Environmental health perspectives, 2019-07, Vol.127 (7), p.77005
Given its hormonal activity, bisphenol S (BPS) as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA) could actually increase the risk of endocrine disruption if its toxicokinetic (TK) properties, namely its oral availability and systemic persistency, were higher than those of BPA.
The TK behavior of BPA and BPS was investigated by administering the two compounds by intravenous and oral routes in piglet, a known valid model for investigating oral TK.
Experiments were conducted in piglets to evaluate the kinetics of BPA, BPS, and their glucuronoconjugated metabolites in plasma and urine after intravenous administration of BPA, BPS, and BPS glucuronide (BPSG) and gavage administration of BPA and BPS. A population semiphysiologically based TK model describing the disposition of BPA and BPS and their glucuronides was built from these data to estimate the key TK parameters that drive the internal exposure to active compounds.
The data indicated that almost all the BPS oral dose was absorbed and transported into the liver where only 41% of BPS was glucuronidated, leading to a systemic bioavailability of 57.4%. In contrast, only 77% of the oral dose of BPA was absorbed and underwent an extensive first-pass glucuronidation either in the gut (44%) or in the liver (53%), thus accounting for the low systemic bioavailability of BPA (0.50%). Due to the higher systemic availability of BPS, in comparison with BPA, and its lower plasma clearance (3.5 times lower), the oral BPS systemic exposure was on average about 250 times higher than for BPA for an equal oral molar dose of the two compounds.
Given the similar digestive tracts of pigs and humans, our results suggest that replacing BPA with BPS will likely lead to increased internal exposure to an endocrine-active compound that would be of concern for human health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4599.
Toxicokinetics ; Administration, Intravenous ; Animals ; Sus scrofa - metabolism ; Phenols - pharmacokinetics ; Administration, Oral ; Environmental Pollutants - pharmacokinetics ; Biological Availability ; Female ; Male ; Sulfones - pharmacokinetics ; Benzhydryl Compounds - pharmacokinetics ; Phenols ; Metabolites ; Bisphenol-A ; Swine ; Analysis ; Pharmacology, Experimental ; Endocrine gland diseases ; Development and progression ; Models ; Bioavailability ; Research ; Health aspects ; Risk factors ; Environmental and Society ; Environmental Sciences
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