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  • 1
    In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, August 2013, Vol.26(4), pp.492-497
    Description: This study explored distinctions between spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in 335 military personnel exposed to stressful survival training. Participants completed the Clinician‐Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) after a stressful mock‐captivity event. They were also asked to indicate whether the dissociative experiences just happened (i.e., spontaneous), or whether they chose to have them happen (i.e., deliberate); and whether they appraised the dissociative experience as helpful (i.e., facilitative) or hurtful (i.e., debilitative) to their ability to cope with the stressful event. A majority (95.4%) endorsed dissociative states during stress. More than half (57.4%) described dissociative experiences as spontaneous, 13.0% as deliberate, and 29.5% endorsed neither. In Special Forces soldiers only, those who endorsed facilitative dissociation exhibited higher total CADSS scores than those who endorsed debilitative dissociation. Seventy‐three percent of spontaneous dissociators described the experience as debilitative to coping with stress; conversely, 76% of deliberate dissociators said these experiences facilitated coping with stress. Individuals with prior trauma exposure tended to appraise dissociative states as more debilitative to coping. This research may enhance the fidelity of studies of dissociation constructs and may offer pivot points for prevention and treatment of stress‐related disorders. 標題:軍人中自發和蓄意解離狀況:有益還是有害? 撮要:本研究在335名軍人中探討受壓生還特訓後自發和蓄意解離狀況的區別。參與者在一次受壓模擬囚禁訓練後接受臨床診斷解離狀況量表(CADSS)評估,和回答此等狀況是”自然發生”(即自發)或”選擇發生”(即蓄意),及自評此等狀況是有益(即促進)或有礙(即減弱)於本身應對此訓練的能力。大多數人(95.4%)贊同受壓時出現解離現象。多於半數(57.4%)人士形容為自發解離,13.0%則是蓄意解離,29.5%則兩者都不是。在特種部隊中,贊同解離為促進的人較減弱者有更高CADSS 總評分。73%自發解離者形容此等經歷減弱應付壓力的能力;反之,有76%蓄意解離者則認為此等經歷促進應付壓力的能力。有創傷經歷史的人士評價解離狀況嚴重減弱應對能力。本研究可能有助理解解離結構研究的真實情況,和提供了壓力相關疾病的預防和治療的重點。 标题:军人中自发和蓄意解离状况:有益还是有害? 撮要:本研究在335名军人中探讨受压生还特训后自发和蓄意解离状况的区别。参与者在一次受压模拟囚禁训练后接受临床诊断解离状况量表(CADSS)评估,和回答此等状况是”自然发生”(即自发)或”选择发生”(即蓄意),及自评此等状况是有益(即促进)或有碍(即减弱)于本身应对此训练的能力。大多数人(95.4%)赞同受压时出现解离现象。多于半数(57.4%)人士形容为自发解离,13.0%则是蓄意解离,29.5%则两者都不是。在特种部队中,赞同解离为促进的人较减弱者有更高CADSS 总评分。73%自发解离者形容此等经历减弱应付压力的能力;反之,有76%蓄意解离者则认为此等经历促进应付压力的能力。有创伤经历史的人士评价解离状况严重减弱应对能力。本研究可能有助理解解离结构研究的真实情况,和提供了压力相关疾病的预防和治疗的重点。
    Subject(s): Military Personnel ; Stress (Psychology);
    ISSN: 0894-9867
    E-ISSN: 1573-6598
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  • 2
    In: Behavioral Sciences & the Law, May 2014, Vol.32(3), pp.269-285
    Description: The purpose of this project was to assess the detecting deception efficacy of three well‐validated “detecting deception” methods – i.e., forced choice testing (FCT), modified cognitive interviewing (MCI) and autobiographical implicit association testing (aIAT) – when applied to the issue of bio‐threat. The detecting deception accuracies of FCT and MCI were 81% and 75%, respectively. Although the aIAT mean response times in block 5 differed significantly between deceptive and truthful persons, the classification accuracy was low. FCT alone reduced the group of 64 persons to 11 and detected 50% of the liars; the false positive rate was 9%. MCI alone reduced the group of 64 to 24 and detected 92% of the liars; the false positive rate was 54%. When FCT was paired with MCI, 75% of liars were detected and the false positive rate was 13%. Forced choice testing and MCI show promise as methods for detecting deception related to bio‐threat under low‐base‐rate conditions. These methods took little time, enhanced the odds of detecting deceptive individuals and exhibited high positive likelihood ratios, suggesting that they have merit as screening tools. The aIAT required more time and was less accurate but may still serve as a useful screening tool. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Subject(s): Deception ; False Positive Results ; Screening ; Efficacy ; Accuracy ; Interviewing ; Article;
    ISSN: 0735-3936
    E-ISSN: 1099-0798
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of psychosomatic research, 2010, Vol.69(5), pp.441-448
    Description: Sleep difficulties are common in individuals exposed to stress or trauma, and maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, such as worry and fear of losing vigilance, as well as low social support, may further impair sleep quality. This study examined the severity and correlates of sleep difficulties in a sample of treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF–OIF). A total of 167 OEF–OIF veterans seeking behavioral or primary care services completed a questionnaire containing measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, psychopathology, fear of loss of vigilance, cognitive coping strategies, and unit and postdeployment social support within 1 year of returning from deployment. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory scores in the full sample were indicative of severely impaired sleep. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with increased sleep difficulties, most notably sleep disturbances, daytime...
    Subject(s): Veterans ; Combat ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Sleep ; Social Support ; Coping ; Veterans ; Combat ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Sleep ; Social Support ; Coping
    ISSN: 0022-3999
    E-ISSN: 1879-1360
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(7), p.e0156278
    Description: Can the onset of PTSD symptoms and depression be predicted by personality factors and thought control strategies? A logical explanation for the different mental health outcomes of individuals exposed to trauma would seem to be personality factors and thought control strategies. Trauma exposure is necessary but not sufficient for the development of PTSD. To this end, we assess the role of personality traits and coping styles in PTSD vulnerability among Israeli and Palestinian students amid conflict. We also determine whether gender and exposure level to trauma impact the likelihood of the onset of PTSD symptoms. Five questionnaires assess previous trauma, PTSD symptoms, demographics, personality factors and thought control strategies, which are analyzed using path analysis. Findings show that the importance of personality factors and thought control strategies in predicting vulnerability increases in the face of political violence: the higher stress, the more important the roles...
    Subject(s): Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Military Medicine, September 2014, Vol.179(9), pp.955-958
    Description: We recently distinguished between spontaneous and deliberate dissociative states in military personnel exposed to stressful survival training, demonstrating not only that a substantial subset of participants (13%) deliberately dissociate under intense stress but also that most deliberate dissociators (76%) find it helpful (facilitative) to coping. In this brief report, we examine the relationship between spontaneous and deliberate subtypes of dissociation, and objective military performance in Special Forces and non-Special Forces personnel enrolled in survival school. Inverse relationships between dissociation and military performance were observed in both Special Forces and general soldier subgroups. Military performance did not differ between spontaneous and deliberate dissociators, nor did it differ between those who appraised dissociative states as facilitative versus debilitative to stress coping. This study evolves our understanding of factors influencing human performance in the high-stakes survival context.
    Subject(s): Americans ; Special Forces Personnel ; Army Personnel ; Military Survival Training ; Survivors ; Etiology ; Coping Behavior ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Occupational Functioning ; Military Psychiatry ; Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (Bremner et Al)
    ISSN: 0026-4075
    E-ISSN: 1930613X
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, September 2011, Vol.56(5), pp.1227-1234
    Description: Laboratory‐based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type‐token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real‐world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice.
    Subject(s): Forensic Science ; Detecting Deception ; False Claims ; Cognitive Interview ; Military Stress
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
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  • 7
    In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2011, Vol.17(3), pp.494-501
    Description: Abstract Burnout symptoms, which are characterized by exhaustion, cynicism, and a reduced sense of professional efficacy, may deleteriously affect cognitive function in military personnel. A total of 32 U.S. Military Special Operations personnel enrolled in Survival School completed measures of trauma history, dissociation, and burnout before training. They then completed the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), a neuropsychological measure of integrative visuospatial executive function during three field-based phases of Survival School—enemy evasion, captivity/interrogation, and escape/release from captivity. Lower pre-training perceptions of professional efficacy were associated with reduced executive function during all of the field-based phases of Survival School, even after adjustment for years of education, cynicism, and baseline GMLT scores. Magnitudes of decrements in executive function in Marines with low efficacy relative to those with high efficacy increased as training progressed and ranged from .58 during enemy evasion to .99 during escape/release from captivity. Pre-training perceptions of burnout may predict visuospatial executive function during naturalistic training-related stress in military personnel. Assessment of burnout symptoms, particularly perceptions of professional efficacy, may help identify military personnel at risk for stress-related executive dysfunction. ( JINS , 2011, 17 , 494–501)
    Subject(s): Burnout; Stress; Cognition; Learning; Executive Function; Military; Training
    ISSN: 1355-6177
    E-ISSN: 1469-7661
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 1999, Vol.45(7), pp.827-832
    Description: Background: Disturbances in sensory processing have been hypothesized in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors investigated this possibility by using mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) that reflects the operation of a preconscious cortical detector of stimulus change. Methods: Thirteen medication-free women with sexual assault-related PTSD were compared with 16 age-matched, healthy comparison women without PTSD. ERPs were elicited by regularly presented “standard” auditory stimuli and by infrequently occurring “deviant” auditory stimuli, which differed slightly in frequency. The MMN was identified in the subtraction waveforms as the difference between ERPs elicited by the deviant and standard stimuli. Group comparisons of P50, N1, P2, and N2 to the standard and to the deviant stimuli, and of the MMN in the subtraction waveform were performed. Results: The amplitude of the MMN was significantly...
    Subject(s): Women ; Stress ; Evoked Potentials ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Sexual Assault ; Women ; Stress ; Evoked Potentials ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Sexual Assault ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2006, Vol.60(7), pp.722-729
    Description: Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group....
    Subject(s): Cognition ; Dissociation ; Military Performance ; Survival School ; Pre-Frontal Cortex ; Trauma Exposure ; Cognition ; Dissociation ; Military Performance ; Survival School ; Pre-Frontal Cortex ; Trauma Exposure ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Psychopharmacology, 2003, Vol.168(4), pp.446-454
    Description: Rationale. LY354740, a structural analogue of glutamate that shows specificity at the mGluR2/3 receptor, has anxiolytic effects in animal models. Objective. This study investigated the anxiolytic effects of LY354740 in humans using the fear-potentiated startle reflex methodology. Methods. Subjects were given either placebo (n=16), 20 mg LY354740 (n=15), or 200 mg LY354740 (n=13). The fear-potentiated startle tests examined startle potentiation to shock anticipation and to darkness. Results. Consistent with previous results, startle was increased by threat of shock and by darkness. LY354740 did not affect baseline startle. Correspondingly, subjects did not report LY354740 to be sedative. LY354740 significantly reduced the increase in startle magnitude during shock anticipation, but not during darkness. Subjective reports of state anxiety and negative affectivity during the fear-potentiated startle tests were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by LY354740. Conclusions. These results suggest that LY354740 has an anxiolytic profile in humans without being sedative.
    Subject(s): Glutamate ; LY354740 ; Fear ; Anxiolytic ; Fear-potentiated startle ; Darkness
    ISSN: 0033-3158
    E-ISSN: 1432-2072
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