    Description: There is increasing interest in understanding if social protection can foster social cohesion, particularly between refugees and host communities. Using a cluster randomised control trial, this study examines if a short-term transfer programme targeted to Colombian refugees and poor Ecuadorians in urban and peri-urban areas of northern Ecuador led to changes in social cohesion measures. The overall results suggest that the programme contributed to reported improvements in social cohesion among Colombian refugees in the hosting community through enhanced personal agency, attitudes accepting diversity, confidence in institutions, and social participation. However, the programme had no impact on social cohesion among Ecuadorians. The programme had no negative impacts on the indicators or domains analysed. Although it was not possible to identify specific mechanisms, impacts are hypothesised to be driven by the joint targeting of Colombians and Ecuadorians, the interaction between nationalities at monthly nutrition sessions, and the messaging around social inclusion by programme implementers.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 2016-06-08, Vol.16 (1), p.488-488
    Description: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and has detrimental effects on the physical and mental health of women across the world. Despite emerging evidence on the impacts of cash transfers on intimate partner violence, the pathways through which reductions in violence occur remain under-explored. A randomised controlled trial of a cash and in-kind food transfer programme on the northern border of Ecuador showed that transfers reduced physical or sexual violence by 30 %. This mixed methods study aimed to understand the pathways that led to this reduction. We conducted a mixed methods study that combined secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial relating to the impact of a transfer programme on IPV with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with male and female beneficiaries. A sequential analysis strategy was followed, whereby qualitative results guided the choice of variables for the quantitative analysis and qualitative insights were used to help interpret the quantitative findings. We found qualitative and quantitative evidence that the intervention led to reductions in IPV through three pathways operating at the couple, household and individual level: i) reduced day-to-day conflict and stress in the couple; ii) improved household well-being and happiness; and iii) increased women's decision making, self-confidence and freedom of movement. We found little evidence that any type of IPV increased as a result of the transfers. While cash and in-kind transfers can be important programmatic tools for decreasing IPV, the positive effects observed in this study seem to depend on circumstances that may not exist in all settings or programmes, such as the inclusion of a training component. Moreover, the programme built upon rather than challenged traditional gender roles by targeting women as transfer beneficiaries and framing the intervention under the umbrella of food security and nutrition - domains traditionally ascribed to women. Transfers destined for food consumption combined with nutrition training reduced IPV among marginalised households in northern Ecuador. Evidence suggests that these reductions were realised by decreasing stress and conflict, improving household well-being, and enhancing women's decision making, self-confidence and freedom of movement. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02526147 . Registered 24 August 2015.
    Subject(s): Domestic Violence - economics ; Food Assistance ; Self Efficacy ; Stress, Psychological - prevention & control ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Mental Health ; Freedom ; Spouse Abuse - psychology ; Spouse Abuse - economics ; Young Adult ; Spouse Abuse - prevention & control ; Adult ; Female ; Nutritional Status ; Interpersonal Relations ; Decision Making ; Domestic Violence - prevention & control ; Food Supply ; Ecuador ; Battered Women - psychology ; Domestic Violence - psychology ; Intimate Partner Violence - economics ; Gender Identity ; Family Characteristics ; Intimate Partner Violence - psychology ; Adolescent ; Aged ; Stress, Psychological - complications ; Intimate Partner Violence - prevention & control ; Prevention ; Influence ; Public health administration ; Family violence ; Food relief ; Index Medicus ; Domestic violence ; Social protection interventions ; Cash and in-kind transfers ; Mixed methods ; Intimate partner violence ; Impact evaluation
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 2018-03-27, Vol.18 (1), p.407-407
    Description: Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, is associated with adverse human capital outcomes. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. No nationally representative studies thus far have examined determinants of child marriage in Indonesia through multivariate regression modeling. We used data from the nationally representative 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey and the Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to estimate determinants of child marriage and marital preferences. We ran multivariate models to estimate the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and the following early marriage outcomes: 1) ever been married or cohabited, 2) married or cohabited before 18 years, 3) married or cohabited before 16 years, 4) self-reported marital-age preferences and 5) attitudes approving female child marriage. Among the child marriage research sample (n = 6578, females aged 20-24 at time of survey), approximately 17% and 6% report being married before 18 and 16 years old respectively. Among the marital preferences research sample (n = 8779, unmarried females 15-24), the average respondent preferred marriage at approximately 26 years and 5% had attitudes approving child marriage. Education, wealth and media exposure have protective effects across marriage outcomes, while rural residence is a risk factor for the same. There are significant variations by region, indicating roles of religious, ethnic and other geographically diverse factors. This research fills a gap in understanding of child marriage determinants in Indonesia. There appears to be little support for child marriage among girls and young women, indicating an entry point for structural interventions that would lead to lasting change. Future research efforts should prioritize rigorous testing of gender-transformative education and economic strengthening interventions, including cost-effectiveness considerations to better understand how interventions and policies can be leveraged to deliver on ending child marriage in Indonesia and globally.
    Subject(s): Young Adult ; Marriage - statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Risk Factors ; Adolescent ; Female ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Child ; Empirical Research ; Indonesia ; Index Medicus ; Structural determinants ; Adolescent transitions ; Child marriage
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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