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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2008
    ISSN: 0020-7780 
    Language: English
    In: International labour review, 2008-12, Vol.147 (4), p.377-402
    Description: . At the beginning of the 1980s, Chile pioneered the implementation in Latin America of structural reforms that fully or partially privatized pensions, health‐care and social assistance systems. Implemented without prior social dialogue, these reforms – which subsequently influenced similar reforms in other countries of the region and elsewhere – led to reduced social solidarity and equity and intensified poverty and inequality. Over the past 18 years, however, democratic governments have corrected many design faults in the original reforms. The author examines the progress achieved and areas of persistent social inequality in terms of coverage, gender balance and funding, and identifies future challenges.
    Subject(s): social security reform ; social security ; social protection ; Chile ; equal rights ; Health insurance ; Labor law ; Laws, regulations and rules ; Workers ; Interpretation and construction ; Compensation and benefits ; Employment discrimination
    ISSN: 0020-7780
    E-ISSN: 1564-913X
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 0023-8791  ISSN: 1542-4278 
    Language: English
    In: Latin American Research Review, 2017-01-01, Vol.52 (1), p.150-156
    Description: This essay reviews the following works: Open for Business: Building the New Cuban Economy. By Richard E. Feinberg. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2016. Pp. vii + 264. $22.00 cloth. ISBN: 9780815727675. Miradas a la economía cubana: Análisis del sector no estatal. Edited by Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva and Ricardo Torres. La Habana: Editorial Caminos, 2015. Pp. 163. $5, paper. ISBN: 9789593031080. Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape. By Archibald R. M. Ritter and Ted A. Henken. Boulder, CO: First Forum Press, 2015. Pp. xiv + 374. $79.95 cloth. ISBN: 9781626371637. Retos para la equidad social en el proceso de actualización del modelo económico cubano. Edited by María del Carmen Zavala et al. La Habana: Editorial Ciencias Sociales, 2015. Pp. vi + 362. $20 paper. ISBN: 9789590616105.
    Subject(s): BOOK REVIEW ESSAY ; Books ; Book reviews
    ISSN: 0023-8791
    ISSN: 1542-4278
    E-ISSN: 1542-4278
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: MLA International Bibliography with Full Text
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Latin American studies, 2021-02, Vol.53 (1), p.133-159
    Description: AbstractThis article assumes a balanced position between two contrasting views regarding the accessibility, quality, efficiency and financial sustainability of the Cuban healthcare system. It evaluates those issues in the 2006–20 period by identifying strengths and weaknesses based on a comprehensive statistical compilation of health indicators, physical infrastructure trends, availability of physicians and other elements to assess the system's long-term financial sustainability. Finally, it examines the likely consequences of population ageing on healthcare, including potential policies. Spanish abstractEste artículo asume una posición equilibrada entre dos puntos de vista contrastantes en relación al acceso, calidad, eficiencia y sostenibilidad financiera del sistema de salud cubano. Lo anterior es evaluado durante el periodo de 2006–20 mediante la identificación de fortalezas y debilidades basadas en una recopilación estadística exhaustiva de indicadores de salud, tendencias de la infraestructura física, disponibilidad de médicos y otros elementos para valorar la sostenibilidad a largo plazo del sistema. Finalmente, se examinan las consecuencias posibles del envejecimiento de la población en el sistema de salud, incluyendo políticas potenciales. Portuguese abstractEste artigo assume uma posição balanceada entre duas perspectivas contrastantes sobre a acessibilidade, qualidade, eficiência e sustentabilidade financeira do sistema de saúde cubano. Entre o período de 2016 e 2020, analisa tais questões através da identificação de pontos fortes e fracos baseados em uma extensiva compilação estatística de indicadores de saúde, tendências de infraestrutura, disponibilidade de médicos e outros elementos para avaliar a sustentabilidade financeira do sistema no longo prazo. Por fim, o artigo examina as possíveis consequências do envelhecimento da população no sistema de saúde, incluindo políticas potenciais.
    ISSN: 0022-216X
    E-ISSN: 1469-767X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Oxford review of economic policy, 2006-04-01, Vol.22 (1), p.149-167
    Description: Chile pioneered a structural reform in Latin America that privatized its public pension system and influenced similar reforms in another nine countries. Twenty-five years later, this article evaluates the macroeconomic, microeconomic, and social effects of this reform in Chile and the other countries in the region, and extracts lessons from those experiences. Fiscal costs of the reform have been high and prolonged, exceeded capital accumulation, and had a negative impact on national savings, but Chile's reform has contributed to the development of capital markets; employer's contributions were eliminated or reduced in half of the countries and the worker's share in the total contribution averages 65 per cent; competition is afflicted by a small number of administrators and a high level of concentration; administrative costs are high and stagnant; capital returns are fair but declining; portfolio diversification has been achieved only in Chile and Peru; labour-force coverage has declined in all ten countries, and gender and income inequalities have expanded.
    Subject(s): Pension contributions ; Mesas ; Public pensions ; Economic reform ; Pension funds ; Men ; Old age benefits ; Military pensions ; Pension costs ; Age ; Pensions ; Social aspects ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0266-903X
    E-ISSN: 1460-2121
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 5
    Language: Spanish
    Subject(s): Mixed economy ; Cuba ; Free enterprise ; Cooperative societies ; Economía mixta ; Sociedades cooperativas ; Libre empresa
    ISBN: 9788484899853
    ISBN: 8484899853
    ISBN: 3954875322
    ISBN: 9783954875320
    Source: De Gruyter eBooks
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  • 6
    Book
    Book
    2008
    ISBN: 0199233772  ISBN: 9780199233779 
    Language: English
    Description: The reform of social security pensions and healthcare is a key issue for the modern world, and in many ways Latin America has acted as a social laboratory for the reform of these systems. This is the first book to comprehensively study these influential reforms in Latin America's pension and health care systems.
    Subject(s): Social security ; Pensions ; Latin America
    ISBN: 0199233772
    ISBN: 9780199233779
    Source: Oxford Scholarship Online
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2002
    ISSN: 0305-750X 
    Language: English
    In: World development, 2002, Vol.30 (8), p.1309-1321
    Description: Starting in 1981 with Chile, to the end of 2000, 10 countries in Latin America implemented structural pension reforms, totally or partially “privatizing” their former public systems. The Latin American models have shaped similar reforms in Eastern Europe and influenced changes in Western Europe and the current debate in the United States. In 1999 the then Chief Economist of the World Bank, Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz, coauthored with Peter Orszag a provocative paper examining the myths of the narrowly interpreted reform model sponsored by the Bank, but without using crucial data from Latin America. This article contrasts 12 myths of structural pension reforms in that region with data collected from eight countries in the last seven to 20 years, confirming and expanding several of Orszag and Stiglitz's conclusions.
    Subject(s): private and public pension systems ; defined-contribution versus defined benefit ; structural reforms ; social security pensions ; myths of reform ; Latin America
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    E-ISSN: 1873-5991
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International social security review (English edition), 2016-01, Vol.69 (1), p.25-45
    Description: Chile pioneered in Latin America not only the introduction of social security pensions, but the structural reform that privatized them and a process of “re‐reform” implementing key improvements. A Presidential Commission in Chile, appointed in 2014 to evaluate reform progress and remaining problems in the pension system, released its report in September 2015. In light of the Commission's findings, the article assesses Chile's compliance with International Labour Organization social security guiding principles: social dialogue, universal coverage, equal treatment, social solidarity, gender equity, adequacy of benefits, efficiency and affordable administrative cost, social participation in management, state role and supervision, and financial sustainability. The exercise follows three stages: the structural reform (1981–2008), the re‐reform (2008–2015), and the Presidential Commission proposals (2015) Réformes des retraites au Chili et principes de la sécurité sociale ‐ 1981‐2015 Le Chili a été un pionnier en Amérique latine non seulement pour ce qui concerne l'introduction de pensions versées par la sécurité sociale mais également pour ce qui concerne la réforme structurelle qui les a privatisées et le processus de «contre‐réforme» qui a mis en place des améliorations essentielles. Une commission présidentielle, établie en 2014 dans l'objectif d'évaluer l'avancement des réformes et les problèmes persistants au sein du régime de pension a publié son rapport en septembre 2015. A la lumière des conclusions de la Commission, cet article évalue le niveau de conformité du Chili par rapport aux principes directeurs de l'Organisation internationale du Travail en matière de sécurité sociale: dialogue social, couverture universelle, égalité de traitement, solidarité sociale, égalité entre les sexes, adéquation des prestations, efficacité et coût maîtrisé de l'administration, participation sociale dans la gestion, rôle de l'état et supervision, et enfin pérennité financière. L'exercice prend en compte trois étapes: la réforme structurelle (1981‐2008), la contre‐réforme (2008‐2015) et les propositions de la Commission présidentielle (2015). Reformas de las pensiones en Chile y principios de la seguridad social, 1981‐2015 Chile lideró en América Latina no sólo la introducción de pensiones de seguridad social, sino también la reforma estructural que las privatizó y un proceso de “nueva reforma” en cuyo marco se llevaron a cabo mejoras fundamentales. Una Comisión Presidencial en Chile, designada en 2014 para evaluar los progresos de las reformas y los problemas persistentes en el régimen de pensiones, publicó su informe en septiembre de 2015. A la luz de las conclusiones de la Comisión, el artículo evalúa el cumplimiento por Chile de los principios rectores de la seguridad social de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo: diálogo social, cobertura universal, igualdad de trato, solidaridad social, igualdad de género, suficiencia de las prestaciones, eficiencia y costo administrativo asequible, participación social en la gestión, función y supervisión del Estado, y sostenibilidad financiera. El ejercicio consta de tres fases: la reforma estructural (1981–2008), la nueva reforma (2008–2015), y las propuestas de la Comisión Presidencial (2015). Rentenreformen in Chile und Prinzipien der sozialen Sicherheit, 1981‐2015 Chile war in Lateinamerika nicht nur Vorreiter bei der Einführung von Renten der sozialen Sicherheit, sondern auch bei der strukturellen Reform zu deren Privatisierung und bei der erneuten Reform zur Umsetzung der wichtigsten Verbesserungen. Ein chilenischer Präsidialausschuss, der 2014 zur Bestimmung der Reformfortschritte und der verbleibenden Probleme im Rentensystem eingesetzt wurde, hat im September 2015 einen Bericht vorgelegt. Der Artikel beschreibt im Licht der Befunde dieses Ausschusses, inwieweit die leitenden Prinzipien der sozialen Sicherheit der Internationalen Arbeitsorganisation durch Chile eingehalten werden: sozialer Dialog, universelle Deckung, Gleichbehandlung, soziale Solidarität, Generationengerechtigkeit, Angemessenheit der Leistungen, Wirksamkeit und Kosteneffizienz der Verwaltung, soziale Beteiligung im Management, staatliche Rolle und Überwachung und finanzielle Tragfähigkeit. Die Untersuchung befasst sich mit drei Phasen: strukturelle Reform (1981‐2008), erneute Reform (2008‐2015) und Vorschläge des Präsidialauschusses (2015). Reformas de pensão no Chile e princípios de seguridade social, 1981–2015 O Chile foi pioneiro na América Latina não apenas na introdução das pensões de seguridade social como também na reforma estrutural que as privatizou e no processo de “re‐reforma”, implementando aprimoramentos importantes. Uma comissão presidencial no Chile, constituída em 2014 para avaliar o andamento da reforma e os problemas remanescentes no sistema de pensão, divulgou seu relatório em setembro de 2015. À luz dos levantamentos da Comissão, o presente artigo avalia o grau de conformidade do Chile aos princípios diretores de seguridade social da Organização Internacional do Trabalho: diálogo social, cobertura universal, tratamento igualitário, solidariedade social, equidade de gênero, adequação dos benefícios, eficiência e custo administrativo acessível, participação social na gestão, função do estado e supervisão, e sustentabilidade financeira. O exercício contempla três estágios: a reforma estrutural (1981–2008), a re‐reforma (2008–2015) e as propostas da Comissão Presidencial (2015). Пeнcиoнныe peфopмы в Чили и пpинципы coциaльнoгo oбecпeчeния, 1981‐2015 гг. Из вcex cтpaн Лaтинcкoй Aмepики Чили нe тoлькo пepвoй ввeлa coциaльнoe пeнcиoннoe oбecпeчeниe, нo и ocущecтвилa cтpуктуpную peфopму путeм пpивaтизaции пeнcиoннoй cиcтeмы c пocлeдующeй peфopмoй, нaпpaвлeннoй нa coвepшeнcтвoвaниe ключeвыx oтpacлeй. B 2014 гoду в Чили былa coздaнa пpeзидeнтcкaя кoмиccия, кoтopoй былo пopучeнo oцeнить peфopмы и выявить ocтaющиecя нepeшeнными пpoблeмы пeнcиoннoй cиcтeмы. Дoклaд кoмиccии был oпубликoвaн в ceнтябpe 2015 гoдa. Ha ocнoвe вывoдoв дoклaдa в cтaтьe oцeнивaeтcя cлeдoвaниe Чили глaвным пpинципaм coциaльнoгo oбecпeчeния, paзpaбoтaнным Meждунapoднoй opгaнизaциeй тpудa (coциaльный диaлoг, вceoбщий oxвaт, paвнoe oбpaщeниe, coциaльнaя coлидapнocть, гeндepнoe paвeнcтвo, aдeквaтнocть пocoбий, эффeктивнocть и экoнoмичнocть aдминиcтpaтивныx pacxoдoв, учacтиe oбщecтвa в упpaвлeнии, poль гocудapcтвa, нaдзop и финaнcoвaя уcтoйчивocть). B cтaтьe paccмoтpeны тpи cтaдии peфopм: cтpуктуpнaя peфopмa (1981‐2008 гг.), пocлeдующaя peфopмa (2008‐15 гг.) и пpeдлoжeния пpeзидeнтcкoй кoмиccии (2015 г.). 1981‐2015年智利养老金改革和社保原则 智利在拉美不仅率先引入社保养老金,而且率先对其进行私有化结构改革以及率先进入“再改革”的进程以实施关键的改进。2014年,智利委任了一个评估养老金改革进展及其遗留问题的总统委员会;2015年9月,该委员会发表了其首份报告。本文根据该委员会的调查结果,评估了智利在遵守国际劳工组织有关社会对话、全民覆盖、平等待遇、社会团结、性别平等、给付充足性、效率和负担得起的管理成本、社会参与管理、国家作用和监管、以及财政可持续性等社保指导原则方面的情况。该改革划分为如下三个阶段:结构改革(1981至2008年)、再改革(2008至2015年)、以及总统委员会建议(2015年)。 إصلاحات المعاشات في شيلي ومبادئ الضمان الاجتماعي، 2015‐1981 لم تكن شيلي رائدة في أمريكا اللاتينية في إدراج معاشات الضمان الاجتماعي فحسب، إنما كذلك في الإصلاحات الهيكلية التي خصخصت هذه المعاشات وعملية "إعادة اصلاح" الذي تدرج تحسينات أساسية. وأصدرت لجنة رئاسية في شيلي، عُيّنت في 2014 بغرض تقييم التقدم المحرز في الإصلاحات والمشاكل المتبقية في نظام المعاشات، تقريرها في أيلول / سبتمبر 2015. ويقيّم هذا المقال، استناداً إلى النتائج التي خلصت إليها اللجنة، التزام شيلي بالمبادئ التوجيهية للضمان الاجتماعي التابعة لمنظمة العمل الدولية: الحوار الاجتماعي والتغطية الشاملة والمساواة في المعاملة والتضامن الاجتماعي والمساواة بين الجنسين وملاءمة المنافع والتكاليف الإدارية الفعالة ويسيرة المنال والمشاركة الاجتماعية في الإدارة ودور الدولة والمراقبة والاستدامة المالية. ويشمل هذا التحليل ثلاثة مراحل: الإصلاح الهيكلي (2008‐1981) وإعادة الإصلاح (2015‐2008) ومقترحات اللجنة الرئاسية (2015)
    Subject(s): Chili ; Convenio de la OIT ; Rentensystem ; Reform der sozialen Sicherheit ; convention de l'OIT ; social security reform ; réforme de la sécurité sociale ; reforma de la seguridad social ; IAO‐Übereinkommen ; régime de pension ; ILO Convention ; pension scheme ; régimen de pensión ; Chile ; Social security ; Social security reform ; Pensions
    ISSN: 0020-871X
    E-ISSN: 1468-246X
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Latin American studies, 2010-11, Vol.42 (4), p.689-717
    Description: The mechanisms by which the world economic crisis has been transmitted from developed to developing economies are conditioned by domestic factors that may attenuate or accentuate external economic shocks and their adverse social effects. Cuba is a special case: it is an open economy and hence vulnerable to trade-growth transmission mechanisms, but at the same time, it is a socialist economy with universal social services. This article reviews the literature, summarises Cuba's domestic socio-economic strengths and weaknesses prior to the crisis, evaluates the effects of the crisis on the macro-economic and social services indicators, assesses the government response and suggests alternative socio-economic policies. Los mecanismos por los que la crisis económica mundial ha sido transmitida de las economías desarrolladas a las en desarrollo están condicionados por factores locales que pudieron atenuar o acentuar los impactos económicos externos y sus efectos sociales adversos. Cuba es un caso especial, ya que es una economía abierta y por lo tanto vulnerable a los mecanismos de transmisión comerciales y de crecimiento económico, pero al mismo tiempo es una economía socialista con servicios sociales universales. Este artículo revisa la literatura existente al respecto, sintetiza las fortalezas y debilidades socioeconómicas de Cuba antes de la crisis, evalúa el efecto de la crisis sobre los indicadores macroeconómicos y de servicios sociales, analiza la respuesta gubernamental, y sugiere políticas socioeconómicas alternativas. Os mecanismos que transmitiram a crise economica global das economias desenvolvidas às economias em desenvolvimento são influenciados por fatores domésticos. Estes fatores atenuam ou exacerbam os choques econômicos externos e seus efeitos sociais adversos. Sendo uma economia aberta, vulnerável aos mecanismos de transmissão do comércio-crescimento e ao mesmo tempo uma economia socialista, com serviços sociais universais, Cuba representa um caso especial. Analisando o que tem sido escrito sobre a questão, o artigo sintetiza os pontos fortes e as fraquezas socioeconômicas internas de Cuba antes da crise, avaliando seus efeitos sobre os indicadores macroeconômicos e os serviços sociais. Considera-se a reação do governo, e sugerem-se políticas sócioeconomicas alternativas.
    Subject(s): Government crises ; Sustainable global economy ; Economic crises ; Employee pension plans ; Economic growth models ; Housing ; Gross domestic product ; Socioeconomics ; Social services ; International economics ; Developing countries ; Economic aspects ; Influence ; Mechanism design (Economics) ; Social service ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-216X
    E-ISSN: 1469-767X
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2015 HSS Package
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2007
    ISSN: 0023-8791  ISSN: 1542-4278 
    Language: English
    In: Latin American Research Review, 2007-01-01, Vol.42 (2), p.181-201
    Description: The following books that study the influence of health care models, pension reforms, health reforms, the politics of health care, the labor market, social security and employment, and more are reviewed: (1) "CRUCML Needs, Weak Incentives: Social Sector Reform, Democratization, and Globalization in Latin America," edited by Robert R. Kaufman and Joan M. Nelson (Woodrow Wilson Press/John Hopkins University Press, 2004); (2) "El sistema de pensiones en Chile en el context mundial y de America Latina: Evaluación desafíos" (Oficina Internacional del Trabajo/Ponencias del Seminario Internacional, 2004); (3) "Health Sector Reform in Bolivia: A Decentralization Case Study" (World Bank Country Study, 2004); (4) "Innovaciones en el sistema de salud en America Central: Lecciones e impactos de nuevos enfogues," edited by Gérard M. La Forgia (Documente de Trabajo del Banco Mundial, No. 60, 2005); (5) "Keeping the Promise of Social Security in Latin America," by Indermit Gill, Truman Packard, and Juan Yermo (Stanford University Press/World Bank, 2005); (6) "Learning from Foreign Models in Latin American Policy Reform," edited by Kurt Weyland (Woodrow Wilson Press/John Hopkins University Press, 2004); and (7) "Protección social y mercado laboral," edited by Fabio M. Bertranou (Oficina Internacional del Trabajo, 2004).
    Subject(s): Review Essays ; Kaufman, Seminario Internacional "Sistema de Pensiones de Chile en el Contexto Mundial y de América Latina: Evaluación y Desafíos" -- (2004 : -- Santiago, World Bank., Weyland, Bertranou, Robert R., Chile), Kurt Gerhard., Fabio ; Cross-cultural studies ; Congresses ; Health care reform ; Pensions ; Chile ; Nelson, Joan M ; Latin America ; Economics ; Politics ; Health and Medicine ; The Americas ; Books ; Book reviews ; Public health - Latin America - Bibliography ; Social security - Latin America - Bibliography ; Pension trusts ; Social security ; Pension trusts - Latin America - Bibliography ; Public health ; Bibliography
    ISSN: 0023-8791
    ISSN: 1542-4278
    E-ISSN: 1542-4278
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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