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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Sedimentology, 2015-02, Vol.62 (2), p.516-540
    Description: Quaternary reef development and demise have been shown to correspond to worldwide sea‐level fluctuations and related environmental changes, yet the mechanisms and rates affecting this relationship are not well resolved. A set of high‐resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data were interpreted. Six distinct systems of relict fringing reefs embedded within the sedimentary cover of the northern shelf of the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba were identified. The two uppermost relict fringing reefs are also exposed on the sea floor in water depths of ca 20 m and ca 60 m, along the north‐western corner of the northern Gulf of Elat/Aqaba and sub‐parallel to the current northern coast, respectively. Two other relict fringing reefs are laterally correlated to each of the last two transgressive cycles, and are inferred to have formed during decelerations in sea‐level rise during the last two deglaciations. These reefs and the units to which they are laterally correlated portray a repeating stratigraphic pattern of reef development during deposition of seismically homogeneous sediment and an ensuing demise during deposition of heterogeneous sediment. Correlation of the reef stratigraphy with rates of Late Quaternary sea‐level rise and a sediment accumulation rate from one shelf core provide age estimations for the seismic stratigraphy. Two phases of fringing reef generation occurred during the last deglaciation (since ca 18 ka); the older reef probably developed between 12·8 ka and 11·5 ka at ca 60 m below present sea‐level and the younger reef after 8·4 to 8·0 ka at ca 20 m below present sea‐level. These last two phases of reef generation are separated by a lobate seismic unit that is interpreted as fluvial‐deltaic deposits that backstepped across the shelf during the Early Holocene transgression. Results suggest that fringing reefs evolved along the northern shelf of the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba only during relative decelerations in sea‐level rise, contemporaneous with low input of terrigenous sediment and probably during a period of aridity. At present, no fringing reef grows along the northern coast of the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba, suggesting that these relatively arid periods may have been drier than Recent. The pattern of slowdown in sea‐level rise contemporaneous with conditions of increased aridity seems to have repeated during the last two sea‐level rises, approximately at the same sea‐levels, suggesting a common mechanism of short (millennium‐scale) phases of eustatic and climatic alteration during deglaciations.
    Subject(s): Climate change ; fringing reef ; sequence stratigraphy ; Quaternary ; sea‐level ; seismic reflection ; high‐resolution ; seismic stratigraphy ; Reefs ; Climatic changes ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 0037-0746
    E-ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of seismology, 2006-10, Vol.10 (4), p.415-430
    Description: The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine–Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using paleoseismic and archaeological evidence collected from a trench excavated across the fault zone, we identified evidence for four ground-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating from key stratigraphic horizons and relative dating using potsherds constrains the dates of the four earthquakes from the sixth to the nineteenth centuries. Individual earthquakes were dated to the seventh, ninth and eleventh centuries. The fault strand that slipped during the most recent event (MRE) extends to just below the modern ground surface and juxtaposes alluvial-fan sediments that lack in datable material with the modern ground surface, thus preventing us from dating the MRE except to constrain the event to post-eleventh century. These data suggest that the historical earthquakes of 634 or 659/660, 873, 1068, and 1546 probably ruptured this fault segment.
    Subject(s): Geotechnical Engineering ; Dead Sea Transform fault system ; Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Wadi Araba ; archaeoseismology ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; earthquake ; cistern ; Structural Geology ; paleoseismology ; Jordan ; Archaeology ; Earthquakes ; Excavations (Archaeology)
    ISSN: 1383-4649
    E-ISSN: 1573-157X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geo-marine letters, 2010-12, Vol.30 (6), p.561-573
    Description: A high-resolution marine geophysical study was conducted during October-November 2006 in the northern Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat, providing the first multibeam imaging of the seafloor across the entire gulf head spanning both Israeli and Jordanian territorial waters. Analyses of the seafloor morphology show that the gulf head can be subdivided into the Eilat and Aqaba subbasins separated by the north-south-trending Ayla high. The Aqaba submarine basin appears starved of sediment supply, apparently causing erosion and a landward retreat of the shelf edge. Along the eastern border of this subbasin, the shelf is largely absent and its margin is influenced by the Aqaba Fault zone that forms a steep slope partially covered by sedimentary fan deltas from the adjacent ephemeral drainages. The Eilat subbasin, west of the Ayla high, receives a large amount of sediment derived from the extensive drainage basins of the Arava Valley (Wadi ’Arabah) and Yutim River to the north–northeast. These sediments and those entering from canyons on the south-western border of this subbasin are transported to the deep basin by turbidity currents and gravity slides, forming the Arava submarine fan. Large detached blocks and collapsed walls of submarine canyons and the western gulf margin indicate that mass wasting may be triggered by seismic activity. Seafloor lineaments defined by slope gradient analyses suggest that the Eilat Canyon and the boundaries of the Ayla high align along north- to northwest-striking fault systems—the Evrona Fault zone to the west and the Ayla Fault zone to the east. The shelf–slope break that lies along the 100 m isobath in the Eilat subbasin, and shallower (70–80 m isobaths) in the Aqaba subbasin, is offset by approx. 150 m along the eastern edge of the Ayla high. This offset might be the result of horizontal and vertical movements along what we call the Ayla Fault on the east side of the structure. Remnants of two marine terraces at 100 m and approx. 150 m water depths line the southwest margin of the gulf. These terraces are truncated by faulting along their northern end. Fossil coral reefs, which have a similar morphological appearance to the present-day, basin margin reefs, crop out along these deeper submarine terraces and along the shelf–slope break. One fossil reef is exposed on the shelf across the Ayla high at about 60–63 m water depth but is either covered or eroded in the adjacent subbasins. The offshore extension of the Evrona Fault offsets a fossil reef along the shelf and extends south of the canyon to linear fractures on the deep basin floor.
    Subject(s): Geology ; Earth Sciences ; Submarine valleys ; Submarine boats ; Basins (Geology) ; Coral reefs and islands ; Fractures ; Geophysics ; Tectonics (Geology) ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 0276-0460
    E-ISSN: 1432-1157
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of geophysical research. Solid earth, 2014-12, Vol.119 (12), p.9183-9205
    Description: The northern Gulf of Elat/Aqaba is located in the transition between the deep marine basins of the gulf and the shallow onland basins of the Arava Valley. Interpretation of 500 km of high‐resolution seismic reflection data collected across the northern shelf reveals the tectonic structure and evolution of this transition. Six NNE‐trending faults and one E‐W trending transverse fault are mapped. Slip rates are calculated based on measured offsets and age determination based on a radiocarbon‐calibrated sedimentation rate and a Quaternary age model. The most active fault is the Evrona Fault that absorbs most of the left lateral slip within the basin with an average sinistral slip rate of 0.7 ± 0.3 mm/yr through the Late Pleistocene and 2.3–3.4 mm/yr during the Holocene. Two intrabasin faults east of the Evrona Fault that have been inactive for the last several tens of thousands of years were mapped, and motion from these faults has likely transferred to the Evrona Fault. The basin is flanked on the west by the Elat Fault and on the east by the Aqaba Fault. Both faults are marked by large bathymetric escarpments. Based on displaced seismic reflectors, we calculate a Holocene vertical slip rate of 1.0 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the Elat and Aqaba Faults, respectively. The geometry, slip rates, and slip history of the northern Gulf of Elat/Aqaba faults show that during the Late Pleistocene several intrabasin faults became dominant across the basin but that during the Holocene the Evrona Fault accommodates most of the strike slip. Key Points The study reveals six intrabasin north trending faults and one transverse faultThe Evrona strike‐slip fault occupies most of the Holocene left lateral slipThe northern GEA basin is in an advanced stage of evolution
    Subject(s): fault ; Gulf of Aqaba ; basin ; Transform ; Dead Sea ; tectonic
    ISSN: 2169-9313
    E-ISSN: 2169-9356
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of seismology, 2001-07, Vol.5 (3), p.449-474
    Description: The Wadi Araba Valley is a morphotectonic depression along part of theDead Sea Transform (DST) plate boundary that separates the Arabian plateon the east from the Sinai subplate on the west. The Wadi Araba fault(WAF) is the main strike-slip faults one of between the Gulf of Aqaba and the E-Wtrending Khunayzira (Amatzayahu) fault that bounds the southern end ofthe Dead Sea. Just south of the Dead Sea, the WAF cuts across severalgenerations of alluvial fans that formed on tributaries to the Wadi Dahalafter the regression of Late Pleistocene Lake Lisan ca. 15 ka. Geomorphicand stratigraphic evidence of active faulting, including left-laterally offsetstream channels and alluvial-fan surfaces, yielded fault slip-rate data for thenorthern segment of WAF. Typical cumulative displacements of 54 m,39 m, and 22.5 m of stream channels and alluvial-fan surfaces acrossthe fault were measured from detailed geologic and topographic mapping.The 54 m offset of the oldest alluvial-fan surface (Q f1 ) occurredafter the final lowering of Lake Lisan (16–15 ka) and before 11 ka yieldinga slip-rate range of 3.4 mm/yr to 4.9 mm/yr. Based on radiocarbonages of charcoal and landsnail shell samples from the buried Q f2 alluvial-fan deposits exposed in trenches excavated across the fault, the39 m and 22.5 m offsets occurred after 9 ka and 5.8 ka, respectively. These data yield a slip-rate range between 3.9 mm/yr and 6.0 mm/yr.The small variability in these slip-rate estimates for different time periodssuggests that the northern Wadi Araba fault has maintained a relativelyconstant slip rate in the past 15 ka. We calculate an average slip rate of 4.7± 1.3 mm/yr since 15 ka based on the three separate displacementsand age estimates. Five separate offsets of 3 m were measured from gullybends and the offset of small fault-scarp alluvial fans. These displacementdata suggest a coseismic slip of 3 m in the last earthquake, or acumulative slip of 3 m in the past few earthquakes. A maximum slip of3 m correspond to a Mw 7 earthquake that ruptures about 49 km offault length. Using an average slip rate of 4.7 ± 1.3 mm/yr togetherwith a 3-m slip-per-event suggests a maximum earthquake recurrence intervalof this fault segment of 500 to 885 years.
    Subject(s): Geotechnical Engineering ; Dead Sea transform ; slip rate ; late Pleistocene ; earthquake recurrence ; Geophysics/Geodesy ; alluvial fans ; Structural Geology ; Geosciences ; Hydrogeology ; Wadi Araba fault ; Jordan ; Holocene
    ISSN: 1383-4649
    E-ISSN: 1573-157X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geoarchaeology, 2010-09, Vol.25 (5), p.602-625
    Description: Stratified cultural remains from the Early Roman/Nabataean to Byzantine periods in the coastal zone of Aqaba, Jordan, and analyses of thirteen sediment cores provide evidence for changes in the depositional environment during the Holocene. The overall trend in subsurface sediments is a basal marine transgressive layer overlain by a regressional sequence of embayment lagoonal sediments identified from microfossil analyses, and backshore pond, alluvium, and eolian deposits until the 1st century B.C., when mudbrick structures appear. Based on two radiocarbon dates, a brackish water coastal embayment formed prior to ca. 5900–5700 B.C. and was subsequently filled by siltation. Local tectonic subsidence along faults of the Dead Sea transform may have helped form the lagoon. Freshwater Candona sp. ostracods found in sand layers in the lagoon facies show signs of having been transported and redeposited. These data indicate that lakes or marshes were likely located inland of the study area. Supporting faunal and floral evidence for wetter climatic conditions, wetland habitats, and extensive water diversion and agricultural terraces has been excavated at late Chalcolithic (4000–3500 B.C.) sites in the Aqaba region (Khalil & Schmidt, 2009). By the 8th century B.C., the depositional environment along the coastal plain of Aqaba was dominated by distal alluvial fan and eolian sedimentation and the shoreline had prograded about 400m seaward. The migration of human settlements since the 8th century B.C. from the center of the valley toward the southeast may be driven by the changing course of Wadi Yutim and conditions along the coastal plain. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    ISSN: 0883-6353
    E-ISSN: 1520-6548
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 2007-05-01, Vol.346 (346), p.59-77
    Description: The ancient ruins of the city of Aqaba are located at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba along the seismically active Dead Sea Transform fault in southern Jordan. Detailed archaeological excavation and geologic mapping were conducted along an active fault that cuts through Late Roman/Byzantine to Early Islamic deposits at the archaeological site of Aila in Aqaba. In this paper, we describe the stratigraphic evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes that have affected the site and document the associated collapse, damage, and repair of the architecture in antiquity. These data show that there have been seven earthquakes that have disrupted the archaeological deposits since the second century A.D., based on evidence of faulting. Our data clearly show that historical earthquake catalogs are incomplete with regard to some of the less damaging earthquakes that have affected southern Jordan but may have played a significant role in the cultural history of the region.
    Subject(s): Excavations ; Sand ; Geology ; Umayyad Caliphate ; Earthquakes ; Earthquake damage ; Pottery ; Adobe ; Archaeological sites ; Rooms ; Environmental assessment ; Nabatea and Pre-Islamic Arabic peninsula ; Islam ; Ancient civilizations of the near east ; Art and archaeology ; Mesopotamia and Near East ; Research principies ; Umayyades of syria ; Classical art ; Generalities ; Geology, hydrology, climatology ; Methods ; Archaeology ; Historic buildings & sites ; Seismology ; Prehistoric era
    ISSN: 0003-097X
    E-ISSN: 2161-8062
    Source: University of Chicago Press Journals (Full run)
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of geophysical research. Solid earth, 2014-12, Vol.119 (12), p.9183-9205
    ISSN: 2169-9313
    E-ISSN: 2169-9356
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 2013-11, Vol.370, p.246-248
    ISSN: 0003-097X
    E-ISSN: 2161-8062
    Source: University of Chicago Press Journals (Full run)
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of seismology, 2006, Vol.10 (4), p.415-430
    Subject(s): Internal geophysics ; Engineering and environment geology. Geothermics ; Exact sciences and technology ; Earth, ocean, space ; Earth sciences ; Natural hazards: prediction, damages, etc ; Earthquakes, seismology
    ISSN: 1383-4649
    E-ISSN: 1573-157X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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