Leukemia, 2020-09, Vol.34 (9), p.2317-2332
Currently available data on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has demonstrated efficacy and manageable toxicity in heavily pretreated multiple myeloma (MM) patients. The CAR-T field in MM is rapidly evolving with 〉50 currently ongoing clinical trials across all phases, different CAR-T design, or targets. Most of the CAR-T trials are performed in China and the United States, while European centers organize or participate in only a small fraction of current clinical investigations. Autologous CAR-T cell therapy against B cell maturation antigen shows the best evidence of efficacy so far but main issues remain to be addressed: duration of response, longer follow-up, prolonged cytopenia, patients who may benefit the most such as those with extramedullary disease, outcome prediction, and the integration of CAR-T cell therapy within the MM treatment paradigm. Other promising targets are, i.a.,: CD38, SLAMF7/CS1, or GPRC5D. Although no product has been approved to date, cost and production time for autologous products are expected to be the main obstacles for broad use, for which reason allogeneic CAR-T cells are currently explored. However, the inherent risk of graft-versus-host disease requires additional modification which still need to be validated. This review aims to present the current status of CAR-T cell therapy in MM with an overview on current targets, designs, and stages of CAR-T cell development. Main challenges to CAR-T cell therapy will be highlighted as well as strategies to structurally improve the CAR-T cell product, and thereby its efficacy and safety. The need for comparability of the most promising therapies will be emphasized to balance risks and benefits in an evidence-based but personalized approach to further improve outcome of patients with MM.
B-Cell Maturation Antigen - immunology ; Immunotherapy - methods ; Multiple Myeloma - therapy ; Humans ; Receptors, Chimeric Antigen - immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell - immunology ; Precision Medicine ; T cells ; Evidence-based medicine ; Index Medicus
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