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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuro-oncology, 2016-02-13, Vol.127 (3), p.463-472
    Description: The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Algorithms ; Analysis ; ATR-FTIR ; Biomarkers, Tumor - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Cell Differentiation ; Diagnosis ; Diagnostics ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Glioma ; Gliomas ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Laboratory Investigation ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Metastasis ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Neoplasm Grading ; Neurology ; Oncology ; Prognosis ; Rapid ; Serum ; Spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Support Vector Machine ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0167-594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Molecular neurobiology, 2014-04-03, Vol.50 (2), p.545-558
    Description: The need for glioma biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity has sparked research into short non-coding RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). Altered miRNA biogenesis and expression in glioma plays a vital role in important signaling pathways associated with a range of tumor characteristics including gliomagenesis, invasion, and malignancy. This review will discuss current research into the role of miRNA in glioma and altered miRNA expression in biofluids as candidate biomarkers with a particular focus on glioblastoma, the most malignant form of glioma. The isolation and characterization of miRNA using cellular and molecular biology techniques from the circulation of glioma patients could potentially be used for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. We aim to highlight the links between research into miRNA function, their use as biomarkers, and how these biomarkers can be used to predict response to therapy. Furthermore, increased understanding of miRNA in glioma biology through biomarker research has led to the development of miRNA therapeutics which could restore normal miRNA expression and function and improve the prognosis of glioma patients. A panel of important miRNA biomarkers for glioma in various biofluids discovered to date has been summarized here. There is still a need, however, to standardize techniques for biomarker characterization to bring us closer to clinically relevant miRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic signatures. A clinically validated biomarker panel has potential to improve time to diagnosis, predicting response to treatment and ultimately the prognosis of glioma patients.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Article ; Biological markers ; Biomarkers ; Biomarkers - analysis ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Biosynthesis ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - cerebrospinal fluid ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain Neoplasms - therapy ; Cell Biology ; Drug therapy ; Glioma - blood ; Glioma - cerebrospinal fluid ; Glioma - diagnosis ; Glioma - therapy ; Gliomas ; Homeopathy ; Humans ; Materia medica and therapeutics ; MicroRNA ; MicroRNAs - blood ; MicroRNAs - cerebrospinal fluid ; Molecular biology ; Neurobiology ; Neurology ; Neurosciences ; Pharmacy ; Prognosis ; Ribonucleic acid ; RNA ; Signal Transduction - genetics ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; Therapeutics ; Tumors
    ISSN: 0893-7648
    E-ISSN: 1559-1182
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 2013-07-07, Vol.405 (23), p.7347-7355
    Description: The ability to diagnose brain cancer rapidly from serum samples is of great interest; such a diagnosis would allow for rapid testing and time to results providing a responsive diagnostic environment, ability to monitor treatment efficacy, early detection of recurrent tumours and screening techniques. Current methods rely upon subjective, time-consuming tests such as histological grading and are particularly invasive with the diagnostic test requiring hospitalisation of 2–3 days. A rapid diagnostic method based upon serum samples would allow for a relatively non-invasive test and open up the possibility of screening for brain cancer. We report for the first time the use of a Bioplex immunoassay to provide cytokine and angiogenesis factor levels that differ between serum from glioma and non-cancer patients specifically angiopoietin, follistatin, HGF, IL-8, leptin, PDGF-BB and PECAM-1 providing sensitivities and specificities as high as 88 % and 81 %, respectively. We also report, for the first time, the use of serum ATR-FTIR combined with a RBF SVM for the diagnosis of gliomas from non-cancer patients with sensitivities and specificities as high as 87.5 % and 100 %, respectively. We describe the combination of these techniques in an orthogonal diagnostic regime, providing strength to the diagnosis through data combinations, in a rapid diagnostic test within 5 h from serum collection (10 min for ATR-FTIR and 4 h for the Bioplex Immunoassay). This regime has the ability to revolutionise the clinical environment by providing objective measures for diagnosis allowing for increased efficiency with corresponding decreases in mortality, morbidity and economic impact upon the health services. Figure ᅟ
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Analytical Chemistry ; Angiopoietins - blood ; Bio-plex ; Biochemistry ; Brain ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ; Chemistry ; Chemistry and Materials Science ; Cytokines ; Diagnosis ; Diagnostic systems ; Factor Analysis, Statistical ; Female ; Follistatin - blood ; Food Science ; general ; Glioma - blood ; Glioma - diagnosis ; Gliomas ; Health aspects ; Hepatocyte Growth Factor - blood ; Humans ; Immunoassay ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Interleukin-8 - blood ; Laboratory Medicine ; Leptin - blood ; Male ; Methods ; Middle Aged ; Monitoring/Environmental Analysis ; Neovascularization ; Patients ; Physiological aspects ; Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 - blood ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis - blood ; Research ; Research Paper ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Serums ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Time Factors
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of biophotonics, 2014-04, Vol.7 (3-4), p.189-199
    Description: Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours in adults with over 9,000 people diagnosed each year in the UK. A rapid, reagent‐free and cost‐effective diagnostic regime using serum spectroscopy would allow for rapid diagnostic results and for swift treatment planning and monitoring within the clinical environment. We report the use of ATR‐FTIR spectral data combined with a RBF‐SVM for the diagnosis of gliomas (high‐grade and low‐grade) from non‐cancer with sensitivities and specificities on average of 93.75 and 96.53% respectively. The proposed diagnostic regime has the ability to reduce mortality and morbidity rates. (© 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; ATR-FTIR ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; cancer ; Drugstores ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; filtrate ; glioma ; Glioma - blood ; Glioma - diagnosis ; Gliomas ; Hospitals ; Humans ; infrared ; Male ; Mass Screening - methods ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Pharmacy ; rapid ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; serum ; spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1864-063X
    E-ISSN: 1864-0648
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of peptide science, 2014-12, Vol.20 (12), p.909-915
    Description: Globally, death due to cancers is likely to rise to over 20 million by 2030, which has created an urgent need for novel approaches to anticancer therapies such as the development of host defence peptides. Cn‐AMP2 (TESYFVFSVGM), an anionic host defence peptide from green coconut water of the plant Cocos nucifera, showed anti‐proliferative activity against the 1321N1 and U87MG human glioma cell lines with IC50 values of 1.25 and 1.85 mM, respectively. The membrane interactive form of the peptide was found to be an extended conformation, which primarily included β‐type structures (levels 〉 45%) and random coil architecture (levels 〉 45%). On the basis of these and other data, it is suggested that the short anionic N‐terminal sequence (TES) of Cn‐AMP2 interacts with positively charged moieties in the cancer cell membrane. Concomitantly, the long hydrophobic C‐terminal sequence (YFVFSVGM) of the peptide penetrates the membrane core region, thereby driving the translocation of Cn‐AMP2 across the cancer cell membrane to attack intracellular targets and induce anti‐proliferative mechanisms. This work is the first to demonstrate that anionic host defence peptides have activity against human glioblastoma, which potentially provides an untapped source of lead compounds for development as novel agents in the treatment of these and other cancers. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cn‐AMP2 (TESYFVFSVGM) is an anionic host defence peptide (AHDP) from green coconut water, which is shown here to exhibit activity against human glioma cells. This activity appears to involve translocation of the peptide across the cell membrane and the induction of anti‐proliferative mechanisms. This would appear to be the first report of AHDPs with activity against human glioblastoma and potentially provides an untapped source of lead compounds for development as novel agents in the treatment of these and other cancers.
    Subject(s): 1321N1 and U87MG cell lines ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Anions ; anticancer ; Antineoplastic Agents - chemistry ; Antineoplastic Agents - isolation & purification ; Antineoplastic Agents - pharmacology ; Cancer ; Care and treatment ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Membrane - drug effects ; Cn-AMP2 ; Cocos - chemistry ; Cocos nucifera ; human glioblastoma ; Humans ; Oligopeptides - chemistry ; Oligopeptides - isolation & purification ; Oligopeptides - pharmacology ; Peptides ; Surface active agents
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    E-ISSN: 1099-1387
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Neuro-oncology (Charlottesville, Va.), 2015-11, Vol.17 (suppl 8), p.viii19.4-viii19
    Subject(s): Abstracts
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2007-10, Vol.304 (1-2), p.343-351
    Description: Glioblastoma, (grade IV astrocytoma), is characterized by rapid growth and resistance to treatment. Identification of markers of aggressiveness in this tumor could represent new therapeutic targets. Interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-10 may be considered as possible candidates, regulating cell growth, resistance to chemotherapy and angiogenesis. ELISPOT method provides a useful tool for the determination of the exact cell number of peripheral lymphocytes secreting a specific cytokine. IL-6 and IL-10 secretion levels were determined using ELISPOT methodology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 18 patients with astrocytic neoplasms (3 grade II and 15 grade IV), in parallel with 18 healthy controls. Additionally, immunohistochemical expression of these two cytokines was performed in paraffin-embedded neoplastic tissue in 12 of these patients. The secretion of IL-6 from peripheral monocytes was significantly higher in glioma patients compared to controls (P = 0.0003). In addition, IL-10 secretion from peripheral mononuclear and tumor cells of glioma patients was also higher as compared to healthy controls (P = 0.0002). Based on immunohistochemical staining, IL-6 expression was localized in tumor cells and macrophages as well as in areas of large ischemic necrosis, while the major source of IL-10 expression in glioblastomas was the microglia/macrophage cells. It is suggested that IL-10 contributes to the progression of astrocytomas by suppressing the patient's immune response, whereas IL-6 provides an additional growth advantage. This study demonstrates for the first time the usefulness of ELISPOT in estimating the secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 from peripheral blood and the correlation of their expression in neoplastic cells.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Astrocytoma - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - methods ; Female ; Glioblastoma - blood ; Humans ; Interleukin-10 - blood ; Interleukin-10 - secretion ; Interleukin-6 - blood ; Interleukin-6 - secretion ; Leukocytes - secretion ; Male ; Medical research ; Middle Aged
    ISSN: 0300-8177
    E-ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2005-07, Vol.275 (1-2), p.207-213
    Description: This study examined the effect of melatonin (MLT) on in vitro phagocytosis of testicular macrophages taken from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanism of its action. The phagocytic activity was measured as a number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages (PI, phagocytic index) in consecutive time points of the incubation. Changes in intracellular free calcium level [Ca2+]i in isolated macrophages in vitro were measured with the use of ratio-image fluorescence microscopy (fluorescent dye: Fura2/AM). Phagocytic index in macrophages isolated from healthy rats was 20% higher than in those from diabetic animals. Melatonin in physiological concentration (10(-7) M) significantly (p 〈 0.05) increased the PI in testicular macrophages from control animals (PI = 68 +/- 5 with MLT compared to PI = 46 +/- 7 without MLT) while no such effect was observed in the cells from diabetic rats (PI = 36 +/- 23 with MLT compared to PI = 31 +/- 11 without MLT). Basal [Ca2+]i was significantly (p 〈 0.01) higher in macrophages from diabetic rats compared to control. Stimulation of both control and diabetic testicular macrophages with 10(-7) M MLT resulted in a significant (p 〈 0.05) increase in [Ca2+]i in cells incubated in 2.5 mM calcium solution while no such response was observed in calcium-free Tyrode solution. However, MLT evoked [Ca2+]i response in macrophages isolated from diabetic animals was much lower than in macrophages isolated from age-matched controls and the time needed for maximal response was much longer. Lack of response in calcium-free solution suggests that extracellular calcium may be necessary to trigger MLT response and in its progression.
    Subject(s): Analysis of Variance ; Animals ; Calcium (extracellular) ; Calcium - metabolism ; Diabetes ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental - metabolism ; Fluorescent Dyes ; Fura-2 ; Kinetics ; Macrophages - drug effects ; Male ; Melatonin - pharmacology ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Phagocytosis - drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Rodents ; Testis - cytology
    ISSN: 0300-8177
    E-ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives (DFG Nationallizenzen)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Analyst (London), 2013-12-09, Vol.139 (2), p.446-454
    Description: Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, non-invasive, rapid and economical technique which has the potential to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of cancer and understanding disease progression through retrospective studies of archived tissue samples. Historically, biobanks are generally comprised of formalin fixed paraffin preserved tissue and as a result these specimens are often used in spectroscopic research. Tissue in this state has to be dewaxed prior to Raman analysis to reduce paraffin contributions in the spectra. However, although the procedures are derived from histopathological clinical practice, the efficacy of the dewaxing procedures that are currently employed is questionable. Ineffective removal of paraffin results in corruption of the spectra and previous experiments have shown that the efficacy can depend on the dewaxing medium and processing time. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of commonly used spectroscopic substrates (CaF 2 , Spectrosil quartz and low-E slides) and the influence of different histological tissue types (normal, cancerous and metastatic) on tissue preparation and to assess their use for spectral histopathology. Results show that CaF 2 followed by Spectrosil contribute the least to the spectral background. However, both substrates retain paraffin after dewaxing. Low-E substrates, which exhibit the most intense spectral background, do not retain wax and resulting spectra are not affected by paraffin peaks. We also show a disparity in paraffin retention depending upon the histological identity of the tissue with abnormal tissue retaining more paraffin than normal. Spectral Histopathology is a non-destructive, non-invasive, rapid and economical technique which has the potential to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of cancer and understanding disease progression through retrospective studies of archived tissue samples.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Analytical chemistry ; Calcium fluoride ; Chemical Sciences ; Dewaxing ; Effectiveness ; Eosine Yellowish-(YS) - metabolism ; Female ; Hematoxylin - metabolism ; Histocytological Preparation Techniques - methods ; Histocytological Preparation Techniques - standards ; Human health and pathology ; Humans ; Life Sciences ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Neoplasms - pathology ; Paraffins ; Progressions ; Reference Standards ; Spectra ; Spectroscopy ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman ; Staining and Labeling ; Tissues and Organs ; Waxes - isolation & purification
    ISSN: 0003-2654
    E-ISSN: 1364-5528
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Human psychopharmacology, 2009-06, Vol.24 (4), p.319-330
    Description: Background Lavender odour is commonly used to alleviate mild anxiety. Double blind studies are difficult to conduct with odours, and there are few reliable investigations of lavender's efficacy. Method Orally administered lavender capsules (placebo, 100, 200 µl) were tested in a randomised between‐subjects (n = 97) double‐blind study. Film clips were used to elicit anxiety. Measures included anxiety, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mood, positive and negative affect scale (PANAS), heart rate (HR), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate variation (HRV). Following baseline measurements capsules were administered. Participants viewed a neutral film clip, then an anxiety‐provoking and light‐hearted recovery film clip. Results For the 200 µl lavender dose during the neutral film clip there was a trend towards reduced state anxiety, GSR and HR and increased HRV. In the anxiety‐eliciting film, lavender was mildly beneficial in females but only on HRV measures. In males sympathetic arousal increased during the anxiety film (GSR). HRV significantly increased at 200 µl during all three film clips in females, suggesting decreased anxiety. Conclusion These findings suggest that lavender has anxiolytic effects in humans under conditions of low anxiety, but these effects may not extend to conditions of high anxiety. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Affect - drug effects ; Aged ; Anti-Anxiety Agents ; anxiety ; Anxiety - psychology ; Capsules ; Double-Blind Method ; electrodermal response ; Female ; Galvanic Skin Response - drug effects ; heart rate ; Heart Rate - drug effects ; heart rate variation ; Humans ; Lavandula ; Lavandula - chemistry ; lavender essential oil ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Oils, Volatile - administration & dosage ; Oils, Volatile - pharmacology ; oral administration ; Photic Stimulation ; Respiratory Mechanics - drug effects ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0885-6222
    E-ISSN: 1099-1077
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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