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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Neuron (Cambridge, Mass.), 2011-06-23, Vol.70 (6), p.1178-1191
    Description: The auditory system must represent sounds with a wide range of statistical properties. One important property is the spectrotemporal contrast in the acoustic environment: the variation in sound pressure in each frequency band, relative to the mean pressure. We show that neurons in ferret auditory cortex rescale their gain to partially compensate for the spectrotemporal contrast of recent stimulation. When contrast is low, neurons increase their gain, becoming more sensitive to small changes in the stimulus, although the effectiveness of contrast gain control is reduced at low mean levels. Gain is primarily determined by contrast near each neuron's preferred frequency, but there is also a contribution from contrast in more distant frequency bands. Neural responses are modulated by contrast over timescales of ∼100 ms. By using contrast gain control to expand or compress the representation of its inputs, the auditory system may be seeking an efficient coding of natural sounds. ► We find evidence for spectrotemporal contrast gain control in auditory cortex ► Gain is determined by a combination of spectrally local and global contrast ► Within a limited range, mean stimulus level also affects neural gain ► Contrast gain control is fast (∼100 ms); gain decreases are faster than increases
    Subject(s): Acoustic Stimulation ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Auditory Cortex - cytology ; Auditory Cortex - physiology ; Auditory Threshold - physiology ; Discrimination (Psychology) - physiology ; Ears & hearing ; Electrophysiology ; Female ; Ferrets ; Male ; Models, Neurological ; Mustela putorius furo ; Neurons ; Neurons - physiology ; Pitch Perception - physiology ; Sound ; Sound Spectrography ; Standard deviation
    ISSN: 0896-6273
    E-ISSN: 1097-4199
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2020-01-16, Vol.11 (1), p.324-13
    Description: Neural adaptation enables sensory information to be represented optimally in the brain despite large fluctuations over time in the statistics of the environment. Auditory contrast gain control represents an important example, which is thought to arise primarily from cortical processing. Here we show that neurons in the auditory thalamus and midbrain of mice show robust contrast gain control, and that this is implemented independently of cortical activity. Although neurons at each level exhibit contrast gain control to similar degrees, adaptation time constants become longer at later stages of the processing hierarchy, resulting in progressively more stable representations. We also show that auditory discrimination thresholds in human listeners compensate for changes in contrast, and that the strength of this perceptual adaptation can be predicted from physiological measurements. Contrast adaptation is therefore a robust property of both the subcortical and cortical auditory system and accounts for the short-term adaptability of perceptual judgments.
    Subject(s): Acoustics ; Adaptability ; Adaptation ; Adaptation, Physiological - physiology ; Animals ; Auditory Cortex - physiology ; Auditory discrimination ; Auditory pathways ; Auditory Pathways - physiology ; Auditory Perception - physiology ; Auditory system ; Auditory Threshold - physiology ; Background noise ; Cortex ; Cortex (auditory) ; Cortex (somatosensory) ; Discrimination, Psychological ; Electrophysiology ; Environmental audits ; Environmental statistics ; Female ; Hearing ; Humans ; Judgments ; Male ; Mesencephalon ; Mesencephalon - physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Midbrain ; Models, Animal ; Models, Neurological ; Neural encoding ; Neural networks ; Neurons ; Neurons - physiology ; Noise ; Optogenetics ; Physiology ; Quantitative psychology ; Robust control ; Sensory perception ; Sound Spectrography ; Statistics ; Thalamus ; Thalamus - physiology ; Variation
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Bioscience, 2021-01, Vol.71 (1), p.40-54
    Description: Humans have altered up to half of the world's land surface. Wildlife living within or close to these human-modified landscapes are presented with opportunities and risks associated with feeding on human-derived foods (e.g., agricultural crops and food waste). Understanding whether and how wildlife adapts to these landscapes is a major challenge, with thousands of studies published on the topic over the past 10 years. In the present article, we build on established theoretical frameworks to understand the behavioral causes of crop and urban foraging by wildlife. We then develop and extend this framework to describe the multifaceted ecological consequences of crop and urban foraging for the individuals and populations in which they arise, with emphasis on social species for which interactions with people are, on balance, negative (commonly referred to as raiding species). Finally, we discuss the management challenges faced by urban and rural land managers, businesses, and government organizations in mitigating human-wildlife conflicts and propose ways to improve the lives of both wildlife and humans living in human-modified landscapes and to promote coexistence.
    Subject(s): AcademicSubjects ; Agricultural management ; Agricultural wastes ; Analysis ; behavioral plasticity ; Coexistence ; Crops ; Ecological effects ; Editor's Choice ; Environmental aspects ; Food waste ; Foraging ; human–wildlife conflict ; Land management ; Landscape ; movement ecology ; Overview ; raiding ; SCI00010 ; SOC02100 ; time and energy budgets ; Wildlife ; Wildlife management
    ISSN: 0006-3568
    E-ISSN: 1525-3244
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Animal behaviour, 2011, Vol.82 (6), p.1337-1345
    Description: Animals living in groups will profit most from sociality if they coordinate the timing and nature of their activities. Self-organizing mechanisms can underlie coordination in large animal groups such as insect colonies or fish schools, but to what degree these mechanisms operate in socially complex species that live in small stable groups is not well known. We therefore examined the collective departure of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, from their sleeping sites. First, in line with previous observations, the departure process appeared to be coordinated through the cue of individuals ‘moving off’, with no role for specific vocal or visual signalling. Second, we employed network analyses to explore how interindividual relationships influenced departure patterns, and found that a local rule, to follow the movements of those baboons with whom they shared a close social affiliation, determined when the baboon group departed. Finally, using an agent-based model, we were able to simulate mathematically the observed patterns of collective movements based upon the emergent rule that we identified. Our study adds weight to the idea that social complexity does not necessitate cognitive complexity in the decision-making process, consistent with heuristic decision-making perspectives studied by cognitive psychologists and researchers studying self-organization in biological systems. ► We examined the collective departure of wild desert baboons from their sleeping sites. ► The departure process was coordinated by baboons following their ‘friends’ cue to move. ► Highly social individuals were more often followed, elevating them to leadership roles.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Animal behavior ; Animal cognition ; Animal ethology ; Biodiversity ; Biological and medical sciences ; chacma baboon ; collective behaviour ; Environmental Sciences ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; grooming ; heuristics ; Life Sciences ; Mammalia ; Monkeys & apes ; Papio ; Papio ursinus ; Peace movements ; Populations and Evolution ; Primates ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; rule-of-thumb ; Simulation ; Social aspects ; Universities and colleges ; Vertebrata
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Current biology, 2013-07-22, Vol.23 (14), p.1291-1299
    Description: Neural systems must weight and integrate different sensory cues in order to make decisions. However, environmental conditions often change over time, altering the reliability of different cues and therefore the optimal way for combining them. To explore how cue integration develops in dynamic environments, we examined the effects on auditory spatial processing of rearing ferrets with localization cues that were modified via a unilateral earplug, interspersed with brief periods of normal hearing. In contrast with control animals, which rely primarily on timing and intensity differences between their two ears to localize sound sources, the juvenile-plugged ferrets developed the ability to localize sounds accurately by relying more on the unchanged spectral localization cues provided by the single normal ear. This adaptive process was paralleled by changes in neuronal responses in the primary auditory cortex, which became relatively more sensitive to these monaural spatial cues. Our behavioral and physiological data demonstrated, however, that the reweighting of different spatial cues disappeared as soon as normal hearing was experienced, showing for the first time that this type of plasticity can be context specific. These results show that developmental changes can be selectively expressed in response to specific acoustic conditions. In this way, the auditory system can develop and simultaneously maintain two distinct models of auditory space and switch between these models depending on the prevailing sensory context. This ability is likely to be critical for maintaining accurate perception in dynamic environments and may point toward novel therapeutic strategies for individuals who experience sensory deficits during development. [Display omitted] •Ferrets reared with a unilateral hearing loss are able to localize sounds accurately•Adaptation relies on cue reweighting that reverses when normal hearing is available•Auditory cortical neurons show corresponding context-specific plasticity•Contextual cue reweighting maintains perceptual stability in dynamic environments
    Subject(s): Acoustic Stimulation ; Animals ; Auditory Cortex - physiology ; Cues ; Ferrets - growth & development ; Ferrets - physiology ; Hearing ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Sound Localization
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nature neuroscience, 2010-02, Vol.13 (2), p.253-260
    Description: Descending projections from sensory areas of the cerebral cortex are among the largest pathways in the brain, suggesting that they are important for subcortical processing. Although corticofugal inputs have been shown to modulate neuronal responses in the thalamus and midbrain, the behavioral importance of these changes remains unknown. In the auditory system, one of the major descending pathways is from cortical layer V pyramidal cells to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. We examined the role of these neurons in experience-dependent recalibration of sound localization in adult ferrets by selectively killing the neurons using chromophore-targeted laser photolysis. When provided with appropriate training, animals normally relearn to localize sound accurately after altering the spatial cues available by reversibly occluding one ear. However, this ability was lost after eliminating corticocollicular neurons, whereas normal sound-localization accuracy was unaffected. The integrity of this descending pathway is therefore critical for learning-induced localization plasticity.
    Subject(s): adult plasticity ; Animals ; apoptosis ; Auditory cortex ; Auditory Cortex - physiology ; Auditory pathways ; Auditory Pathways - physiology ; binaural cues ; Cerebral cortex ; chromophore-targeted neuronal degeneration ; corticofugal projection ; Cues ; Ear ; ferret ; Ferrets ; Functional Laterality ; Inferior Colliculi - physiology ; inferior colliculus ; Learning - physiology ; Mustela ; Neuronal Plasticity - physiology ; Neurons - physiology ; Neuroplasticity ; Properties ; Pyramidal Cells - physiology ; sound localization ; Sound Localization - physiology ; Space Perception - physiology
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 1546-1726
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: British journal of haematology, 2020-04, Vol.189 (2), p.241-243
    Subject(s): Adult ; Age Factors ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Betacoronavirus ; Comorbidity ; Coronavirus Infections - complications ; Coronavirus Infections - epidemiology ; Coronavirus Infections - prevention & control ; Coronavirus Infections - transmission ; COVID-19 ; Epidemics ; Hematologic Diseases - complications ; Hematologic Diseases - therapy ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Pandemics - prevention & control ; Pneumonia, Viral - complications ; Pneumonia, Viral - epidemiology ; Pneumonia, Viral - prevention & control ; Pneumonia, Viral - transmission ; Practice Guidelines as Topic ; SARS-CoV-2
    ISSN: 0007-1048
    E-ISSN: 1365-2141
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nature neuroscience, 2009-06, Vol.12 (6), p.698-701
    Description: Studies of auditory cortex are often driven by the assumption, derived from our better understanding of visual cortex, that basic physical properties of sounds are represented there before being used by higher-level areas for determining sound-source identity and location. However, we only have a limited appreciation of what the cortex adds to the extensive subcortical processing of auditory information, which can account for many perceptual abilities. This is partly because of the approaches that have dominated the study of auditory cortical processing to date, and future progress will unquestionably profit from the adoption of methods that have provided valuable insights into the neural basis of visual perception. At the same time, we propose that there are unique operating principles employed by the auditory cortex that relate largely to the simultaneous and sequential processing of previously derived features and that therefore need to be studied and understood in their own right.
    Subject(s): Action Potentials - physiology ; Animals ; Auditory cortex ; Auditory Cortex - physiology ; Auditory Pathways - physiology ; Auditory Perception - physiology ; Brain Mapping ; Care and treatment ; Hearing loss ; Humans ; Neural Pathways - anatomy & histology ; Neural Pathways - physiology ; Neurons - physiology ; Physiological aspects ; Pitch Perception - physiology ; Sound Localization - physiology ; Visual Cortex - physiology ; Visual Perception - physiology
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 1546-1726
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Functional ecology, 2015-07-01, Vol.29 (7), p.931-940
    Description: Summary Predation plays a fundamental role in evolutionary processes, driving changes in prey morphology, physiology and behaviour. With organisms being increasingly exposed to rapid environmental changes, there is growing interest in understanding individual phenotypic plasticity in response to changes in predation pressure. Behavioural and physiological responses to predator exposure are of particular interest as differences in predation pressure are often reflected in correlated suites of behavioural and hormonal profiles across populations. Within populations, the association between endocrine profiles and behaviour is less understood and often lacking. Adopting a reaction norm approach and a repeated measures design, we assessed within‐population effects of changes in perceived predation risk on endocrinology and behaviour in three‐spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We repeatedly exposed subjects to a robotic model predator and assessed their behavioural response. The fish showed consistent behavioural profiles and were less active and shyer when predation risk was higher. Using non‐invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we assessed basal cortisol as well as the cortisol response to changes in predation risk. Individuals showed significantly higher cortisol levels following exposure to the model predator. Individual post‐predator exposure cortisol was repeatable but unrelated to behavioural responses. Accounting for between versus within‐subject effects, we found that basal cortisol and shyness were positively related within individuals, that is individuals overall were shyer on days they had higher cortisol levels. We also tested if basal testosterone predicted risky behaviour and found no evidence for this hypothesis. No individual differences in hormonal or behavioural responses to changes in predation risk were found, suggesting that individuals are not constrained by their personalities in their ability to cope with a potentially harmful threat. Overall, we show that individuals of different personalities are equally ‘flexible’ in their response to changes in predation pressure. Our study offers novel insight into consistent individual differences and plasticity in hormones and behaviour as well as their interplay within populations. Future studies should assess the applicability of these findings to other changes in the environment, as well as the effects of social context on endocrine and behavioural reaction norms. Lay Summary
    Subject(s): Animal behavior ; Animal Physiological Ecology ; anti‐predator response ; coping styles ; Corticosteroids ; cortisol ; Endocrinology ; Environmental changes ; Environmental effects ; Exposure ; Fish ; Hormones ; Hydrocortisone ; individual differences ; Morphology ; Norms ; Phenotypic plasticity ; Physiological responses ; Plastic properties ; Plasticity ; Population studies ; Populations ; Predation ; Predation (Biology) ; Pressure ; Prey ; Risk assessment ; Risk perception ; Risk taking ; shyness ; stress ; Testosterone ; waterborne hormone analysis
    ISSN: 0269-8463
    E-ISSN: 1365-2435
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2015-07-17, Vol.349 (6245), p.309-312
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.
    Subject(s): Biosynthesis ; Enzymes ; Metabolites ; Modules ; Morphine ; Narcotics ; Pathways ; Poppies ; Proteins ; REPORTS
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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