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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 2015, Vol.235 (4/5), p.474-498
    Description: We analyze the relationship between early-career unemployment and prime-age earnings with German administrative linked employer-employee data. The careers of more than 720,000 male apprenticeship graduates from the cohorts of 1978 to 1980 are followed over 24 years. On average, early-career unemployment has substantial negative effects on earnings accumulated later in life. An identification strategy based on plant closure of the training firm at the time of graduation suggests that the revealed correlation is not the result of unobserved heterogeneity. Scarring effects also vary considerably across the earnings distribution. Workers with a high earning potential are able to offset adverse consequences of early-career unemployment to a large extent. Workers who are located at the bottom of the prime-age earnings distribution, in contrast, suffer substantial and persistent losses. Our findings imply that a policy with the aim of preventing early-career unemployment would have long-lasting beneficial effects on future earnings.
    Subject(s): Berufsbiografie ; Mann ; Ausbildung ; Berufsanfänger ; Einkommenseffekt ; Berufsverlauf ; Absolvent ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; state dependence ; Scarring ; youth unemployment
    ISSN: 0021-4027
    E-ISSN: 2366-049X
    Source: De Gruyter Online
    Source: WISO - Die Datenbank für Hochschulen
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International economics and economic policy, 2016-01, Vol.13 (1), p.5-25
    Description: In the aftermath of the Great Recession 2008/2009 European youth unemployment rose sharply from below 4.2 m in 2007 to more than 5.6 m young people under 25 unemployed in the EU28 countries in 2013. The youth unemployment rate expanded from 15.5 in 2007 to 25.5 in 2013. Beyond the consequences for individuals youth unemployment as a mass phenomenon is potentially menacing the stability of democratic societies. Hence there are good reasons to fight youth unemployment by any means. The paper analyses the specific structure and causes of youth unemployment. Although youth unemployment is also influenced by individual factors like insufficient qualification, we show that country-specific factors - institutions, traditions and characteristic structures - are of high importance in explaining the huge disparities between European countries. Using panel data estimates with specific country and time fixed effects we show that especially the Mediterranean countries responded to the economic downturn in a specific way. However, the high correlation of changes in the youth and adult unemployment rates across countries points to the fact that not only structural factors but also business cycle effects are important for explaining the sharp increase in the youth unemployment rate in Europe. The rise in joblessness is in fact closely related to macroeconomic slackness. Therefore, we argue that a two-handed approach combining institutional improvements with growth stimulating measures is needed to overcome the problem.
    Subject(s): Economics ; Economic Policy ; International Economics ; Public Finance & Economics ; Macroeconomics/Monetary Economics//Financial Economics ; Economic aspects ; Forecasts and trends ; Unemployment ; Europe
    ISSN: 1612-4804
    E-ISSN: 1612-4812
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 1614-3485  ISSN: 2510-5019 
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Arbeitsmarktforschung, 2015-08, Vol.48 (2), p.151-168
    Description: This paper discusses the specific features of the German model as a specific variety of capitalism that is distinct from the Anglo-Saxon model because it builds more on social security and social partnership. It argues that the German model has experienced increasing pressure due to growth in systemic unemployment since the mid-1970s. The situation worsened as a result of the financial distress experienced after re-unification. Therefore, although painful for some groups of workers, the labor market reforms implemented from 2003 to 2005 were necessary to keep the German model alive. I argue that a certain erosion of the German model resulting from less collective bargaining coverage, labor market segmentation and higher wage inequality has falsely been attributed to the reforms. Rather, these phenomena are caused by long-run trends that were already occurring in the 1990s or even earlier.The German economy successfully passed the stress test of the Great Recession and is exhibiting ongoing employment growth. Basic features of the German model such as long tenures for qualified prime-age workers or the dual training system remain essentially intact. Hence, the German model is not dead, but vitally alive. However, some prudent counter-measures need to be implemented to fight against creeping erosion from segmentation and inequality. These should be taken with a sense of proportion in order to not jeopardize the great employment-related successes of the reform.Der Aufsatz diskutiert entlang verschiedener Dimensionen die Kennzeichen des deutschen Modells als einer besonderen Spielart des Kapitalismus. Diese unterscheidet sich vom angelsächsischen Modell, da sie stärker auf soziale Absicherung und Sozialpartnerschaft setzt. Er argumentiert, dass das deutsche Modell aufgrund der seit Mitte der 1970er Jahre schubartig angewachsenen Sockelarbeitslosigkeit zunehmend unter Druck geraten ist. Die Situation verschlechterte sich noch aufgrund der finanziellen Belastungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung. Obgleich schmerzhaft für bestimmte Arbeitnehmergruppen, waren die in den Jahren 2003 bis 2005 durchgeführten Arbeitsmarktreformen letztlich unvermeidlich, um einen Kollaps des Systems zu verhindern. Gewisse Erosionserscheinungen am deutschen Modell wie die rückläufige Tarifabdeckung, die zunehmende Segmentation des Arbeitsmarktes und die höhere Lohnungleichheit werden fälschlicherweise den Reformen zugeschrieben. Die empirischen Fakten belegen, dass diesen Phänomenen längerfristige Trends zugrunde liegen, die schon vor den Reformen in den 1990er Jahren oder sogar früher einsetzten.Nach den Reformen überstand die deutsche Wirtschaft den Stresstest der Großen Rezession erfolgreich und zeigte nachhaltiges Beschäftigungswachstum. Wesentliche Bestandteile des deutschen Modells wie die langen Betriebszugehörigkeiten von qualifizierten Facharbeiter/innen, das duale Ausbildungssystem, die starke Exportorientierung sowie eine solide finanzierte Sozialversicherung sind im Wesentlichen erhalten geblieben. Deswegen ist das deutsche Modell keineswegs abgewickelt, sondern im Kern weiterhin sehr lebendig. Eine gewisse Bedrohung ergibt sich aus den schleichenden Erosionserscheinungen durch wachsende Segmentation und Ungleichheit. Hierauf sollte mit ausgewogenen Gegenmaßnahmen reagiert werden, die jedoch nicht die Beschäftigungserfolge des bisherigen Reformprozesses wieder in Frage stellen sollten.
    Subject(s): Economic Policy ; Population Economics ; Segmentation ; J50 ; Human Resource Management ; Systemic unemployment ; J10 ; J31 ; Labor Economics ; P10 ; Economics / Management Science ; Regional/Spatial Science ; J28 ; Sociology, general ; Labor market reforms ; Inequality ; Labor market
    ISSN: 1614-3485
    ISSN: 2510-5019
    E-ISSN: 1614-3485
    E-ISSN: 2510-5027
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 2019-07-26, Vol.239 (3), p.361-362
    ISSN: 0021-4027
    E-ISSN: 2366-049X
    Source: De Gruyter Online
    Source: WISO - Die Datenbank für Hochschulen
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Scottish journal of political economy, 2013-09, Vol.60 (4), p.412-439
    Description: In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial model of monopsonistic competition, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers’ ability to discriminate against women. Utilizing a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi‐parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in large metropolitan than in rural areas. This regional gap in the gap of roughly 10 percentage points remained surprisingly constant over the entire observation period of 30 years.
    Subject(s): Employment discrimination ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0036-9292
    E-ISSN: 1467-9485
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International journal for educational and vocational guidance, 2014-03, Vol.14 (1), p.35-46
    Description: This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for employment and labor market integration. Finally, the dark side of the reforms, i.e., labor market segmentation and wage inequality, are addressed, which leads to the general question of how the reforms can be reconciled with the notion of social justice. Prospérité, durabilité de l’emploi et justice sociale : Défis pour le marché du travail allemand du 21 e siècle. Dans cet article, nous analysons les effets des réformes du marché du travail en Allemagne sur la compétitivité et la performance de l’économie allemande. Les arguments qui sous-tendent les réformes et la structure de l’économie allemande sont présentés. Nous décrivons ensuite les effets saillants des réformes sur l’emploi et l’intégration dans le marché du travail. Finalement, le côté sombre des réformes, c.-à-d., la segmentation du marché de l’emploi et les inégalités salariales, sont présentées, ce qui nous conduit à la question générale de savoir comment les réformes peuvent être réconciliées avec la notion de justice sociale. Wohlstand, nachhaltige Beschäftigung und soziale Gerechtigkeit— Herausforderungen für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt im 21. Jahrhundert. Der Beitrag untersucht die Effekte der deutschen Arbeitsmarktreformen im Hinblick auf die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Leistung der deutschen Wirtschaft. Zunächst werden einige Hintergrundinformationen zur Begründung der Reformen gegeben und die besonderen Strukturen der deutschen Wirtschaft herausgestellt. Im Folgenden werden die herausragenden Effekte der Reformen für die Beschäftigung und die Integration in den Arbeitsmarkt beschrieben. Abschließend werden die dunklen Seiten der Reform beleuchtet, d.h. insbesondere die Segmentation des Arbeitsmarktes und Lohnungleichheiten. Dies wirft die generelle Frage auf, wie die Reformen mit den Vorstellungen von sozialer Gerechtigkeit vereinbar sind. Prosperidad, Empleo Sostenible y Justicia Social: Retos del Mercado de Trabajo Alemán en el siglo XXI. En este artículo, se analizan los efectos de las reformas del mercado de trabajo alemán sobre la competitividad y el comportamiento de la economía alemana. Se da una explicación de la razón fundamental de por qué estas reformas y la estructura específica de la economía alemana. Seguidamente se describen los efectos más destacados de las reformas sobre el empleo y la integración del mercado de trabajo. Finalmente, se aborda el lado oscuro de las reformas, p. ej. la segmentación del mercado laboral, la desigualdad salarial, que nos lleva a plantear la pregunta de cómo las reformas podrían conciliarse con la noción de justicia social.
    Subject(s): Professional & Vocational Education ; Wage inequality ; Social justice ; German labor market reforms ; Education ; International and Comparative Education ; Labor market ; Reforms ; Employment
    ISSN: 0251-2513
    E-ISSN: 1573-1782
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of regional science, 2010-08, Vol.45 (1), p.31-53
    Description: At the interface of regional and labor economics, our paper deals with two central topics in the analysis of wage formation, the urban wage premium and the firm-size earnings differential. Choosing a cohort of workers from a large panel microdata set, we obtain an urban wage premium of 8% and a large firm premium of 11%. We find that large firms play a crucial role in explaining higher productivity levels in urban areas. The urban wage growth effect, however, is not tied to the firm level. Hence our findings confirm the view that externalities are operating in the urban environment and not only within firms.
    Subject(s): R23 ; Landscape/Regional and Urban Planning ; Geography (general) ; Environmental Economics ; Microeconomics ; J31 ; J24 ; Economics / Management Science ; Regional/Spatial Science
    ISSN: 0570-1864
    E-ISSN: 1432-0592
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik, 2018-08-03, Vol.67 (2), p.154-163
    Description: We discuss a new scheme of subsidized jobs for unemployed people with extremely low job finding prospects. This scheme, referred to as Social Labour Market, primarily intends to promote their social inclusion. Research on public employment schemes has shown that it is of utmost importance to define very narrow criteria for participation in order to avoid lock-in-effects. Due to health issues and other severe employment impediments of the participants, the design of a social labour market should allow for flexible work arrangements and include some kind of mentoring (“job coaches”). We conclude that the scheme planned by the German government basically meets many criteria recommended by labour market researchers but still bears some risk of “creaming”. We recommend to start with a small number of participants. This should help to test the process of assigning participants and assess the effectiveness of different designs of the scheme before boosting the number of participants to the ultimate size.
    Subject(s): Labor market ; Subsidies ; Unemployment
    ISSN: 0721-3808
    E-ISSN: 2366-0317
    Source: De Gruyter Online
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: WISO - Die Datenbank für Hochschulen
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 1613-978X  ISSN: 0043-6275 
    Language: German
    In: Wirtschaftsdienst (Hamburg), 2016, Vol.96 (1), p.38-44
    Subject(s): Ostdeutschland ; Geschlechterverteilung ; Erwerbsbiografie ; Qualifikationsstruktur ; Einkommensunterschied ; Westdeutschland
    ISSN: 1613-978X
    ISSN: 0043-6275
    E-ISSN: 1613-978X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2014
    ISSN: 1614-3485  ISSN: 2510-5019 
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Arbeitsmarktforschung, 2014-09, Vol.47 (3), p.177-177
    Subject(s): Economic Policy ; Population Economics ; Human Resource Management ; Sociology, general ; Labor Economics ; Economics / Management Science ; Regional/Spatial Science
    ISSN: 1614-3485
    ISSN: 2510-5019
    E-ISSN: 1614-3485
    E-ISSN: 2510-5027
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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