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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2019, Vol.14 (2), p.e0211412-e0211412
    Description: The African terrestrial fossil record has been limited in its contribution to our understanding of both regional and global Cretaceous paleobiogeography, an interval of significant geologic and macroevolutionary change. A common component in Cretaceous African faunas, titanosaurian sauropods diversified into one of the most specious groups of dinosaurs worldwide. Here we describe the new titanosaurian Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia gen. et sp. nov. from the Mtuka Member of the Galula Formation in southwest Tanzania. The new specimen preserves teeth, elements from all regions of the postcranial axial skeleton, parts of both appendicular girdles, and portions of both limbs including a complete metatarsus. Unique traits of M. moyowamkia include the lack of an interpostzygapophyseal lamina in posterior dorsal vertebrae, pronounced posterolateral expansion of middle caudal centra, and an unusually small sternal plate. Phylogenetic analyses consistently place M. moyowamkia as either a close relative to lithostrotian titanosaurians (e.g., parsimony, uncalibrated Bayesian analyses) or as a lithostrotian and sister taxon to Malawisaurus dixeyi from the nearby Aptian? Dinosaur Beds of Malawi (e.g., tip-dating Bayesian analyses). M. moyowamkia shares a few features with M. dixeyi, including semi-spatulate teeth and a median lamina between the neural canal and interpostzygapophyseal lamina in anterior dorsal vertebrae. Both comparative morphology and phylogenetic analyses support Mnyamawamtuka as a distinct and distant relative to Rukwatitan bisepultus and Shingopana songwensis from the younger Namba Member of the Galula Formation with these results largely congruent with newly constrained ages for the Mtuka Member (Aptian-Cenomanian) and Namba Member (Campanian). Coupled with recent discoveries from the Dahkla Oasis, Egypt (e.g., Mansourasaurus shahinae) and other parts of continental Afro-Arabia, the Tanzania titanosaurians refine perspectives on the development of African terrestrial faunas throughout the Cretaceous-a critical step in understanding non-marine paleobiogeographic patterns of Africa that have remained elusive until the past few years.
    Subject(s): Bone and Bones - anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Dinosaurs - classification ; Tanzania ; Terminology as Topic ; Metatarsus - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Spine - anatomy & histology ; Fossils ; Index Medicus ; Medicine and Health Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Biology and Life Sciences ; Computer and Information Sciences ; Dinosaurs ; Vertebrae ; Terrestrial environments ; Teeth ; Vertebra ; Metatarsus ; Cretaceous ; Bone (axial) ; Paleobiogeography ; Morphology ; Phylogenetics ; New species ; Girdles ; Osteopathic medicine ; Bayesian analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ (San Francisco, CA), 2019, Vol.7, p.e7231-e7231
    Description: In 2006, a partial avian femur (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM) 78247) from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Sandwich Bluff Member of the López de Bertodano Formation of Sandwich Bluff on Vega Island of the northern Antarctic Peninsula was briefly reported as that of a cariamiform-a clade that includes extant and volant South American species and many extinct flightless and cursorial species. Although other authors have since rejected this taxonomic assignment, SDSM 78247 had never been the subject of a detailed description, hindering a definitive assessment of its affinities. Here we provide the first comprehensive description, illustration, and comparative study of this specimen. Comparison of characters that may be assessed in this femur with those of avian taxa scored in published character matrices refutes the inclusion of SDSM 78247 within Cariamiformes, instead supporting its assignment to a new, as-yet unnamed large-bodied species within the genus , and therefore its referral to a clade of semiaquatic anseriforms. Important character states diagnostic of + include strong craniocaudal bowing of the femoral shaft, the presence of a distinct fossa just proximal to the fibular trochlea, and the broad and flat shape of the patellar sulcus. Referral to is based on the presence of a distinctive proximocaudal fossa and distolateral scar. This genus was previously known only from , a smaller-bodied taxon from the same locality and stratigraphic unit. Our reassignment of SDSM 78247 to sp. removes the record of cariamiform landbirds from the Antarctic Cretaceous.
    Subject(s): Femur ; Taxonomy ; Phylogenetics ; Birds ; Biology ; Stratigraphy ; Museums ; Species ; Paleontology ; Fossils ; Anseriformes ; Antarctica ; Cretaceous ; Vegavis ; Cariamiformes
    ISSN: 2167-8359
    E-ISSN: 2167-8359
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biology letters (2005), 2016-04, Vol.12 (4), p.20151047
    Description: Recent model-based phylogenetic approaches have expanded upon the incorporation of extinct lineages and their respective temporal information for calibrating divergence date estimates. Here, model-based methods are explored to estimate divergence dates and ancestral ranges for titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs, an extinct and globally distributed terrestrial clade that existed during the extensive Cretaceous supercontinental break-up. Our models estimate an Early Cretaceous (approx. 135 Ma) South American origin for Titanosauria. The estimated divergence dates are broadly congruent with Cretaceous geophysical models of supercontinental separation and subsequent continental isolation while obviating the invocation of continuous Late Cretaceous continental connections (e.g. ephemeral land bridges). Divergence dates for mid-Cretaceous African and South American sister lineages support semi-isolated subequatorial African faunas in concordance with the gradual northward separation between South America and Africa. Finally, Late Cretaceous Africa may have linked Laurasian lineages with their sister South American lineages, though the current Late Cretaceous African terrestrial fossil record remains meagre.
    Subject(s): Biological Evolution ; Geography ; Animals ; Dinosaurs - classification ; Time Factors ; Models, Biological ; Phylogeny ; Fossils ; Index Medicus ; 144 ; Fossils in Trees ; 1001 ; phylogenetics ; Titanosauria ; palaeobiogeography ; 183 ; Gondwana
    ISSN: 1744-9561
    E-ISSN: 1744-957X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Acta palaeontologica Polonica, 2016, Vol.61 (2), p.281-292
    Description: Abelisaurid theropods were one of the most diverse groups of predatory dinosaurs in Gondwana during the Cretaceous. The group is characterized by a tall, wide skull and robust cervical region. This morphology is thought to have facilitated specialized feeding behaviors such as prolonged contact with prey. The Late Cretaceous abelisaurid Majungasaurus crenatissimus typifies this abelisaurid cranial morphotype. Recent fossil discoveries of this species include a partial growth series that allows for the first time an investigation of ontogenetic variation in cranial morphology in a representative abelisaurid. Herein we examine growth trajectories in the shape of individual cranial bones and articulated skulls of Majungasaurus using geometric morphometrics. Several major changes in skull shape were observed through ontogeny, including an increase in the height of the jugal, postorbital, and quadratojugal, an increase in the extent of the contacts between bones, and a decrease in the circumference of the orbit. The skull transitions from relatively short in the smallest individual to tall and robust in large adults, as is seen in other theropods. Such morphological change during ontogeny would likely have resulted in different biomechanical properties and feeding behaviors between small and large individuals. These findings provide a post-hatching developmental framework for understanding the evolution of the distinctive tall skull morphology seen in abelisaurids and other large-sized theropod dinosaurs.
    Subject(s): Physiological aspects ; Skeleton ; Natural history ; Theropoda ; Dinosauria ; Abelisauridae ; skull ; Cretaceous ; ontogeny ; geometric morphometrics ; Gondwana
    ISSN: 0567-7920
    E-ISSN: 1732-2421
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: BioOne Open Access Titles
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 0028-0836 
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2016-10-12, Vol.538 (7626), p.468-469
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of property tax assessment & administration, 2019-04-01, Vol.16 (2), p.63-75
    Description: Commercial and industrial property appraisals are in flux, still subject more to appraiser judgment than to statistical analysis (automated valuation [AVM] or computer-assisted mass appraisal [CAMA] models). Intended users vary greatly. Wealthy buyers have various interests and levels of trust in statistics, and lenders have sophisticated software for testing the statistical quality of appraised values. Therefore, appraisers have clients and intended users with dramatically different views of statistics in the valuation of commercial and industrial properties. Sales of larger commercial and industrial buildings are normally too spread out geographically to identify location adjustments by commercial and industrial neighborhoods. With the use of geographic information systems (GIS), most appraisers can develop statistical locational support or adjustments without resorting to fixed boundaries of commercial and industrial neighborhoods. This research project supports the use of statistical software in combination with GIS to allow appraisers to expand their geographic areas of expertise to the state or national level. Results show that acceptable quality statistics on the estimates of market value can be achieved with many different commercial and industrial use codes compared to known sale prices in the modeling (sales) file.
    Subject(s): Valuation ; Real property ; Commercial buildings ; Automation ; Sales ; Market value ; Property values ; Commercial real estate
    ISSN: 1357-1419
    E-ISSN: 1548-3606
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2016, Vol.11 (6), p.e0156847-e0156847
    Description: Based on molecular dating, the origin of insect agriculture is hypothesized to have taken place independently in three clades of fungus-farming insects: the termites, ants or ambrosia beetles during the Paleogene (66-24 Ma). Yet, definitive fossil evidence of fungus-growing behavior has been elusive, with no unequivocal records prior to the late Miocene (7-10 Ma). Here we report fossil evidence of insect agriculture in the form of fossil fungus gardens, preserved within 25 Ma termite nests from southwestern Tanzania. Using these well-dated fossil fungus gardens, we have recalibrated molecular divergence estimates for the origins of termite agriculture to around 31 Ma, lending support to hypotheses suggesting an African Paleogene origin for termite-fungus symbiosis; perhaps coinciding with rift initiation and changes in the African landscape.
    Subject(s): PE&RC ; Laboratory of Genetics ; Laboratorium voor Erfelijkheidsleer ; Isoptera - microbiology ; Confidence Intervals ; Animals ; Time Factors ; Fungi - physiology ; Tanzania ; Calibration ; Phylogeny ; Fossils ; Fungi ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Termites ; Index Medicus ; Earth Sciences ; Biology and Life Sciences ; Symbiosis ; Paleogene ; Nests ; Divergence ; Ecosystems ; Gardens ; Ecosystem biology ; Gardens & gardening ; Beetles ; Insects ; Oligocene ; Evolutionary biology ; Fungus gardens ; Agriculture ; Stratigraphy ; Miocene ; Osteopathic medicine ; Farming
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 8.Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2007
    Description: NH-Paleobiology NMNH
    ISSN: 1016-7102
    Source: Smithsonian Digital Repository
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2013-05-30, Vol.497 (7451), p.611-614
    Description: Apes and Old World monkeys are prominent components of modern African and Asian ecosystems, yet the earliest phases of their evolutionary history have remained largely undocumented. The absence of crown catarrhine fossils older than ∼20 million years (Myr) has stood in stark contrast to molecular divergence estimates of ∼25-30 Myr for the split between Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes), implying long ghost lineages for both clades. Here we describe the oldest known fossil 'ape', represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with 'nyanzapithecine' stem hominoids. Additionally, we report the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade, represented by a lower third molar. Both specimens were recovered from a precisely dated 25.2-Myr-old stratum in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the western branch of the East African Rift in Tanzania. These finds extend the fossil record of apes and Old World monkeys well into the Oligocene epoch of Africa, suggesting a possible link between diversification of crown catarrhines and changes in the African landscape brought about by previously unrecognized tectonic activity in the East African rift system.
    Subject(s): Hominidae - anatomy & histology ; History, Ancient ; Animals ; Mandible - anatomy & histology ; Cercopithecidae - classification ; Tanzania ; Cercopithecidae - anatomy & histology ; Phylogeny ; Tooth - anatomy & histology ; Hominidae - classification ; Fossils ; Apes ; Divergent evolution ; Old-World monkeys ; Research ; Observations ; Paleontology ; Natural history ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2014, Vol.9 (2), p.e89737-e89737
    Description: Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc.) and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.). Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also the underlying caudal skeleton, reinforcing the importance of the entire caudal locomotor module in avian ecological diversification.
    Subject(s): Biological Evolution ; Bone and Bones - anatomy & histology ; Feathers ; Animals ; Charadriiformes ; Diving ; Flight, Animal ; Phylogeny ; Birds - anatomy & histology ; Spine - anatomy & histology ; Aerodynamics ; Convergence (Biology) ; Niche (Ecology) ; Animal behavior ; Index Medicus ; Biology ; Physics ; Spine ; Zoology ; Flight ; Terrestrial environments ; Underwater ; Vertebra ; Multivariate analysis ; Tails ; Convergence ; Taxa ; Wings ; Kinematics ; Phylogenetics ; Evolution ; Skeleton ; Elongation ; Discriminant analysis ; Vertebrae ; Computer simulation ; Systematic biology ; Fourier analysis ; Birds ; Ecology ; Aerodynamic properties ; Foraging behavior ; Mathematical morphology ; Forages ; Studies ; Biomechanics ; Locomotion ; Flight behavior ; Ecological niches ; Morphology ; Niches
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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