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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Psychopharmacology, 2003-08, Vol.168 (4), p.446-454
    Description: LY354740, a structural analogue of glutamate that shows specificity at the mGluR2/3 receptor, has anxiolytic effects in animal models.This study investigated the anxiolytic effects of LY354740 in humans using the fear-potentiated startle reflex methodology.Subjects were given either placebo (n=16), 20 mg LY354740 (n=15), or 200 mg LY354740 (n=13). The fear-potentiated startle tests examined startle potentiation to shock anticipation and to darkness.Consistent with previous results, startle was increased by threat of shock and by darkness. LY354740 did not affect baseline startle. Correspondingly, subjects did not report LY354740 to be sedative. LY354740 significantly reduced the increase in startle magnitude during shock anticipation, but not during darkness. Subjective reports of state anxiety and negative affectivity during the fear-potentiated startle tests were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by LY354740.These results suggest that LY354740 has an anxiolytic profile in humans without being sedative.
    Subject(s): Administration, Oral ; Adult ; Anti-Anxiety Agents - pharmacology ; Anxiety - physiopathology ; Anxiety - prevention & control ; Anxiolytic ; Biological and medical sciences ; Bridged Bicyclo Compounds - pharmacology ; Darkness ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Electrodes ; Fear ; Fear - drug effects ; Fear-potentiated startle ; Female ; Glutamate ; Humans ; LY354740 ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Medicine ; Neuropharmacology ; Pain Measurement - drug effects ; Pharmacology. Drug treatments ; Photic Stimulation ; Psycholeptics: tranquillizer, neuroleptic ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopharmacology ; Reaction Time - drug effects ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate - agonists ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate - drug effects ; Reflex, Startle - drug effects
    ISSN: 0033-3158
    E-ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral sciences & the law, 2014-05, Vol.32 (3), p.269-285
    Description: The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well‐validated “detecting deception” methods – i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) – when applied to the issue of bio‐threat.The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%.Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio‐threat under low‐base‐rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Bioterrorism ; Bioterrorism - psychology ; Choice Behavior ; Deception ; Female ; Humans ; Interviewing in psychiatry ; Interviews as Topic - methods ; Lie Detection ; Lie detectors and detection ; Logistic Models ; Male ; Methods ; Middle Aged ; Psychological aspects ; Qualitative Research ; Research ; Usage ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0735-3936
    E-ISSN: 1099-0798
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Perspectives on psychological science, 2017-11, Vol.12 (6), p.927-955
    Description: Proponents of “enhanced interrogation techniques” in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.
    Subject(s): Communication ; Deception ; Humans ; Interpersonal Relations ; Memory ; Models, Psychological ; Torture
    ISSN: 1745-6916
    E-ISSN: 1745-6924
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of traumatic stress, 2013-08, Vol.26 (4), p.492-497
    Description: This study explored distinctions between spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in 335 military personnel exposed to stressful survival training. Participants completed the Clinician‐Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) after a stressful mock‐captivity event. They were also asked to indicate whether the dissociative experiences just happened (i.e., spontaneous), or whether they chose to have them happen (i.e., deliberate); and whether they appraised the dissociative experience as helpful (i.e., facilitative) or hurtful (i.e., debilitative) to their ability to cope with the stressful event. A majority (95.4%) endorsed dissociative states during stress. More than half (57.4%) described dissociative experiences as spontaneous, 13.0% as deliberate, and 29.5% endorsed neither. In Special Forces soldiers only, those who endorsed facilitative dissociation exhibited higher total CADSS scores than those who endorsed debilitative dissociation. Seventy‐three percent of spontaneous dissociators described the experience as debilitative to coping with stress; conversely, 76% of deliberate dissociators said these experiences facilitated coping with stress. Individuals with prior trauma exposure tended to appraise dissociative states as more debilitative to coping. This research may enhance the fidelity of studies of dissociation constructs and may offer pivot points for prevention and treatment of stress‐related disorders. Traditional and Simplified Chinese s by AsianSTSS 標題:軍人中自發和蓄意解離狀況:有益還是有害? 撮要:本研究在335名軍人中探討受壓生還特訓後自發和蓄意解離狀況的區別。參與者在一次受壓模擬囚禁訓練後接受臨床診斷解離狀況量表(CADSS)評估,和回答此等狀況是”自然發生”(即自發)或”選擇發生”(即蓄意),及自評此等狀況是有益(即促進)或有礙(即減弱)於本身應對此訓練的能力。大多數人(95.4%)贊同受壓時出現解離現象。多於半數(57.4%)人士形容為自發解離,13.0%則是蓄意解離,29.5%則兩者都不是。在特種部隊中,贊同解離為促進的人較減弱者有更高CADSS 總評分。73%自發解離者形容此等經歷減弱應付壓力的能力;反之,有76%蓄意解離者則認為此等經歷促進應付壓力的能力。有創傷經歷史的人士評價解離狀況嚴重減弱應對能力。本研究可能有助理解解離結構研究的真實情況,和提供了壓力相關疾病的預防和治療的重點。 标题:军人中自发和蓄意解离状况:有益还是有害? 撮要:本研究在335名军人中探讨受压生还特训后自发和蓄意解离状况的区别。参与者在一次受压模拟囚禁训练后接受临床诊断解离状况量表(CADSS)评估,和回答此等状况是”自然发生”(即自发)或”选择发生”(即蓄意),及自评此等状况是有益(即促进)或有碍(即减弱)于本身应对此训练的能力。大多数人(95.4%)赞同受压时出现解离现象。多于半数(57.4%)人士形容为自发解离,13.0%则是蓄意解离,29.5%则两者都不是。在特种部队中,赞同解离为促进的人较减弱者有更高CADSS 总评分。73%自发解离者形容此等经历减弱应付压力的能力;反之,有76%蓄意解离者则认为此等经历促进应付压力的能力。有创伤经历史的人士评价解离状况严重减弱应对能力。本研究可能有助理解解离结构研究的真实情况,和提供了压力相关疾病的预防和治疗的重点。
    Subject(s): Adaptation, Psychological ; Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Adults ; Americans ; Anxiety disorders. Neuroses ; Biological and medical sciences ; Coping Behavior ; Dissociative Disorders - psychology ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Humans ; Male ; Males ; Medical sciences ; Military Personnel ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Military Survival Training ; Positive Effects ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Special Forces Personnel ; Stress ; Stress (Psychology) ; Stress, Psychological - complications ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Stressors ; Survivors ; United States ; Volition ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0894-9867
    ISSN: 1573-6598
    E-ISSN: 1573-6598
    Source: PTSDpubs
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of abnormal psychology (1965), 1999-02, Vol.108 (1), p.134-142
    Description: Aversive conditioning to explicit and contextual cues was examined in Gulf War veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by use of the startle reflex methodology. Veterans participated in a differential aversive conditioning experiment consisting of 2 sessions separated by 4 or 5 days. Each session comprised two startle habituation periods, a preconditioning phase, a conditioning phase, and a postconditioning extinction test. In contrast to the non-PTSD group, the PTSD group showed a lack of differential startle response in the presence of a conditioned stimulus with or without an unconditioned stimulus in Session 1 and an increase in the baseline startle response during Session 2. The PTSD group also exhibited normal differential conditioning following reconditioning in Session 2. These data suggest that individuals with PTSD tend to generalize fear across stimuli and are sensitized by stress.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Analysis of Variance ; Anxiety - psychology ; Anxiety disorders. Neuroses ; Bias ; Biological and medical sciences ; Conditioning, Classical ; Context effects (Psychology) ; Electroshock - methods ; Fear ; Fear - psychology ; Habituation, Psychophysiologic ; Humans ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Psychological aspects ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Reflex, Startle ; Research ; Startle reaction ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology ; Veterans ; Veterans - psychology ; Warfare
    ISSN: 0021-843X
    E-ISSN: 1939-1846
    Source: APA PsycARTICLES
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of forensic sciences, 2011-09, Vol.56 (5), p.1227-1234
    Description: :  Laboratory‐based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type‐token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real‐world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; cognitive interview ; Consulting services ; Deception ; detecting deception ; Expert witness testimony ; false claims ; Forensic Medicine ; Forensic psychiatry ; forensic science ; Forensic sciences ; Humans ; Interviews as Topic ; Law enforcement ; Lie Detection ; Linguistics ; Logistic Models ; Male ; Military Personnel ; military stress ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Questioning ; ROC Curve ; Stress ; Stress, Psychological ; Writing
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2009, Vol.66 (4), p.334-340
    Description: Background A growing body of research has provided evidence that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are involved in an organism's response to stress and that it may provide beneficial behavioral and neurotrophic effects. Methods This study investigated plasma DHEA and DHEAS, cortisol, psychological symptoms of dissociation, and military performance in 41 healthy active duty subjects enrolled in the military Combat Diver Qualification Course (CDQC). Results Baseline values of DHEA and DHEAS were significantly and positively predictive of superior performance in the underwater navigation exam; in addition, DHEA and DHEAS were significantly and negatively related to stress-induced symptoms of dissociation during performance of the task. Similarly, participants who reported fewer symptoms of dissociation exhibited superior military performance and increased levels of DHEA after the test. Conclusions These data provide prospective, empiric evidence that DHEA and DHEAS are associated with superior stress tolerance, fewer symptoms of dissociation, and superior, objectively assessed, military performance.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Androgens ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cognition - physiology ; Cognitive ; Corticosteroids ; Dehydroepiandrosterone ; Dehydroepiandrosterone - blood ; Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate - blood ; Dissociative Disorders - blood ; Dissociative Disorders - diagnosis ; hormones ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone - blood ; Hydrocortisone - metabolism ; Medical sciences ; military ; Military Personnel - psychology ; performance ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Saliva - metabolism ; special forces ; Steroids ; stress ; Stress, Physiological - physiology ; Stress, Psychological - blood ; Sulfates ; Task Performance and Analysis
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Military medicine, 2014-09, Vol.179 (9), p.955-958
    Description: We recently distinguished between spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in military personnel exposed to stressful survival training, demonstrating not only that a substantial subset of participants (13%) deliberately dissociate under intense stress but also that most deliberate dissociators (76%) find it helpful (facilitative) to coping. In this brief report, we examine the relationship between spontaneous and deliberate subtypes of dissociation, and objective military performance in Special Forces and non-Special Forces personnel enrolled in survival school. Inverse relationships between dissociation and military performance were observed in both Special Forces and general soldier subgroups. Military performance did not differ between spontaneous and deliberate dissociators, nor did it differ between those who appraised dissociative states as facilitative versus debilitative to stress coping. This study evolves our understanding of factors influencing human performance in the high-stakes survival context.
    Subject(s): Adaptation, Psychological - physiology ; Adult ; Americans ; Army Personnel ; Coping Behavior ; Dissociative Disorders - psychology ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Etiology ; Humans ; Male ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Military Psychiatry ; Military Survival Training ; Occupational Functioning ; Prisoners - psychology ; Special Forces Personnel ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Survival - physiology ; Survival - psychology ; Survivors
    ISSN: 0026-4075
    E-ISSN: 1930-613X
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PTSDpubs
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International journal of law and psychiatry, 2004, Vol.27 (3), p.265-279
    Subject(s): Adult ; Cohort Studies ; Criminals ; Cues ; Evaluation ; Eyewitness identification ; Humans ; Identification and classification ; Influence ; Psychological aspects ; Recollection (Psychology) ; Repression, Psychology ; Stress (Psychology) ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Videotape Recording
    ISSN: 0160-2527
    E-ISSN: 1873-6386
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, 2002-08-01, Vol.159 (8), p.1420-1422
    Description: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of enhanced noradrenergic activity on memory consolidation in humans. METHOD: Thirty healthy subjects (21 men and nine women) viewed a series of 12 slides that depicted an emotionally arousing story. Five minutes after viewing the slides, subjects received either intravenous yohimbine or intravenous placebo in a double-blind randomized fashion. Multiple blood samples were drawn for determining plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG). One week later subjects took a surprise memory test for the slides. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in memory score between yohimbine and placebo groups. Linear regression revealed a significant effect of MHPG on memory score for the group as a whole (subjects who had received yohimbine and those who had received placebo) and for the placebo group alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen support for the hypothesis that enhanced memory for emotionally arousing events in humans depends critically on postlearning adrenergic modulation.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adult ; Analysis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Double-Blind Method ; Emotional conditioning ; Emotions - physiology ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Human ; Humans ; Influence ; Infusions, Intravenous ; Learning. Memory ; Linear Models ; Male ; Memory ; Memory - drug effects ; Memory - physiology ; Mental Recall - drug effects ; Mental Recall - physiology ; Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol - blood ; Middle Aged ; Norepinephrine - metabolism ; Norepinephrine - physiology ; Placebos ; Psychiatric research ; Psychiatry ; Psychological Tests ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Recall ; Research ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - psychology ; Sympathomimetic agents ; Visual Perception - physiology ; Yohimbine - administration & dosage ; Yohimbine - pharmacology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 1535-7228
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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