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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    2016
    ISBN: 9781469625034  ISBN: 1469625032  ISBN: 9781469625041  ISBN: 1469625040 
    Language: English
    Description: Though the Alps may appear to be a peaceful place, the famed mountains once provided the backdrop for a political, environmental, and cultural battle as Germany and Austria struggled to modernize. Tait Keller examines the mountains' threefold role in transforming the two countries, as people sought respite in the mountains, transformed and shaped them according to their needs, and over time began to view them as national symbols and icons of individualism.In the mid-nineteenth century, the Alps were regarded as a place of solace from industrial development and the stresses of urban life. Soon, however, mountaineers, or the so-called apostles of the Alps, began carving the crags to suit their whims, altering the natural landscape with trails and lodges, and seeking to modernize and nationalize the high frontier. Disagreements over the meaning of modernization opened the mountains to competing agendas and hostile ambitions. Keller examines the ways in which these opposing approaches corresponded to the political battles, social conflicts, culture wars, and environmental crusades that shaped modern Germany and Austria, placing the Alpine borderlands at the heart of the German question of nationhood.
    Subject(s): 1789–1900 ; 19th century ; 20th century ; Alps, Eastern ; Alps, Eastern - History - 20th century ; Austria ; Austria & Hungary ; Ecology & Evolutionary Biology ; Europe ; Germany ; HISTORY ; Mountaineering
    ISBN: 9781469625034
    ISBN: 1469625032
    ISBN: 9781469625041
    ISBN: 1469625040
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2009
    ISSN: 1084-5453 
    Language: English
    In: Environmental history, 2009-04, Vol.14 (2), p.253-274
    Description: This article sheds light on the relationship between the environment and war by examining the role the Alps played for Germans and Austrians in the First World War. The historiography of the Great War often portrays nature as a passive victim. Although it suffered the storms of heavy industry and military technology, the natural world was not just a silent casualty of combat. On the Alpine Front, the mountains played an active and crucial role in the war. The landscape conferred heroic stature on the soldiers who battled on the heights and survived the Alpine extremes. The war also transformed in crucial ways how soldiers conceived of the mountains. No longer viewed as simply the playground of Europe, the peaks became ramparts protecting the borders of an embattled land. The Alps acquired increasingly chauvinistic overtones, all the more so when they endured the onslaught of destruction. Besieged but never broken, the mountains became powerful symbols for those who still dreamt of Germany victorious. The ecological legacy of the First World War in the Alps reveals the lasting cultural and political dimensions of the conflict.
    Subject(s): Armies ; Avalanches ; Environmental history ; Landscapes ; Middle class ; Mountaineering ; Mountains ; Personal development ; Soldiers ; War ; Warfare ; World wars
    ISSN: 1084-5453
    E-ISSN: 1930-8892
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences V
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 3
    Book
    Book
    2018
    ISBN: 9781108429160  ISBN: 1108429165  ISBN: 1108453198  ISBN: 9781108453196 
    Language: English
    Description: This anthology surveys the ecological impacts of the First World War. Editors Richard P. Tucker, Tait Keller, J. R. McNeill, and Martin Schmidt bring together a list of experienced authors who explore the global interactions of states, armies, civilians, and the environment during the war. They show how the First World War ushered in enormous environmental changes, including the devastation of rural and urban environments, the consumption of strategic natural resources such as metals and petroleum, the impact of war on urban industry, and the disruption of agricultural landscapes leading to widespread famine. Taking a global perspective, Environmental Histories of the First World War presents the ecological consequences of the vast destructive power of the new weaponry and the close collaboration between militaries and civilian governments taking place during this time, showing how this war set trends for the rest of the century.
    Subject(s): Famines ; Nature ; World War, 1914-1918
    ISBN: 9781108429160
    ISBN: 1108429165
    ISBN: 1108453198
    ISBN: 9781108453196
    Source: Cambridge Core All Books
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  • 4
    Language: French
    In: Annales : histoire, sciences sociales (French ed.), 2016-03-01, Vol.71 (1), p.61
    Description: This article represents an initial foray into the global environmental history of the First World War and suggests new approaches that can change our understanding of the conflict. With ravaged farmlands, charred trees, and muddy quagmires as iconic images of the First World War, scholars have generally tended to overlook the place and the role of nature. Yet only by taking the environment into account can we fully understand the trauma of war and how this conflict in particular shaped the most basic levels of human existence for years to come. Armies in the First World War were both social and biological entities, which depended on a "military ecology" of energy extraction, production, and supply. To keep soldiers and machines in action, belligerent states commandeered food and fuel throughout the biosphere, extending the war's environmental reach far beyond the western front. Examining a number of the ways that war shaped the periphery--evolving disease ecologies in colonial Africa, tin extraction in Southeast Asia, and food production in Latin America--will show that the boundaries of belligerency were vast. These three regions also illustrate the different ways in which the preparation and pursuit of war transformed societies and the natural world. Seeing what George Kennan called the twentieth century's "seminal catastrophe" from an environmental perspective illuminates the global dimensions of the First World War. The conflict accelerated environmental change that had begun in the previous century and established the patterns of military-industrial production, human victimization, and environmental exploitation that defined the twentieth century.
    Subject(s): 20th century ; Armed forces ; Colonialism ; Conflict ; Ecosystems ; Energy ; Environmental aspects ; Environmental economics ; Exploitation ; Food ; Human ecology ; Industrial production ; Lewin, Kurt (1890-1947) ; Machinery ; Meat industry ; Military personnel ; Natural environment ; Peace ; Trauma ; Victimization ; Violence ; War ; World War I
    ISSN: 0395-2649
    E-ISSN: 1953-8146
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: Cambridge Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 5
    Language: French
    In: Annales : histoire, sciences sociales (French ed.), 2016-01-01, Vol.71 (1), p.65
    Description: This article represents an initial foray into the global environmental history of the First World War and suggests new approaches that can change our understanding of the conflict. With ravaged farmlands, charred trees, and muddy quagmires as iconic images of the First World War, scholars have generally tended to overlook the place and role of nature. Yet only by taking the environment into account can we fully understand the trauma of war and how this conflict in particular shaped the most basic levels of human existence for years to come. Armies in the First World War were both social and biological entities, which depended on a "military ecology" of energy extraction, production, and supply. To keep soldiers and machines in action, belligerent states commandeered food and fuel throughout the biosphere, extending the war's environmental reach far beyond the western front. Examining a number of the ways that war shaped the periphery -- evolving disease ecologies in colonial Africa, tin extraction in Southeast Asia, and food production in Latin America -- will show that the boundaries of belligerency were vast. These three regions also illustrate the different ways in which the preparation and pursuit of war transformed societies and the natural world. Seeing what George Kennan called the twentieth century's "seminal catastrophe" from an environmental perspective illuminates the global dimensions of the First World War. The conflict accelerated environmental change that had begun in the previous century, and established the patterns of military-industrial production, human victimization, and environmental exploitation that defined the twentieth century.
    Subject(s): 20th century ; Armed forces ; Colonialism ; Conflict ; Energy ; Environmental aspects ; Exploitation ; Food ; Human ecology ; Industrial production ; Machinery ; Military personnel ; Natural environment ; Trauma ; Victimization ; War ; World War I
    ISSN: 0395-2649
    E-ISSN: 1953-8146
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: Cambridge Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2018
    ISBN: 9781108429160  ISBN: 9781108453196  ISBN: 1108429165  ISBN: 1108453198 
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Histories of the First World War, 2018-08-23, p.1-16
    ISBN: 9781108429160
    ISBN: 9781108453196
    ISBN: 1108429165
    ISBN: 1108453198
    Source: Cambridge Core All Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2016
    ISBN: 1469625032  ISBN: 9781469625034 
    Language: English
    In: Apostles of the Alps, 2016-01-04
    Description: This chapter examines how cable cars, new Alpine highways, and mountain films (Bergfilme) popularized the Alps in the 1920s and 1930s. The Alps, once a means to escape from the masses, had become a sanctuary for the masses during the interwar years. The number of visitors to the mountains increased exponentially, aided by the Zugspitzbahn and cable cars. Engineering marvels, most notably the Grossglockner High Alpine Road designed by Franz Wallack, etched new contours on the landscape. Arnold Fanck directed the majority of the popular mountain movies with respected mountaineer Luis Trenker as his star actor and Leni Riefenstahl as his leading lady. The films encouraged thousands to seek out the mountains. Such mass consumerism disgusted most die-hard climbers. Reactions varied, but nearly every response attempted to somehow change consumption patterns and scale back tourism in the Alps. Male chauvinists correlated the growing presence of women to the invasion of machines and condemned both. But some alpinists saw themselves engaged in a national effort against the forces of cultural disintegration and encouraged traffic. Hardcore mountaineers became increasingly reactionary and sought extremist solutions to the dilemmas of mass tourism.
    Subject(s): Arnold Fanck ; Bergfilme ; Cable Cars ; Franz Wallack ; Grossglockner High Alpine Road ; Leni Riefenstahl ; Luis Trenker ; Modern History (1700 to 1945) ; Zugspitzbahn
    ISBN: 1469625032
    ISBN: 9781469625034
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2016
    ISBN: 1469625032  ISBN: 9781469625034 
    Language: English
    In: Apostles of the Alps, 2016-01-04, p.17
    Description: “Wandering across glaciers has lost its harrowing repute and is now reckoned as almost humdrum,” Paul Grohmann noted with regret in 1864, “and in recent years many of the high peaks have lost their reputation of remoteness.”¹ One of the founders of the Austrian Alpine Association and credited with several challenging first ascents in the Eastern Alps, Grohmann recognized that Alpinism had changed. The following year, Edward Whymper led the famed first ascent of the Matterhorn, an event that traditionally marks the end of Alpinism’s so-called golden age. By then daring mountaineers had climbed—or “conquered,” as most wrote—nearly
    Subject(s): Agricultural geography ; Agricultural land ; Agricultural sciences ; Agriculture ; Applied sciences ; Banquets ; Behavioral sciences ; Biological sciences ; Business ; Coal ; Committees ; Earth sciences ; Economic policy ; Economics ; Energy engineering ; Engineering ; Executive committees ; Farmlands ; Feasts ; Food consumption ; Food studies ; Fossil fuels ; Fuels ; Geography ; Geomorphology ; Human populations ; Human societies ; Industrial sectors ; Industry ; Landforms ; Leisure studies ; Mass tourism ; Meals ; Mountaineering ; Mountains ; Outdoor recreation ; Pastures ; Persons ; Physical sciences ; Population studies ; Public finance ; Recreation ; Service industries ; Social groups ; Social sciences ; Sociology ; Subsidies ; Tectonic landforms ; Tourism ; Transportation industries ; Travel industry ; Travelers
    ISBN: 1469625032
    ISBN: 9781469625034
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2016
    ISBN: 1469625032  ISBN: 9781469625034 
    Language: English
    In: Apostles of the Alps, 2016-01-04, p.223
    ISBN: 1469625032
    ISBN: 9781469625034
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2016
    ISBN: 1469625032  ISBN: 9781469625034 
    Language: English
    In: Apostles of the Alps, 2016-01-04
    Description: This chapter examines how the twentieth century’s “seminal catastrophe” shaped the mountains. Long-standing disputes between Italian irredentists and Austrian nationalists erupted in armed conflict in May 1915, creating a battlefront that crossed the Dolomite, Carnic, and Julian Alps. General Luigi Cadorna led the Italian forces and focused his attacks on the Isonzo Valley. The Italian army had also organized elite units of soldiers, the Alpini, who were familiar with the rugged terrain. The newly formed German Alpine Corps, under the command of General-lieutenant Konrad Krafft von Dellmensingen, defended the heights. The migration of armies to the mountains accelerated developments that had begun in the nineteenth century. Industrialization of the Alps intensified with the vast expansion of roads and railways and the migration of war machinery and troops to the peaks. Like the landscape itself, mountaineering ideals were militarized during the conflict. In the aftermath of war, the political reorganization of central Europe recast perceptions of the Alps, particularly among the defeated. As the result of the Great War, the Alps, once the realm of serenity, now also provided a foundation for national fantasies of future conquest.
    Subject(s): Alpine Front ; Alpini ; First World War ; German Alpine Corps ; Irredentism ; Isonzo Valley ; Italy ; Konrad Krafft von Dellmensingen ; Luigi Cadorna ; Modern History (1700 to 1945)
    ISBN: 1469625032
    ISBN: 9781469625034
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
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